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NASA 2004 SBIR Phase 1 Solicitation


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A1.01-9104
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Systems Technologies for Improved Aviation Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Practical Voice Recognition for the Aircraft Cockpit

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
PRAGMASOFT, INC.
130 Elsmere Ave.
Delmar, NY 12054-4310
(518)439-8815

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
J. Scott Merritt
sbir@pragmasoft.com
130 Elsmere Ave.
Delmar, NY 12054-4310
(518)439-8815

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal responds to the urgent need for improved pilot interfaces in the modern aircraft cockpit. Recent advances in aircraft equipment bring tremendous resources within the reach of the today's pilot. Unfortunately, these advancements are often accompanied by increases in system complexity and pilot workload. In many cases, the detailed interaction required by modern avionics significantly interferes with the pilot's need to scan instrument gauges, maintain visual separation from other aircraft, and attend to other critical tasks.

To address these concerns, PragmaSoft's proposal combines innovations in robust speech recognition and interface design with powerful application language constraints to deliver highly effective voice interface solutions. Development efforts are carefully target at high workload pilot tasks to ensure substantial benefits and commercial acceptance. Initial product sales are leveraged to collect an extensive corpus of actual (in-flight) speech and operational data for subsequent research and development.

PragmaSoft believes that the lengthy and focused attention required to operate some aircraft devices presents an unacceptable safety risk to flight operations. The proposed innovations deliver effective and commercially attractive voice interface solutions that allow pilots to interact with their cockpit environment in a safer and more efficient manner.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Under subtopic A1.01, NASA requests "innovative technologies to improve airspace safety with a crew-centered focus ... [and] high potential for emerging as marketable products". PragmaSoft's proposal directly addresses this need by delivering advanced speech recognition technology that is commercially attractive to a wide spectrum of aircraft operators, and yields immediate benefits in safety and efficiency.

NASA's Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) program includes a mandate to demonstrate improvements in the ability of single pilots to function competently in complex airspace. This proposal provides an exceptional opportunity for NASA to demonstrate additional capability in support of these objectives.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed innovations deliver commercially attractive, speaker-independent, voice interface products that significantly enhance the safety and efficiency of advanced flight operations. Initial products are carefully targeted to specific applications to ensure substantial benefits and commercial acceptance. Non-certified versions of the product are configured for convenient use in a wide variety of aircraft, while certified versions are provided for permanent installation. The persuasive cost/benefit profile of these products ensures that a wide spectrum of aircraft owners and operators will finally enjoy the benefits of advanced speech recognition technology.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A1.01-9516
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Systems Technologies for Improved Aviation Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Three-Dimensional Cockpit Display System for Improved Situational Awareness

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
PHYSICAL OPTICS CORPORATION
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821
(310)320-3088

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Ranjit Pradhan
sutama@poc.com
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821
(310)320-3088

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To improve aviation safety, NASA requires crew-centric technologies that ensure appropriate situational awareness through improved information presentation. Presenting information by 3D display can significantly facilitate human perception and counteract biases and error-tendencies, leading to improved aviation safety. To address this NASA need, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new 3D COckpit Display (3D-COD) system for aircraft flight decks, based on fast scanning liquid crystal (LC) optics, to create a compact multiuser, multiperspective 3D display system that has no moving parts and requires no 3D glasses. This interactive system brings automultiscopic viewing to pilots and crew members on the flight deck, with a greater than 60 degree FOV, 2048x2048 resolution, 60 Hz flicker-free full-color, high-brightness, and crosstalk-free operation, introducing 3D display technology to the cockpit. The use of LC technology well developed for flat-panel LC displays, reduces cost and makes the system commercially attractive. In Phase I POC will develop a scaled-down version of the fast-scanning LC optics display system and demonstrate its 3D operation on a laboratory 3D testbed system. This testbed will be upgraded to a fully packaged optimized prototype in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed 3D-COD display system will be used not only in the cockpit, but also for air traffic control, training, and multicraft airspace image displays, engineering design, training and simulation, and scientific visualization and analysis.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The 3D-COD technology has huge commercial potential. It will find applications in the engineering development and entertainment industries, particularly in theme parks, museums, and educational institutions. This technology can also address the multibillion dollar video game industry.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A1.01-9734
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Systems Technologies for Improved Aviation Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: Distributed Command/Control Impacts on NAS Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Metron Aviation, Inc.
131 Elden Street, Suite 200
Herndon, VA 20170-4758
(703)456-0123

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Terry Thompson
thompson@metronaviation.com
131 Elden Street, Suite 200
Herndon, VA 20170-4758
(703)456-0123

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Command and Control (C2) activities abound in the NAS, and significantly influence daily operations and overall NAS efficiency. Since C2 effects are so prominent, development of new operational concepts, and evaluation of proposed changes, requires simulation and modeling capabilities that include C2 effects. Metron Aviation leverages its extensive knowledge of the Command and Control (C2) functions of the National Airspace System (NAS) to develop models that enable realistic NAS simulations. The key innovations of this effort are 1) the implementation of models for NAS ATM C2 processes, and 2) the integration of these models with the NASA Langley Systems Analysis Branch's (SAB) Simulation Environment. The development leverages the following key capabilities: Metron Aviation's extensive experience supporting NAS C2 activities, and Langley's infrastructure for conducting NAS-wide simulations of air traffic. By developing this interaction we enable a system that allows researchers and analysts to evaluate current NAS operations and to investigate future technologies and concepts of operations. These users exploit the system's capabilities to observe NAS behavior and compare the benefits and impacts of operational concepts prior to pursuing implementation in the operational system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Understanding of the system-wide impacts of NAS Command and Control is lacking in both operational practice and current research. This understanding is crucial for the evaluation of current/proposed future operations. Currently, NASA programs such as the Virtual Airspace Modeling and Simulation (VAMS) and the All-weather Capacity Enhancement NRA are developing system concepts to meet increasing air-traffic demand, reduce delays and improve safety/security. While evidence suggests that these techniques may provide significant benefit, NASA must accurately assess tradeoffs between such benefits and costs of implementation. Realistic NAS-wide simulations, including C2, are required to assess such operational concepts and technologies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Estimates of ATM costs due to delays range from hundreds of millions of dollars to billions of dollars per year. Several research activities are being pursued to develop new concepts and technologies in an effort to meet the increasing demands. Many of these developments promise to be costly and laborious to implement, and the difficulty of adequately assessing the anticipated impacts creates significant risk operators and users of the NAS. Development of simulation capabilities and benefit assessment methods that include the effects of C2, creates significant commercial demand for accurate and robust C2 modeling capabilities.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A1.01-9778
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Crew Systems Technologies for Improved Aviation Safety
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Real-Time Turbulence Hazard Cockpit Display

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
AEROTECH RESEARCH
11836 Fishing Point Drive, Suite 200
Newport News, VA 23606-4507
(757)723-1300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Paul A Robinson
paulrobinson@atr-usa.com
11836 Fishing Point Drive, Suite 200
Newport News, VA 23606-4507
(757)723-1300

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aircraft encounters with turbulence are the leading cause of injuries in the airline industry and result in significant human, operational, and maintenance costs to the airline community each year. A large contributor to the above injuries and costs is that flight crews do not have sufficient situational awareness of the location and severity of potential turbulence hazards to their aircraft. AeroTech will improve pilots' situational awareness of turbulence hazards by developing an integrated, graphical cockpit display of turbulence hazard information scaled to their specific aircraft. This display will negate the need for inference that is required to interpret current turbulence information. With better knowledge of turbulence hazards' severity and location, pilots will be able to avoid turbulence encounters or prepare for them by having all occupants seated with seatbelts on, thereby avoiding injuries. Phase I work will develop, based on pilot input, a concept of operations and a requirements document for this display, evaluate several potential turbulence hazard information sources, and define requirements for simulations to be carried out in Phase II. By the end of Phase II an intuitive and meaningful cockpit, turbulence hazard display will be developed and tested using simulations and operational flight evaluations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
When the goals of the proposed R/R&D are met, this cockpit display and underlying system will directly contribute to the stated national goal of NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) of a 50% reduction in aviation accidents by 2007. This work will be completely aligned with other Turbulence Prediction and Warning System (TPAWS) efforts, as well as other efforts in the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) element.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
When the goals of the proposed R/R&D are met, this cockpit display system will provide pilots with improved turbulence hazard information allowing them to operate more efficiently and safely. Significant reductions in fuel waste and costs associated with injuries due to turbulence are expected to be major commercial drivers for this system. The market for this display is all Part 121 carriers (both domestic and international). Delta Air Lines is currently operationally evaluating several of the technologies whose outputs will be integrated into the proposed display and has also agreed to support the efforts of this proposal.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A1.02-7647
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation Safety and Security: Fire, Icing and Propulsion-Safe and Secure CNS Aircraft Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Alternative Ice Protection System for Turbine Engine Inlets

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Cox and Company Inc.
200 Varick Street
New York, NY 10014-4875
(212)366-0200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Kamel Al-Khalil
alkhalil@coxandco.com
200 Varick Street
New York, NY 10014-4875
(212)366-0200

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal presents a dual approach to the development and certification of an alternative system for ice protection of turbine engine inlets. It combines a new generation low power ice protection system with a novel path to certification that is based upon requirements that turbine engines be capable of operation in a hail environment. Eliminated are requirements for high voltages and currents characteristic of all previous impulsive or expulsive deicing systems. It is postulated that if the engine can operate safely in the hail environment as defined by the FARs, then it can be expected to operate safely and economically in the presence of particles shed by the deicer which are demonstrably smaller and less hazardous than hail. Such a system presents a viable alternative to the use of hot air ice protection systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The system proposed is a viable alternative to bleed air ice protection for engine inlets. NASA has a national objective an overall improvement in the safety of aircraft operation. Protection of aircraft from exposure to icing environment is included in that charter. One of the most important trades involved in the development of icing conditions is between energy and icing performance. This trade has been shown that it can be addressed by the use of low power ice protection systems on lifting surfaces. It remains to apply these principles to engine inlets. This is the commercial promise of this system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The system proposed is a viable alternative to bleed air ice protection for engine inlets. It should find wide application on turbine powered aircraft that are designed to achieve even greater efficiency of operation through the use of exclusively electrically powered systems, including ice protection. This "all electric airplane" concept has been under consideration for many years by NASA and other industry organizations. Indications gained from public disclosures by companies, especially Boeing, of the elimination of bleed air as a means of ice protection are firm indications of the intent to develop new technologies in support of more efficient aircraft.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A1.02-8077
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation Safety and Security: Fire, Icing and Propulsion-Safe and Secure CNS Aircraft Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced radiometer for cloud liquid water and aircraft icing detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Radiometrics Corp
2840 Wilderness Place, Unit G
Boulder, CO 80301-5414
(303)449-9192

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Fredrick Solheim
solheim@radiometrics.com
2840 Wilderness Place, Unit G
Boulder, CO 80301-5414
(303)449-9192

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Aircraft icing continues to be one of the major safety and operational concerns of the FAA, elements of the military, and the foreign military and civilian counterparts. Attempts to develop methods to directly detect aircraft icing meteorological conditions have met with mixed success. Combining microwave radiometers with radars has shown great promise, but deficiencies of the radiometers have limited their value. In this proposed effort we will develop a fast sampling multifrequency profiling and dual polarization narrow beam radiometer system to overcome these deficiencies. In this proposed radiometer system, all beams are collinear and match the antenna gain pattern of weather research radars. The radiometer will have the capability of profiling (ranging) water vapor along the beam as well as discriminate ice and water phase hydrometeors. We will also develop a fast beam steering system to operate in concert with the radar. Phase II will produce a turnkey radiometric system, ready to deploy.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
NASA Glenn is actively researching methods of detecting aircraft icing conditions, and has performed and participated in a number of aircraft icing studies with their Twin Otter, radiometers, radar, and other sensing systems. The technology proposed herein greatly enhances the value of the important radiometric observations by enabling measurements that match the research radars at a number of radiometric frequencies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The radiometric system developed herein, as well as being a valuable research tool, is to be operated with NEXRAD and Terminal Doppler Weather Radars (TDWRs) to detect and quantify cloud liquid water and ice in single- and mixed-phase conditions. In addition to detecting aircraft icing conditions, this quantification will enhance weather nowcasting and predictive capabilities.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A1.02-8809
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation Safety and Security: Fire, Icing and Propulsion-Safe and Secure CNS Aircraft Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: In Situ Guided Wave Structural Health Monitoring System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2785
(301)294-5200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
George Zhao
xzhao@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2785
(301)294-5232

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Corrosion and fatigue induced metal-loss and cracks are common problems for missiles and aircraft structures. A wide range of field conditions such as humidity, temperature, stress, cathode potential, and coating conditions, etc. all contributes to the electrochemical reaction between the incipient corrosive agent molecule and the structural metal matrix. The weakened inter-atomic force leads to the material loss, pits or crack growth and eventually structural failure.

We propose a new approach to detect and characterize the corrosion and cracks in missile and aircraft structures. The technique consists of very small, low cost guided wave leave-in-place health monitoring sensors known as piezo-disks, innovative Correlation Analysis Technique (CAT) for fast defect sizing and localization, and a miniaturized local computing device with data acquisition and processing capabilities and wireless module for remote monitoring. It is envisioned the total cost of this system will be less than $1500.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The ability to detect and characterize the corrosion and crack in an early and accurate manner is critical for reducing cost and improving safety for many NASA systems such as propulsion system, aircraft frames and wings, etc. At the end of Phase 2, we will have a small, light weight, low cost, low power consumption and robust system with both hardware and software for defect detection and localization.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
In-situ health monitoring and fault diagnosis is equally important for many military and commercial systems such as aircraft, automobiles, trains, home appliances, nuclear reactors, etc. The system can either perform continuous monitoring for the critical high strength components or switch on-off when needed. We expect the market for this system to be at least 10 million dollars.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A1.02-9903
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Aviation Safety and Security: Fire, Icing and Propulsion-Safe and Secure CNS Aircraft Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast Verification and Validation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Metron Aviation, Inc.
131 Elden Street, Suite 200
Herndon, VA 20170-4758
(703)456-0123

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Dr. Jimmy Krozel
krozel@metronaviation.com
131 Elden Street, Suite 200
Herndon, VA 20170-4783
(703)456-0123

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Automatic Dependent Surveillance ? Broadcast (ADS-B) is an emerging Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance (CNS) technology that will vastly expand the state of the art in CNS in the National Airspace System (NAS). However, ADS-B is not currently secure and foolproof, and is currently vulnerable to abnormalities and deliberate contamination (spoofing). To address these problems, Metron Aviation, Inc. designs and develops an innovative software system that Verifies and Validates (V&V) the integrity of an ADS-B signal in real-time, independent of a secondary truth source of surveillance data. The system uses a suite of Kalman filters for short time horizon trajectory predictions, bearing signal tracking, a novel intent inference algorithm for reasoning about ADS-B intent data, and confidence assessment measures. The proposed technology addresses NASA's quest for technologies to harden aircraft CNS systems against abnormality and deliberate attack.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
This ADS-B Verification and Validation system provides NASA Glenn's ACAST (Advanced CNS Architectures and System Technologies) with a technology that enables increases in capacity, efficiency, mobility and flexibility for users of the National Airspace System.



POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
This ADS-B Verification and Validation system has potential to be included inside ADS-B equipment being sold by many vendors in the US and Europe, and is applicable to multiple data link technologies (Mode S 1090 MHz, VDL Mode 4, or Universal Access Transceiver (UAT)) used in remote regions like Alaska and Gulf of Mexico.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A1.03-8285
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Improved Aviation Security
PROPOSAL TITLE: Real Time Monitoring and Test Vector Generation for Improved Flight Safety

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
BARRON ASSOCIATES, INC.
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901-2496
(434)973-1215

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Alec J.D. Bateman
bateman@barron-associates.com
1410 Sachem Place, Suite 202
Charlottesville, VA 22901-2496
(434)973-1215

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As the complexity of flight controllers grows so does the cost associated with verification and validation (V&V). Current-generation controllers are reaching a level of complexity that pushes the envelopes of existing V&V approaches, and without improved approaches there is little hope for affordable V&V of next-generation intelligent systems. Unfortunately, controller complexity and controller validation are required to ensure the safety of next-generation systems. Barron Associates proposes an aggressive plan of research to develop monitoring algorithms that estimate, in real time, safety margins of complex systems based on observed differences between the model used for controller development and actual flight data. The Phase I and Phase II research will focus on the flight test environment where these algorithms would allow the flight test engineer to monitor and revise the test plan in real time - skipping ahead in the buildup when safety is assured and avoiding test points where safety is questionable. The tool would also recommend test points that could help refine safety margin estimates for as yet unexecuted maneuvers. The result will be reduced flight test costs and improved safety. Phase I will develop a prototype approach and Phase II would implement the approach in a software tool.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The immediate NASA application is the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) test-bed at LaRC. This aircraft will provide an experimental flight test capability for Aviation Safety and Security Program (AvSSP) Single Aircraft Accident Prevention (SAAP) research pertaining to advanced control technology for failure accommodation and control under upset conditions. The SAAP algorithms are novel and complex, and many AirSTAR flight tests will be conducted at the edges of the flight envelope. The proposed research will be designed to address this need by providing real time monitoring and assurance, thereby improving the safety and reducing flight-test costs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications fall under two categories: (1) other real-time testing of safety-critical systems, and (2) real-time monitoring of operational systems. Barron Associates is currently working with all three major airframers (Lockheed, Northrop, and Boeing) as well as the Navy and Air Force flight test centers to develop modeling, control, and advanced validation and verification (V&V) technologies for safety-critical systems. The tool developed in this SBIR address a unique need not being addressed by other current research, and will complement the tools already being developed by Barron Associates, Inc.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A1.03-8507
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Improved Aviation Security
PROPOSAL TITLE: Airport Perimeter Security Advisor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
1190 Hawling Pl
Leesburg, VA 20175-5084
(703)737-7637

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Chris Brinton
brinton@mosaicatm.com
1190 Hawling Pl
Leesburg, VA 20175-5084
(703)737-7637

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The aviation system of the United States of America is one of our national treasures. Very few elements of our culture capture the America spirit like aviation. Air transportation plays an absolutely vital role in our economy, and is also a core part of our high standard of living. But this importance of aviation in our society also makes aviation a highly desirable target for terrorists. Secretary of State Colin Powell has said that "no threat is more serious to aviation" than man-portable air defense systems (MANPADS). Although on-board defenses against MANPADS are being developed for commercial aircraft, these systems will not be deployed for many years and will be very expensive. The innovation proposed herein provides an information and decision support system to enhance security monitoring and patrolling around the perimeter of airports ? where the threat of MANPADS attacks is at its highest. This effort will merge the use of advanced airport surface surveillance data with decision support algorithms and security threat and vulnerability assessment methodologies to identify and alert security personnel regarding the airport perimeter areas of highest vulnerability and greatest access to targets of opportunity for MANPADS attacks or other terrorist activities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The MANPADS threat against commercial aviation is real and must be addressed as soon as possible. A significant need exists for the Airport Perimeter Security Advisor (APSA) technology that will be developed through the conduct of this SBIR to complement airborne solutions. The APSA tool may be of interest to DHS, TSA, FAA, and airport authorities, in addition to local law enforcement responsible for patrolling the area around airports. This effort represents an excellent opportunity for NASA to leverage the already successful SMS program to provide additional benefits to the NAS through airport security improvements.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Commercial spin-offs of the APSA tool would focus on airport surface information display and management. Most airlines do not have sufficient information regarding the location of their aircraft and other assets on the airport surface. A commercial version of the APSA airport surface and terminal area map with dynamic flight information could be of significant commercial interest to the air carriers. Mosaic ATM is well positioned to obtain commercial funding from airlines to develop decision support tools to optimize the air carrier operation. Note that many air carriers already use SMS as an integral part of their daily operation.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A1.03-9062
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Improved Aviation Security
PROPOSAL TITLE: Accurate Identification and Mitigation of Electromagnetic Threats to Aircraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Nokomis, Inc
6510 Brownsville Rd
Pittsburgh, PA 15236-3533
(412)650-6236

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Walter J. Keller
wkeller@nokomisinc.com
6510 Brownsville Rd
Pittsburgh, PA 15236-3533
(412)650-6236

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The technology required to deploy Directed Energy Weapons (DEW) for use against hardened military targets may be constrained to just a few nations, but for soft targets like commercial aircraft and Air Transportation System (ATS) assets options are plenty for terrorists, organized crime or rogue states hoping to inflict harm. These devices are readily configured for covert operations favored by such groups. This work will identify, quantify and provide guidance to intercept RF, EMP and HPM weapons terrorists might deploy against the ATS. Designs within this group will be categorized by type of design, quantitatively analyzed to determine threat parameters and broken down into components that can be screened by ATS personnel. The end product of this work will directly improve the safety and security of the ATS.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The NASA Strategic Plan includes requirements to enable a more secure air transportation system through development of high-payoff technologies. The goal of this work is to directly deter potential terrorist attacks and contribute to improving the security of commercial aircraft and the ATS.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Commercial applications related to accurate prediction of electromagnetic threats are vast. Virtually, every government agency from federal to local authorities have the need to understand the threat posed by EMP and HPM weapons. Sooner or later terrorists, organized crime, or a foreign state will utilize an EMP or HPM weapon against an American target that will create fear in the commercial marketplace. There are very few corporations that have protected their computer assets to these threats. What CEO wants to find that 500 computers and his company's entire network would be destroyed by an electromagnetic attack?


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A1.03-9085
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Improved Aviation Security
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aggregating Secondary Source Data for Air Cargo Prescreening

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
FETCH TECHNOLOGIES
2041 Rosecrans, Suite 245
El Segundo, CA 90245-4789
(310)414-9849

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Steven Minton
Minton@Fetch.com
2041 Rosecrans, Suite 245
El Segundo, CA 90245-4789
(310)414-9849

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to improve the effectiveness of air cargo prescreening by
enabling background knowledge about companies and products to be used
for threat assessment. The Transportation Security Administration's
(TSA) current approach for pre-screening air cargo shipments is based
primarily on the Known Shipper Program, which has several
shortcomings. By combining sophisticated data extraction and
integration technology with state-of-the-art data mining capabilities,
threat assessment rules can be developed to help identify high-risk
cargo. However, threat assessment relies on having data about the
entities being assessed. In this project, we propose to develop novel
data aggregation methods to automatically gather information about
companies and products from corporate web sites, business directories,
and other internet sources. We can then augment primary data sources
(cargo manifest, database of past cargo shipments, package
characteristics such as weight and volume) with additional background
data (shipper and receiver information, shippable goods information)
to perform threat assessment, and thereby route high-risk cargo for
additional inspection. The use of this background data has great
potential to significantly improve the ability of the TSA to detect
vulnerabilities that may arise in the shipment of air cargo to, from,
and within the United States.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The potential NASA Commercial Application that will be enabled by this technology is the development of an air cargo pre-screening application. The technology produced in this proposal allows for the creation of a massive database of corporate and product information. This data, in conjunction with historical data on cargo manifests, provides a very rich dataset for data mining purposes. A threat assessment application that uses this dataset, in conjunction with the results of the data mining, will be a highly effective tool for pre-screening air cargo shipments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The technology developed under this proposal has clear commercial value. We have existing customers using our web aggregation technology for market intelligence and competitive intelligence applications. Many of these customers have explicitly expressed their interest in unsupervised, site-independent approaches for collecting product data and corporate data via the web. In addition the technology is of direct importance to companies such as Dun & Bradstreet that currently aggregate corporate data using time-consuming, manual methods.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A1.03-9206
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Improved Aviation Security
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Intelligent Hierarchical Approach to Actuator Fault Diagnosis and Accommodation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2785
(301)294-5200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Xiaodong Zhang
xzhang@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2785
(301)294-5269

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal presents a novel intelligent hierarchical approach to detection, isolation, and accommodation of primary aerodynamic actuator failures. The proposed architecture has three main components. First, a nonlinear fault diagnosis scheme is used to detect any fault occurrence and to determine the particular fault type. The proposed method can directly deal with nonlinear systems and nonlinear faults, unstructured modeling uncertainty, and new and unanticipated faults. Second, a controller module consists of a primary nominal controller and a secondary adaptive fault tolerant controller. While the nominal controller can be any existing conventional flight control system, the secondary neural network (NN) based adaptive controller is designed to accommodate primary control surface failures by utilizing control redundancy. A pseudo-control hedging method is used to prevent the NN from adapting to various actuation anomalies. Third, a reconfiguration supervisor makes decision regarding controller reconfiguration and control reallocation by using on-line diagnostic information. The proposed architecture is attractive in particular as a retrofit to previously certified flight control systems for improved flight safety. Our primary Phase 1 research objective is feasibility demonstration through extensive simulation studies. In Phase 2, we will refine the algorithms and develop the real-time control software.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
There are many potential NASA applications for this innovation, for instance, Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems, health monitoring of spacecraft, reusable launch vehicles, propulsion control systems, etc. Other potential applications include NASA systems such as valves, pumps, motors, Main Propulsion System, Thermal Control System, etc. The size of this market is not small and hard to estimate.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed approach can be used for applications such as military and commercial aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), ships, submarines, motors, robots, and nuclear reactors, etc. The proposed fault diagnostics system can be extended to many other applications, such as pumps, gearboxes, motors, engines, etc. The Future Combat System (FCS) program and Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program are also in significant need of diagnostics and fault-tolerant control technology.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A1.04-8006
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automated On-Line Health Management and Data Analysis
PROPOSAL TITLE: Self-Repairing Flight Control System for Online Health Monitoring and Recovery

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
SenAnTech, Inc.
5444 Silver Creek
Columbus, OH 43228-9062
(614)571-2117

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Seung-Keon Kwak
senantech@yahoo.com
5444 Silver Creek
Columbus, OH 43228-9062
(614)571-2117

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this SBIR project, a reliable self-repairing Flight Control System (FCS) will be developed. To achieve this goal, an artificial Neural Network based Sensor Validity Monitoring, Verification and Accommodation (SVMVA) scheme will be developed. Initially, the Extended Back Propagation Algorithm (EBPA) or Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) will be evaluated and employed as the on-line real time learning, monitoring and estimating tools. For a feasibility study, sample flight vehicle dynamics will be assessed. Then, an optimal on-line estimator for the flight dynamics will be shown by applying our unique input vector discrimination procedure and network optimization technique. In Phase I, an in-house numerical simulation tool for SVMVA will be developed to demonstrate the feasibility of our approach. As a result, it is expected that the new self-repairing Flight Control System based on SVMVA scheme will meet or exceed the NASA's requirement for their new flight vehicles. The most significant advantage of the new self-repairing Flight Control System is that the system is able to mask failed physical sensors by providing flight-worthy flight dynamics information to most FCS of flight vehicles without needing redundant sensors or excessive power, weight and space.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The SVMVA product will be very attractive to NASA's space exploration missions. By providing reliable backup information of space vehicle dynamics without additional physically redundant sensors in case of failure of the primary or secondary sensor systems, it will considerably reduce the weight, space, and power requirement of vehicles and reduce the vulnerability of vehicle operations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The new reconfigurable flight control system based on Sensor Validity Monitoring, Verification and Identification (SVMVA) scheme has great potential for both commercial and military markets. The applications of the proposed technology and related products are not only limited in the aerospace industries but also extended to various military and civil fault detection and health monitoring markets. Aircraft engine industry is also potential markets. Real-time health monitoring of expensive and mission critical rotating component can save money and life. Consequently, its application includes virtually anything that requires detection of sensor and actuator conditions in broadband frequencies.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A1.04-8553
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automated On-Line Health Management and Data Analysis
PROPOSAL TITLE: Data Analysis Algorithm Suitable for Structural Health Monitoring Based on Dust Network

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Brilliant Technology Inc
1500 Woodward Court
Brentwood, TN 37027-8641
(615)300-8481

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Kevin Tseng
KevinTseng@yahoo.com
1500 Woodward Court
Brentwood, TN 37027-8641
(615)300-8481

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposed project will attempt to develop a data analysis system for structural health monitoring on space structures. The data analysis software will be a key component in space vehicle health management system and can be used to in vehicle life prediction. The sensor data analysis algorithm is aimed at providing a modeling and simulation tool for data collected from a network of distributed sensors. The sensor network can be implemented via the state-of-the-art technology of distributed wireless dust network. A novel algorithm combining measurement data from the sensors and the analytical model based on the concept of finite element analysis is proposed and the feasibility of the algorithm to detect structural damage will be tested in this project. The project will focus on the impedance-based nondestructive damage evaluation technique. However, the algorithm can be extended to handle other types of sensor data such as acceleration and temperature. The data analysis system can monitor the performance of defective structural component in a space vehicle and issue proper warning for maintenance and repair. If the concept is tested successful, the algorithm can be further developed into a commercial software to be used for the structural integrity monitoring of many engineering applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed system can be used to monitor the integrity of a wide range of space structures. This system can be used to monitor the performance of metallic and non-metallic structural components and the space structural system. The structural health monitoring system will be a key component in space vehicle health management system and the data collected can be used to predict the remaining service life of the space structures. The system will be a valuable technology for the safety of future space exploration including manned and unmanned missions to the Moon, the Mars, and other long-rang space missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Since the proposed data analysis system is non-parametric meaning that the technology is not dependent on the geometry and material properties of the structures being monitored, the system can be used to monitor the structural integrity of one structural component, a sub-structural system, and the entire structural system. This technology can be applied to a very wide range of engineering applications. Examples of potential applications include automobiles, nuclear power-plant structures, and civil infrastructures such as the pipeline systems, bridges, and high-rise buildings. The system can be integrated into the vehicle health management system and life prediction system.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A1.04-9657
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automated On-Line Health Management and Data Analysis
PROPOSAL TITLE: Online Detection, Isolation, and Remediation of Flight Software Faults

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Kestrel Technology LLC
3260 Hillview Ave.
Palo Alto, CA 94304-1201
(650)320-8888

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Allen Goldberg
goldberg@email.arc.nasa.gov
NASA Ames Research Ctr, M/S 269/2
Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000
(650)604-4585

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Increasingly, critical flight functionality is implemented in software, but traditional (integrated) vehicle health management (IVHM) has primarily addressed hardware faults. All fielded software has residual errors, and the marginal costs to remove errors grow as the target residual error rate decreases. Our innovation is the development of tools, architectural concepts and software development methodologies to extend IVHM systems to detect, isolate and recover from software errors, as a cost effective way to increase the reliability and robustness of flight software. Software fault detection, isolation and recovery (SFDIR) fixes or contains the impact of faults and reduces the possibility of catastrophic loss. Each phase ? detection, isolation, and recovery ? raises new research challenges. This work addresses automated diagnostics of mission-critical avionics and middleware or software toolkits to lower the cost of developing online health monitoring applications. Our technical objectives are to detect, by code instrumentation, when the software state violates explicated safety constraints; using model-based reasoning and program analysis techniques, to trace from symptom to error source; and to recover from errors in a safe way preserving or replacing as much functionality as possible, and in all cases "to do no harm". This technology may also be applied to monitor potential security threats.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The potential applications of our innovation are generally to any system which requires high levels of safety and robustness. However, our work will focus on flight software for both aviation and space applications, including UAVs, military flight systems, and Exploration missions. Autonomy software in particular can benefit from this approach

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
A natural follow-on to a successful Phase II effort would be a partnership with an organization developing flight software and to apply the technology to new flight software development.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A2.01-9605
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion System Emissions and Noise Prediction and Reduction
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Versatile Laser-Induced Incandescence System for Non-Intrusive Measurements of Particle Size and Mass in Aircraft Emissions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
MetroLaser, Inc.
2572 White Road
Irvine, CA 92614-6236
(949)553-0688

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Thomas P. Jenkins
tjenkins@metrolaserinc.com
2572 White Road
Irvine, CA 92614-6236
(949)553-0688

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a versatile and affordable system to measure the average diameter of primary soot particles along with their mass concentration in aircraft engine exhausts. This work will expand upon our recent experience applying laser-induced incandescence (LII) to obtain the first successful quantitative measurements of spatially and temporally resolved, non-intrusive soot particle mass concentration in an aircraft engine test. The proposed system will take advantage of recent research suggesting that particle size can be obtained from the LII decay rate. Advances in laser and photodiode technology should enable compact, inexpensive components to be used. A simple calibration procedure will help minimize the requirements for operator expertise and training. Advanced, experimentally validated algorithms will be used to compute soot particle size and mass, with the results displayed in real time during an engine test. The tasks described in this proposal are essential steps leading to a versatile LII system that can be routinely applied to engine testing programs, and subsequently commercialized. Our goal is to develop an LII system suitable for widespread use; therefore, it will be portable, inexpensive, and easy to operate. The proposed Phase I effort will demonstrate the feasibility of this system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
A successful LII particle sizing and mass instrument could be used by NASA to quantify and classify particulate emissions by size from aircraft engines. Data obtained with the instrument could be used in conjunction with climate models in studies to predict the impact of aircraft-generated aerosols, thus helping to establish goals for aircraft particulate emissions. The LII instrument will complement existing aerosol mass spectrometers by providing in situ measurements of overall particulate mass; whereas the existing extractive sampling techniques contain an inherent uncertainty in the total mass due to loss in the sampling lines.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed technique will find commercial application in a variety of industries needing to comply with particle pollution standards. Examples include automobile, truck, diesel generators, marine and gas turbine industries. This market will eventually expand to include commercial airlines and automobile test stations.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A2.02-7719
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Electric and Intelligent Propulsion Technologies for Environmentally Harmonious Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Computer-Aided Design Methods for Model-Based Nonlinear Engine Control Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Optimal Synthesis Inc.
868 San Antonio Road
Palo Alto, CA 94303-4622
(650)213-8585

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Padmanabhan K. Menon
menon@optisyn.com
868 San Antonio Road
Palo Alto, CA 94303-4622
(650)213-8585

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Traditional design methods for aircraft turbine engine control systems have relied on the use of linearized models and linear control theory. While these controllers can provide satisfactory performance, they do not exploit all the available knowledge about the nonlinear engine dynamics. Recent advances in computer-aided nonlinear control system design technology have made it feasible to design control systems using a detailed model of the engine. These nonlinear engine control systems have the potential to deliver a more precise control of the engine dynamics while satisfying multiple operational requirements.
Using a NASA-supplied engine model, Phase I research will develop a nonlinear engine control system that can deliver uniform performance over the entire operating region. Operation at multiple operating points and transitions between them will be demonstrated during the Phase I research.
Phase II work will develop a rapid-prototyping design environment for nonlinear engine control systems and real-time controller code generation for implementing the nonlinear control on engine control computer. Advanced engine control concepts such as active clearance control and adaptive engine control will also be demonstrated during the Phase II work. The design software and the control technology developed under the present SBIR will be commercialized during the Phase III research.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The rapid-prototyping software environment for nonlinear engine control design and real-time code generation developed under the proposed research will allow NASA to expeditiously examine the design tradeoffs in future engine development programs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Nonlinear engine control systems will be able to exercise a more precise control over the engine dynamics, leading to better engine performance and life. The advanced control architecture may also allow better tradeoffs between engine performance and environmental specifications. The design software developed during the Phase II research will provide a rapid-prototyping capability for nonlinear engine control systems to NASA and aircraft engine developers.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A2.02-7780
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Electric and Intelligent Propulsion Technologies for Environmentally Harmonious Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Sulfur-Tolerant Autothermal Reforming Catalysts for Aviation Fuel

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
NexTech Materials, Ltd.
404 Enterprise Dr.
Lewis Center, OH 43035-9423
(614)842-6606

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Scott L. Swartz
swartz@nextechmaterials.com
404 Enterprise Dr.
Lewis Center, OH 43035-9423
(614)842-6606

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) approach commercialization, interest in broader applications of this technology is mounting. While the first commercialized systems are being designed to provide 3-5 kW in stationary and automotive auxiliary power unit (APU) applications, military and aerospace users are already considering integrating SOFCs into larger, airborne systems with considerable commercial payback. SOFCs are aligned to displace inefficient, noisy, and polluting technologies such as diesel generators that will provide both economic and environmental motivation to prospective users. NexTech Materials proposes to develop sulfur-tolerant autothermal reforming (ATR) catalysts for fuel processors of SOFC systems that operate with sulfur-containing aviation (Jet-A) fuels. The Phase I work will focus on synthesis and characterization of novel composite catalysts, design and construction of a reactor for catalyst performance tests, and evaluation of the performance of experimental catalysts for autothermal reforming of Jet-A fuel. Phase II of the project will involve further optimization of catalyst formulations, scale-up of the catalyst synthesis technology, development of monolith-supporting technology for the catalysts, and evaluation of monolith-supported catalysts in prototype ATR reformers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The primary application for the proposed catalyst technology is for fuel processing components of solid oxide fuel cell systems. One of the key limitations to near-term commercialization of SOFC systems for aerospace applications is the lack of catalyst materials that will allow SOFCs to operate on existing aviation fuels. With successful development of such catalysts, SOFC systems can be integrated with gas turbines in auxiliary power units for commercial jet airliners, with expected advantages of reduced fuel consumption and substantially lower emissions of NOX and other pollutants.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The catalyst technology will enable development of efficient and environmentally friendly SOFC based power generation systems for a number of military, automotive, and commercial applications involving operation on liquid hydrocarbon fuels (gasoline, diesel, propane, etc.). For example, all branches of the U.S. military have critical unmet needs for strategic field power generation systems operating on existing logistic (diesel) fuels. Sulfur-tolerant reforming catalysts are required for SOFC devices being developed for such applications. Further, the proposed catalysts will be applicable to fuel processors in SOFC systems being developed for auxiliary power units for cars, trucks and recreational vehicles.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A2.03-7879
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Revolutionary Technologies and Components for Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Mode Transition Variable Geometry for High Speed Inlets for Hypersonic Aircraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
TechLand Research, Inc.
28895 Lorain Road, Suite 201
North Olmsted, OH 44070-4049
(440)716-9077

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Lois J Weir
techland@stratos.net
28895 Lorain Road, Suite 201
North Olmsted, OH 44070-4049
(440)716-9077

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Hypersonic propulsion research has been a focus of the NASA aeronautics program for years. Previous high-speed cruise and space access programs have examined the problems of inlet design for hybrid systems, mainly by addressing one part of the flight envelope only. The proposed program will leverage existing technology by utilizing design data for the high-speed inlet for a Mach 5 over-under turbojet/ramjet propulsion system. The proposed effort will identify a variable geometry system that will effect mode transition between modes. An experimental research effort will be designed, and requirements for the research hardware (aerodynamic design and functionality) will be developed sufficiently to commence mechanical design early in a follow-on Phase II effort. The objective of the Phase II effort will be to experimentally demonstrate operation of the dual-flow inlet system during mode transition.

Mode transition of hypersonic inlet systems with dual flow paths represents one of the greatest challenges facing hypersonic propulsion system designers. The proposed research will provide design approaches to these problems, for which few workable solutions have yet been identified. The innovations in hypersonic inlet design technology provided by this and follow-on research will provide enabling technology required to bring low-cost hypersonic flight closer to practical reality.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
NASA applications include hypersonic cruise or space access vehicles employing multi-mode propulsion systems with dual flow paths. Such systems include Rocket-Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) and Turbine-Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Military hypersonic cruise vehicles, global access vehicles, or hypersonic missiles employing multi-mode propulsion systems.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A2.03-8951
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Revolutionary Technologies and Components for Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development of a Novel Non-Equilibrium Pulsed Plasma Ignition Module for High Altitude Turbojets

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Innovative Scientific Solutions Inc
2766 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton, OH 45440-3638
(937)429-4980

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Sivaram Gogineni
sivaram.gogineni@wpafb.af.mil
2766 Indian Ripple Rd
Dayton, OH 45440-3638
(937)255-8446

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An experimental research program focusing on design, development, and testing of a novel nonequilibrium plasma ignition module is proposed. The ignition module will be based on the use of diffuse high-pressure transverse discharge technology recently developed at Ohio State using Air Force support. The proposed research is of critical importance for development of nonequilibrium plasma igniters modules for airplane jet engines. The primary objectives of the proposed research are (i) extending the use of the new nonequilibrium plasma ignition / flameholding method demonstrated in previous research by the current proposers to higher static pressures (up to P=0.5-1.0 atm), (ii) measuring the NOx emissions in the pulsed plasma stabilized flames and the plasma power budget, and (iii) studying the effect of the pulsed plasma on flame blow-off and relight. The proposed research will be conducted using gaseous hydrocarbon fuels. The results would have direct impact on development and the use of nonequilibrium plasma ignition modules for lean combustor operation and high altitude turbojet relight. The results would also elucidate kinetic mechanisms of plasma assisted ignition and flameholding.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Research performed during Phase I study will provide key experimental data which would help developing compact, low power budget nonequilibrium plasma ignition/flame stabilization modules to be used in commercial airplane jet engines. The use of these plasma ignition modules would make possible stable engine operation at low equivalence ratios, i.e. at the conditions when combustion becomes unstable. Engine operation at the lean conditions, using plasma flame stabilization, would also help reducing NOx emissions. Finally, the use of nonequlibrium plasma ignition modules would make possible high-altitude relight in case of a flameout.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Research performed during the proposed Phase I study will result in identification of realistic flow parameter range, including pressure, flow velocity, temperature, Mach number, and the equivalence ratios when nonequilibrium plasmas be efficiently used for ignition and flame stabilization. These results are of critical importance for future commercialization of plasma ignition technology for aero-propulsion applications. They will also significantly benefit research and development programs in both the commercial and on military aircraft industries. Considerable interest in using the results of the proposed research has been expressed by GE Aircraft Engines.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A2.03-9221
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Revolutionary Technologies and Components for Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Temperature Smart Structures for Engine Noise Reduction and Performance Enhancement

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618-2302
(609)538-0444

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Todd R. Quackenbush
todd@continuum-dynamics.com
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618-2302
(609)538-0444

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Noise mitigation for subsonic transports is a continuing high priority, and recent work has identified successful exhaust mixing enhancement devices that have demonstrated substantial capability for reducing aircraft engine noise in critical takeoff and landing conditions. Existing fixed-geometry versions of such devices, however, are inherently limited to optimal noise mitigation in a single operating condition and also can impose significant performance penalties in cruise flight. An adaptive geometry device using smart structures technology offers the possibility of maximizing engine performance while retaining and possibly enhancing the favorable noise characteristics of current designs. The proposed Phase I effort will demonstrate the feasibility of this concept, focusing on design and demonstration of variable geometry chevrons using rapidly maturing Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuation technology. This work represents an extension of prior successful development of solid state smart structures, though it will exploit new high temperature SMA (HTSMA) materials technology to enable the devices to operate in both low temperature (fan) and high temperature (core) exhaust flows. While important in its own right, this development also holds the promise of being the first step in development of a range of smart materials devices for a spectrum of aeropropulsion applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
By providing highly innovative concepts for propulsion system components for subsonic jet transports, the proposed effort will directly support a wide range of broad NASA goals including noise reduction and maximization of engine performance. The chief technical output of the effort will be enabling technology for a variable geometry devices to replace the promising but limited current generation of fixed-geometry chevrons. In addition, the integrated aero/thermo/elastic models of actuator performance to be developed will assist the development of concurrent engineering tools for analysis and design of propulsion flow control systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
A successful Phase I/Phase II effort will open the door to prototype testing and eventual implementation of flight-qualified SMA adaptive chevron hardware. The most direct beneficiary would be next generation subsonic transports that could incorporate high-force, all-electric exhaust mixing control systems into power plants with an optimal balance of reduced noise and improved performance. Successful implementation in this application would also lead to spinoff developments in a number of actuation tasks, including aerodynamic controls and thrust vectoring as well as steering and outflow redirection for marine propulsion that would directly benefit both civil and military systems.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A2.04-7705
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Airframe Systems Noise Prediction and Reduction
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Nonlinear Model for Designing Herschel-Quincke Waveguide Arrays to Attenuate Shock Waves from Transonic Turbofan Engines

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Technology in Blacksburg, Inc.
2901 Prosperity Rd.
Blacksburg, VA 24060-6644
(540)961-4401

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Jason M Anderson
janderson@techsburg.com
2901 Prosperity Rd.
Blacksburg, VA 24060-6644
(540)961-4401

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Techsburg is teaming with the Vibration and Acoustics Laboratory of Virginia Tech to propose a non-linear analytical tool for designing Herschel-Quincke (HQ) waveguide arrays for the purpose of attenuating upstream-propagating shock waves in a transonic turbofan engine inlet. Techsburg will be receiving endorsement and support for this research from the Goodrich Company who owns the HQ waveguide array concept. Thus far linear acoustic modeling has been used to design HQ waveguide arrays that have experimentally proven to be successful in attenuating far-field sound radiation from subsonic ducted fans. However, the large transonic turbofan engines used in most civil aviation aircraft today produce large amplitude bow shocks upstream of the fan rotor that nonlinearly scatter energy from the dominant BPF circumferential mode near the fan rotor to primarily lower engine order circumferential modes at the duct entrance, which produces the "buzz-saw" far-field acoustic signature. The non-linear design tool developed by Techsburg/Virginia Tech in Phase I will be used to design an optimal HQ waveguide array in Phase II that will be placed near the fan with the intention of attenuating the BPF circumferential mode in order to reduce scattered energy into lower engine orders that cause far-field "buzz-saw" noise.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The nonlinear model of the interaction between upstream propagating shock waves from a transonic turbofan aero engine and Herschel-Quincke waveguide arrays that Techsburg proposes for this Phase I research program can be utilized by NASA as an acoustic analysis and design tool for commercial transonic turbofan aero engines. This computer model could also be used for the analysis of other innovative passive and active noise control devices placed in intake ducts supersonic ducted fans. NASA could also couple the results of this in-duct nonlinear acoustic propagation model to far-field prediction codes such as the finite element based Eversman code.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Due to shock propagation in transonic turbofan engines, analysis and design of intake duct acoustic treatment requires nonlinear analysis. The nonlinear model of the interaction between upstream propagating shock waves from a transonic turbofan aero engine and Herschel-Quincke (HQ) waveguide arrays that Techsburg proposes for this Phase I research program serves this need for turbofan aero engine manufacturers. The HQ array technique is a particularly promising passive noise control technique owned by the Goodrich company, who like other engine manufactures currently desires a nonlinear analysis and design tool for innovative noise control technology.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A2.04-8649
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Airframe Systems Noise Prediction and Reduction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hybrid Prediction Method for Aircraft Interior Noise

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
ESI US R&D
202 North Curry Street, Suite 100
Carson City, NV 89703-4121
(858)350-0057

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Bryce Gardner
bgardner@vasci.com
12555 High Bluff Drive, Suite 250
San Diego, CA 92130-3005
(858)350-0057

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal discusses the development and application of new methods of structural-acoustic analysis in order to address existing problems in aircraft interior noise prediction. The proposed methods are based on a hybrid modeling strategy that combines Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA). Over the past five years, Vibro-Acoustic Sciences has devoted a considerable research effort towards the development of a framework for combining these two analysis methods. Recent research carried out by over the past two years has resulted in the development of a rigorous solution to this problem. The resulting Hybrid approach has been derived in general terms and validated for a number of simple structural-acoustic problems. However, the method has not yet been applied to aircraft interior noise prediction. A number of candidate aircraft interior noise problems have been identified which would benefit greatly from the use of the Hybrid method. The aims of the research described in this proposal are therefore: (i) to demonstrate the application of the Hybrid method to a number of existing aircraft interior noise problems, (ii) to develop the method to ensure it contains sufficient functionality to address practical aircraft interior noise problems and (iii) to demonstrate the value of the method in the prediction and reduction of noise in airframe systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
There is significant commercial potential for technology and software planned for the follow-on Phase II effort. The following market segments have been identified:
1) Commercial aircraft acoustic design ? flight deck, crew workstations and passenger cabin(s)
2) Commercial rotorcraft - flight deck safety and passenger comfort
3) Automobile interior noise ? sound package treatments, structure-borne noise, boom, etc.
4) Other transport vehicles ? railcars, ships, submarines, etc.
5) Consumer appliances in the home or office environment
6) Architectural/construction acoustics and noise control applications
7) Spacecraft random vibration environment prediction
8) Launch vehicle acoustic and vibration environment prediction

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
1) Aircraft interior noise research
2) Rotorcraft interior noise research
3) Manned spacecraft and on-orbit habitability research (eg. International Space Station)
4) Launch vehicle acoustic environment prediction
5) Spacecraft random vibration environment prediction
6) On-orbit spacecraft vibration environment


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A2.04-9226
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Airframe Systems Noise Prediction and Reduction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Real-Time Noise Prediction of V/STOL Aircraft in Maneuvering Flight

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618-2302
(609)538-0444

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Daniel A. Wachspress
dan@continuum-dynamics.com
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618-2302
(609)538-0444

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal outlines a plan for enhancing and integrating new breakthrough technologies to provide accurate real-time noise prediction of V/STOL aircraft in maneuvering flight within a flight simulation environment. Loading, thickness and BVI noise sources, which often dominate the noise spectrum, will be predicted from first principles by coupling Continuum Dynamics, Inc.'s unique real-time full-span free-vortex wake model with Penn State University's innovative PSU-WOPWOP maneuvering flight noise prediction method. General rotorcraft configurations will be supported (e.g., tiltrotor, coaxial, tandem, main rotor/tail rotor) as well as ducted fan and powered lift aircraft. Other noise sources (e.g., broadband, engine, and self-noise) will be modeled using the most advanced empirical methods available today. Atmospheric absorption, spherical spreading, ground reflection, attenuation and acoustic phasing will be modeled through a direct coupling with Wyle Laboratory's state-of-the-art RNM code to provide accurate ground noise assessment required for low noise flight path planning. Further enhancements could lead to onboard flight management systems able to monitor and reduce ground noise levels in flight, a capability that would both improve public acceptance of V/STOL aircraft introduced into the National Airspace System and save the lives of military aviators operating rotorcraft in hostile territory.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
NASA is interested in the introduction of V/STOL aircraft into the National Airspace System to increase airport capacity but must address the impact of high noise levels on passenger and community acceptance. In this regard, the proposed effort directly responds to NASA's stated goal of developing new computational models to conduct detailed assessments of candidate concepts. The flight simulation tool will enable NASA to assess ground noise levels of potential concepts, to design low noise flight paths, and to evaluate the impact of noise control procedures on crew workload without the need for expensive flight tests.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed tool will offer aircraft developers and air traffic managers a method for analyzing low noise concepts in the design phase. The real-time capability will support design optimization trade studies. Heliports, airports, operators and the FAA will be able to utilize the tool in flight path planning, particularly that involving the introduction of V/STOL aircraft into the NAS. Eventual incorporation into onboard flight management systems will allow aircraft operators to monitor ground noise levels in flight. Currently there is no commercially available tool of this kind able to directly compute V/STOL noise at this high level of fidelity.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A2.04-9386
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Airframe Systems Noise Prediction and Reduction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Acoustic Blankets for Improved Aircraft Interior Noise Reduction

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
SMD Corporation
4821 Shippen Court
Virginia Beach, VA 23455-4734
(757)519-9546

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Curtis R Mitchell
ozzy6fuller@netscape.net
4821 Shippen Court
Virginia Beach, VA 23455-4734
(757)519-9546

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this project advanced acoustic blankets for improved low frequency interior noise control in aircraft will be developed and demonstrated. The improved performance is achieved with a novel lightweight composite system that has been previously experimentally demonstrated on laboratory structures. The advanced blanket system will also satisfy new flammability and toxicity requirements with minimal integration issues. Work will be carried out with our partner NEVA Associates and acoustic material manufacturers to design commercial versions of the advanced blankets suitable for aircraft. Integration issues related to application in aircraft fuselages will be considered.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Potential NASA commercial applications of the new technology are throughout the US commercial and general aviation industry. The advanced blankets will result in quieter interiors of aircraft and also satisfy new flammability and toxicity requirements. The new blanket systems will thus increase the economic competiveness of the US aircraft industry worldwide.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA commercial applications of the technology include reducing sound in defense aircraft, automobiles, industrial equipment as well as reduction of payload noise in launch vehicle fairings. The technology will result in a new, innovative passive blanket technology for noise control that will find general application in a multitude of products where low frequency noise control is important. The product will be of high economic benefit to many US industries that compete worldwide.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A2.05-8222
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Revolutionary Materials and Structures Technology for Propulsion and Power Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel High Temperature Magnetic Bearings for Space Vehicle Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
ELECTRON ENERGY CORPORATION
924 Links Avenue
Landisville, PA 17538-1615
(717)898-2294

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Jinfang Liu
jfl@electronenergy.com
924 Links Ave.
Landisville, PA 17538-1615
(717)898-2294

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Previous high temperature magnetic bearings employed only electromagnets. The work proposed in this SBIR program seeks to utilize High Temperature Permanent Magnets (HTPM) developed by EEC. The use of HTPMs will improve efficiency since the majority of the static load on any bearing can be reacted by the flux of the permanent magnets.

The end product will be a high speed / high temperature / high load test platform for future development of high bearing, motor, generator and seal components. This capability will be of special benefit to the aerospace and process machinery industries. In addition the component demonstrations from this SBIR will provide designers with the confidence needed to integrate similar components in their high performance machinery.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
(a) High temperature magnetic bearings can be used for energy storage / attitude control flywheels for aerospace applications. High speed, vacuum operation and low bearing drag make magnetic bearings the best bearings for this application.

(b) High temperature magnetic bearings can also be used for gas turbine engines for aircraft applications. High temperature capability makes magnetic bearings a very attractive option for the new generation of high performance aircraft gas turbine engines which require bearings that will operate continuously at 1000 F. Bearing assemblies must supply damping to stabilize rotor dynamic vibrations along with providing support. Conventional bearing/dampers which utilize oils or elastomers will not operate at these high temperatures.

(c) Deep space exploration will require nuclear power utilizing Brayton and Sterling engines. The corrosive affects of potassium make it advantageous to totally "can" the process fluids so that seals are not required. The support for the shaft in a canned pump can only come from a magnetic bearing since its flux passes through the thin stainless steel can.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Magnetic bearings (MB) have gained wide acceptance for petrochemical industry compressors, turbo expanders and motors. Turbo-molecular vacuum pumps also employ magnetic bearings since they permit the flow passages to be canned to prevent leakage and achieve an improved vacuum.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A2.05-8813
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Revolutionary Materials and Structures Technology for Propulsion and Power Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Surface Modification of Exfoliated Graphite Nano-Reinforcements

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Adherent Technologies
9621 Camino del Sol NE
Albuquerque, NM 87111-1522
(505)346-1685

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Ronald E. Allred
adherenttech@earthlink.net
9621 Camino del Sol NE
Albuquerque, NM 87111-1522
(505)346-1685

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Nano forms of graphite and carbon, such as flakes, worms, and tubes, can significantly modify the properties of polymers when used as reinforcements. Challenges remain in processing composites with these nano-reinforcements in the form of attaining uniform dispersions. Many of these difficulties are due to a lack of wetting of the nano-reinforcements by the polymer. Poor wetting is caused by the very low surface energy of the as-produced graphite nano-reinforcements. Opportunities exist for modifying the surface chemistry and energy of nano-reinforcements that will allow improved wetting and provide a means for chemical bonding at the interface with high temperature polymers such as PMR-II-50 polyimide. Two approaches for surface modification are proposed: (1) oxidative plasma treatments to populate the graphite surface with carboxyl and hydroxyl groups, and (2) bonding of polyimide oligomers to the nano-reinforcements using reactive coupling agents. Both of these approaches have proven successful with micron size carbon and graphite fibers and with nanofibers. As such, these treatments should result in nano-reinforced composites with superior mechanical properties and environmental durability.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The surface modified graphite nano-reinforcements will find use in numerous demanding applications. In particular, when combined with high temperature polyimide resins, they will be used in engine and propulsion applications to reduce weight and improve performance. They will also find uses with conventional fiber-reinforced composites to increase matrix properties.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
These unique nano-reinforcements will find many applications in structural composites for military and commercial aircraft, aerospace, chemical processing, and medical structures. The nano-materials markets are projected in the billions of dollars in the next decade, which will provide numerous outlets for the surface modified nano-reinforcements.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A2.05-8890
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Revolutionary Materials and Structures Technology for Propulsion and Power Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robust Environmental Barrier Coatings for Silicon Nitride

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
UES Inc
4401 Dayton-Xenia Rd
Dayton, OH 45432-1894
(937)426-6900

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Amarendra K. Rai
arai@ues.com
4401 Dayton-Xenia Road
Dayton, OH 45432-1894
(937)426-6900

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Silicon based ceramics are the leading candidates for the high temperature structural components of the advanced propulsion engines. For such applications, one key drawback of silicon based ceramics is the volatilization of the protective silica scale in engine relevant oxidizing and water vapor environments at temperatures up to 1500 degrees C. Thus for the realization of silicon based ceramic components in advanced propulsion engines, environmental and thermal protective coatings will be needed. UES, Inc. proposes to develop a multifunctional environmental barrier coating concept utilizing advanced materials, coating design and coating processing technique for low thermal expansion silicon nitride. The performance and stability of the coatings developed in this program will be determined in relevant engine environments at temperatures up to 1500 degrees C. Based upon the test results coating design and process parameters will be further refined in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Advanced Si based ceramics are the candidates for future NASA reusable space propulsion components. Robust environmental barrier coatings will be a critical part for successful introduction of advanced Si based ceramics and composites in future space vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Successful completion of the proposed technology through Phase I and Phase II effort will also enable the usage of Si based ceramics in the propulsion engines of Department of Defense vehicle applications. In the private sector, the proposed technology can be used in aircraft propulsion, and electric power generation, ceramic diesel and gasoline internal combustion engines.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A2.05-9466
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Revolutionary Materials and Structures Technology for Propulsion and Power Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Physics-Based Probabilistic Design Tool with System-Level Reliability Constraint

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
N&R ENGINEERING
6659 Pearl Road. #400
Parma Heights, OH 44130-3821
(440)845-7020

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
William Strack
bstrack@wowway.com
6659 Pearl Road. #400
Parma Heights, OH 44130-3821
(440)845-7020

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The work proposed herein would establish a concurrent design environment that enables aerospace hardware designers to rapidly determine optimum risk-constrained designs subject to multiple uncertainties in applied loads, material properties, and manufacturing processes. This means that the design process no longer would consist of a sequence of separate code invocations to: (1) obtain the geometry model, (2) determine the various loads, (3) determine performance, (4) perform a structural analysis, (5) perform design optimization, and (6) perform a probabilistic risk assessment. Instead, all of these functions would be automatically incorporated into a single framework using existing physics-based deterministic modeling codes and a set of computer-generated data transfer interfaces. Thus, a design engineer would be able to rapidly explore the design space to identify the minimum weight design that meets a given reliability constraint ? thereby avoiding both an overly conservative design and a too-risky design. For example, the software tools that implement this innovation could be used to determine the wall thickness of a launch vehicle's external cryogenic propellant tanks exposed to high but uncertain thermal and aerodynamic loads and with a reliability probability of 0.99999.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The work proposed herein would establish a concurrent design environment that enables aerospace hardware designers to rapidly determine optimum risk-constrained designs subject to multiple uncertainties in applied loads, material properties, and manufacturing processes. This means that the design process no longer would consist of a sequence of separate code invocations to: (1) obtain the geometry model, (2) determine the various loads, (3) determine performance, (4) perform a structural analysis, (5) perform design optimization, and (6) perform a probabilistic risk assessment. Instead, all of these functions would be automatically incorporated into a single framework using existing physics-based deterministic modeling codes and a set of computer-generated data transfer interfaces. Thus, a design engineer would be able to rapidly explore the design space to identify the minimum weight design that meets a given reliability constraint ? thereby avoiding both an overly conservative design and a too-risky design. For example, the software tools that implement this innovation could be used to determine the wall thickness of a launch vehicle's external cryogenic propellant tanks exposed to high but uncertain thermal and aerodynamic loads and with a reliability probability of 0.99999.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
A fundamental architectural change in the design process is proposed that could revolutionize the ways many commercial designs are conducted that involve advanced technology and important uncertainties. For example, high-tech applications such as jet engines, central powerplants, artificial hearts, flight-qualified control system actuators, home heat pumps/air conditioners, automotive engines, and avionic circuit boards all require ultra-reliable, minimal-maintenance operation. Some of these operate in uncertain hostile environments and all involve a continuous stream of technical improvements with inherent uncertainties.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A2.06-8361
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Smart, Adaptive Aerospace Vehicles With Intelligence
PROPOSAL TITLE: Power for Vehicle Embedded MEMS Sensors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
TPL Inc
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109-4416
(505)344-6744

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Charles D.E. Lakeman
clakeman@tplinc.com
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109-4416
(505)342-4427

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Embedded wireless sensors of the future will enable flight vehicle systems to be "highly aware" of onboard health and performance parameters, as well as the external flow field and potential threat environments. Because there will be no opportunity to replace batteries on a regular basis, these systems will have to rely on energy harvesting strategies to convert ambient energy into electrical energy to provide long-lived power. TPL proposes to develop a MEMS-scale power system that will combine TPL's patented volumetric electrochemical micro-devices (microbatteries and microsupercapacitors) with energy harvesting for long lived power. Volumetric electrochemical devices are a unique and critical feature of our approach, which provide energy storage capabilities and high power density to minimize the total volume and footprint of the micropower system. The proposed effort will evaluate designs combining microbatteries, microsupercapacitors and energy harvesting devices with respect to the trade-offs between size, maximum power, duty cycle, and energy source availability. TPL's partner, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL), brings expertise in the space arena, and will provide technical guidance and advice on sensor requirements, integration and packaging for space. This partnership will be critical to realizing space-qualified devices.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
MEMS, and microsystems in general, will enable miniaturized accelerometers, gyroscopes, and numerous other innovative sensors and actuators. Furthermore, the advancement of wireless communication technologies opens the possibility of completely wireless systems, eliminating the cost, weight and potential for failure of conventional wiring. These systems will find application in structural health monitoring for various aerospace vehicles including robotic probes, space shuttles, and aircraft. All these devices will need a small size source of electrical power. The proposed innovative devices will provide a novel, low-cost solution to this need.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
As with many NASA-funded innovations, there are numerous civilian as well as defense applications for small form-factor, environmentally benign electrochemical power sources. As microsystems find wider use in government and consumer applications, such as active RFID tags, sensors for industrial process control, chem./bio agent detection, power in a small size package will become critical.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A2.06-9177
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Smart, Adaptive Aerospace Vehicles With Intelligence
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reflexive Aero Structures for Enhanced Survivability

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Cornerstone Research Group Inc
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440-3325
(937)320-1877

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Benjamin A. Dietsch
dietschba@crgrp.net
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440-3325
(937)320-1877

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) proposes to develop an advanced reflexive structure system to increase the survivability of aerostructures. This reflexive system will mimic the pain withdrawal reflex on which the human body relies. The proposed reflexive system will incorporate a continuous health and performance monitoring system via an embedded dielectric film, an adaptive composite structure based on CRG's shape memory composite material (VeritexTM), and an intelligence system which will be interfaced with both the health/performance sensors and the adaptive structure. When activated, VeritexTM will recover its structural integrity via shape recovery and a novel healing process. These features enable the use of VeritexTM as an adaptive structure in the proposed reflexive system. The development of a reflexive system for aerostructures will enable increased safety and security and demonstrate a better understanding of integrated performance systems. This reflexive technology could find immediate implementation on all current and future UCAV systems and future implementation on platforms such as the International Space Station, Lunar, and Martian habitats.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Supporting NASA's Aeronautics Enterprise, this project's technologies directly address requirements for enhanced aircraft safety and survivability. These technologies will enable conceptual flight vehicle/platform designs integrating smart, intelligent, and adaptive flight vehicle capabilities. The International Space Station, Lunar, and Martian habitats are all examples of structures that will benefit from a reflexive system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
This project's technologies developed for NASA systems would directly apply to systems operated by other government and commercial enterprises. Government systems that would derive the same benefits would include, but not be limited to, aircraft structures, marine structures, shelter structures, and many other structural systems operated by all agencies of the Department of Defense. This technology's attributes for reflexive repair should yield a high potential for private sector commercialization for reflexive systems for many types of structures that see combat environments.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A2.06-9197
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Smart, Adaptive Aerospace Vehicles With Intelligence
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Collision Avoidance Enhanced GN&C System for Smart Air Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
American GNC Corporation
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley, CA 93065-1812
(805)582-0582

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Dr. Ching-Fang Lin
cflin@americangnc.com
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley, CA 93065-1812
(805)582-0582

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of this SBIR Phase I project is to develop and demonstrate a low cost, lightweight, miniaturized Integrated Collision Avoidance Enhanced GN&C System for Smart Air Vehicles. The proposed system takes advantage of the latest Commercial-Off-the-Shelf (COTS) components, American GNC Corporation's products and patents to achieve an integrated, guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) micro system for air vehicles, which is capable of assisting aircraft pilots to avoid approach and collision with ground/water and other near objects in flight. The various data from the IMU, GPS chipset, terrain data base, magnetometer, and object detection sensors are processed to produce collision warning audio/visual messages and collision avoidance guidance commands in a closed-loop system. In this Phase I project, the feasibility, as well as functions, specifications, hardware architecture, algorithms and software of the proposed system will be investigated, simulated, and demonstrated.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The product developed in this project, Integrated Collision Avoidance Enhanced GN&C System is applicable to several commercial applications including Air Traffic Management (ATM), smart vehicles, and intelligent transportation systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
In addition to the potential applications for NASA's Enabling Concepts and Technologies program, the proposed GN&C system is also well-suited?due to its small size, low cost, and light weight?to a wide range of NASA systems, including: remote sensing platforms, extravehicular robotic systems, telerobotics, and UAVs.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A2.07-8003
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Revolutionary Flight Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Morphing Flight Control Surface for Advanced Flight Performance

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
SenAnTech, Inc.
5444 Silver Creek
Columbus, OH 43228-9062
(614)571-2117

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Seung-Keon Kwak
senantech@yahoo.com
5444 Silver Creek
Columbus, OH 43228-9062
(614)571-2117

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this SBIR project, a new Morphing Flight Control Surface (MFCS) will be developed. The distinction of the research effort is that the SenAnTech team will employ our innovative High Deformable Mechanism (HDM) to develop MFCS. The utilization of energy is the important concern to accomplish this research goal. Energy is chosen because it provides a mechanism where all concepts can be represented and judged in a consistent fashion. Ultimately, this research will provide a novel methodology for predicting the type, placement, and operation of actuators and sensors for aerial vehicles that incorporate large-scale shape changing for the improved flight performances. The MFCS will consist of hardware, software and processing units. The actuators, sensors, wiring, signal conditioning and, associated electronics will be selected as required. Modern systems technology like controllability and observability of the system will be examined for the optimal actuator and sensor placements. Also, shaped or digitized electrode technology will be applied to measure the spatial energy distribution of the deformable wing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The new proposed Morphing Flight Control Surface (MFCS) can be used in future morphing control surfaces for NASA's experimental flight vehicles (manned or unmanned). This innovative system will assist to achieve the precision control, robust stability and future multi-mission capabilities including the ability to loiter (reconnaissance) and then dash (move quickly to another point).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The direct result of this research will be a valuable asset to defense industry in the support of future multi-mission flight vehicles. Since mission adaptive air vehicles are presently being pursued by every major defense contractor, including Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, and Boeing, the research proposed in this document will have lasting benefits to the aerospace industries as well.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A2.07-8111
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Revolutionary Flight Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Revolutionary Performance For Ultra Low Reynolds Number Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Rolling Hills Research Corporation
420 N. Nash Street
El Segundo, CA 90245-2822
(310)640-8781

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Michael F Kerho
mike@RollingHillsResearch.com
420 N. Nash Street
El Segundo, CA 90245-2822
(310)640-8781

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An important mission for NASA is the development of revolutionary flight concepts and technology. The development of Micro unmanned air vehicles (Micro-UAVs) and Mars aircraft has received considerable attention in recent years. Unlike conventional aircraft and UAVs, Micro-UAVs and Mars aircraft suffer from operation in an extremely low Reynolds number flight regime. Both Micro-UAVs and Mars aircraft can have operational Reynolds number regimes from 20,000 to 120,000. At these extremely low Reynolds numbers, the aerodynamic flow features are dominated by laminar separation and separation bubble effects, which are the primary source of poor performance in both drag and maximum lift for this class of vehicles. It is proposed to use a robust and powerful active transition fixing technique to eliminate the effects of these large separation bubbles and provide revolutionary performance as of yet unobtainable by this class of ultra low Reynolds number vehicles. By artificially transitioning the flow upstream of the laminar separation bubble, the bubble itself can be eliminated resulting in a greatly reduced drag. The increased resistance to separation of a simple turbulent boundary-layer can pay revolutionary dividends at these very low Reynolds numbers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The enhanced active transition fixing technology will provide revolutionary performance for ultra low Reynolds number vehicles including Micro-UAVs and Mars Aircraft. Additionally, low Reynolds number propeller based propulsions systems will also greatly benefit from this technology. Finally, the technology can provide significant performance improvements for any low Reynolds number system suffering from laminar separation issues. Considering NASA's recent emphasis on Mars Exploratory aircraft and its designs for small Micro-UAV designs, the NASA commercial applications potential for the technology is excellent.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The enhanced active transition fixing technology will provide revolutionary performance for ultra low Reynolds number vehicles including Micro-UAVs and Mars Aircraft. Additionally, low Reynolds number propeller based propulsions systems will greatly benefit from this technology. Finally, the technology can provide significant performance improvements for any low Reynolds number system suffering from laminar separation issues. Considering the recent proliferation of small and Micro-UAVs designs, its commercialization potential is excellent. RHRC will be able to license the active transition fixing technology or provide a complete ultra low Reynolds number airfoil design or design services for customers.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A2.07-8829
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Revolutionary Flight Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Distributed Flight Controls for UAVs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618-2302
(609)538-0444

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Robert M. McKillip, Jr.
bob@continuum-dynamics.com
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618-2302
(609)538-0444

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Two novel flight control actuation concepts for UAV applications are proposed for research and development, both of which incorporate shape memory alloy (SMA) wires as prime movers. These actuators promise considerable savings in weight, power, and volume over existing electomechanical and hydraulic systems. Incorporation of these actuators within lifting surface structure, or as trailing edge control devices, would greatly simplify the actuation systems of these aircraft, thereby permitting greater payload fraction, increased range, enhanced robustness, and/or smaller vehicle size, and thus reduce both operational and fixed system costs. Choice between the two actuation concepts for a particular installation represents a tradeoff in actuation system bandwidth and power availability, and thus the same vehicle may include both systems depending upon the particular functional requirements. These actuators represent a derivative technology from a previous Army SBIR Phase I/II effort directed at providing in-flight helicopter blade tracking using actively controlled trailing edge tabs, and thus have been designed to have low mass and low power requirements from their inception. Since they lack any physical hinge joints, they may be embedded directly within aircraft lifting surfaces, eliminating interference drag associated with control deflection.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
NASA has a need for advanced control actuation and systems to support long endurance high-altitude UAV applications. This technology would help mitigate known issues with reduced aeroelastic stability of such high altitude platforms, as well as provide vehicle robustness (load alleviation) to atmospheric gusts. Its all-electric actuation and lack of moving parts (i.e., no discrete hinges) enhances the actuator's capability to support longer duration UAV missions planned by NASA for the future.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The actuators developed here could support DoD applications and commercial aircraft uses for UAV flight control and ancillary functions such as deploying flaps, landing gear and doors that house optics or weapons. They have a minimum number of moving parts, are extremely lightweight for the actuation stroke and force they provide, and utilize modest electrical power. In one configuration, electric power is only required to switch the actuator between discrete positions, making this actuator ideally suited for flap deployment and/or trim tab applications. These devices may also be used as auxiliary trim systems and flight control units for manned aircraft.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A2.07-8842
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Revolutionary Flight Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Vibrating Wingstroke Mechanism

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
FLUID FLOW TECHNOLOGIES, L.L.C.
4311 Valli Vista
Colorado Springs, CO 80915-1035
(719)591-7113

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Greg Glatzmaier
greg.glatzmaier@pcisys.net
4311 Valli Vista
Colorado Springs, CO 80915-1035
(719)591-7113

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposed work will develop a new method and mechanism for generating wing stroke motion of any shape and orientation. The mechanism will provide power, lift and flight control to small aircraft in a single integrated unit. The key innovation is the means by which wing motion is generated without the use any complex mechanical components. Wing motion of any shape and orientation can be generated with this mechanism. The arrangement of wings is such that the mechanism is mechanically balanced and exerts no net torque or force on the aircraft. This method is applicable to small UAVs (uninhabited aerial vehicles) and will provide them with a simple and reliable means of producing power, lift and flight control. The versatility of this mechanism is expected to provide UAVs with high maneuverability. This method will be most valuable for UAVs that are used as planetary aircraft as well as for general surveillance and reconnaissance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
This simple mechanism and electronics will result in long-term reliability, low manufacturing cost and a scalable design. Its mechanically balanced operation will provide a UAV platform which is capable of producing very stable and steady flight. This feature will be valuable for all applications including aerial imaging. Small-scale UAV designs will lead to a product that has low mass, volume, and power consumption. All of these features are of great value for use as planetary aircraft. This mechanism will also be a valuable research tool for flight testing UAV wings and studying the aerodynamics of insect flight.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Terrestrial markets for small UAV may become extensive. Military markets include surveillance, reconnaissance, positioning and targeting applications. Surveillance and reconnaissance applications extend to non-military markets including law enforcement. Private markets include a wide range of possibilities such as aerial access, inspection, and imaging of locations that are inaccessible to personnel within power plants, chemical plants, manufacturing facilities and other complex structures. The benefits that are provided by a small, maneuverable UAV could be of great value to a variety of manufacturing industries which use large and complex facilities.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A2.08-8819
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Modeling, Identification, and Simulation for Control of Aerospace Vehicles in Flight Test
PROPOSAL TITLE: Model Updating Nonlinear System Identification Toolbox

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Zona Technology Inc
7430 E. Stetson Drive, Suite 205
Scottsdale, AZ 85251-3540
(480)945-9988

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Dario H Baldelli
dario@zonatech.com
7430 E. Stetson Drive, Suite 205
Scottsdale, AZ 85251-3540
(480)945-9988

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ZONA Technology proposes to develop an enhanced model updating nonlinear system identification (MUNSID) methodology by adopting the flight data with state-of-the-art control oriented techniques. The end product is a flight data enhanced MUNSID/ZAERO toolbox for accurate predictions of flutter and limit cycle oscillation (LCO) instabilities.

The enhancement employs control oriented techniques, namely, model uncertainty, linear fractional transformation framework, mu-analysis and nonlinear operators identification, to adopt the emerging aeroelastic flight-test data. This toolbox augments the current match-point solution approach using the mu-analysis method with identified nonlinear operators. The procedure calls for ZAERO's high-fidelity linear aeroelastic model to be tuned quickly with available aeroelastic/aeroservoelastic, AE/ASE, flight data sets, while block-oriented models are used to highlight the underlying nonlinear structure of the AE/ASE system. This framework is capable of accounting for several nonlinearities including those due to aerodynamics, structures, control/actuator, and/or geometry. The toolbox will be used as the next-generation flutterometer to predict the onset of AE/ASE instabilities. Two case studies, simple and complex dynamic ASE systems, are proposed to validate and verified this advanced control-oriented concept. This enabling technology will be invaluable to the flight test community by extending the current industry modeling tools to include nonlinear operators identified from wind-tunnel/flight-test data.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
A model updating software tool for a general nonlinear AE/ASE system stability boundary prediction is still non-existent. NASA/DFRC has been working for many years towards achieving a software package that would predict the onset of AE/ASE instabilities with a high factor of safety for efficient envelope expansion. The proposed MUNSID/ZAERO toolbox is aimed at providing an expedient on-line prediction capability that integrates with current NASA procedures in the control room. The toolbox will be especially valuable during flight tests of the F/A-18 AAW, the F-15 IFF, the X-45 HyperX, the ERAST, and even future RevCon projects.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
ZONA's business plan for this toolbox will follow the existing ZAERO product/service strategy. The toolbox will be marketed towards the flight test applications on a wide class of aerospace vehicles: (a) USAF's UAV/UCAV, joint-wing sensor craft, (b) Next generation Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) with enhanced control/maneuver capability, (c) DARPA Morphing aircraft program, and (d) Boeing's 7E7 and executive jet designs of Cessna, Raytheon, etc. Potential customers for the MUNSID/ZAERO toolbox include engineers in the automotive, maritime, power system industry; and many others. Additionally, it can also be used to perform health management of flexible structures.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A2.08-9486
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Modeling, Identification, and Simulation for Control of Aerospace Vehicles in Flight Test
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reduction of Flight Control System/Structural Mode Interaction

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Stirling Dynamics Inc
4030 Lake Washington Blvd NE, Suite 205
Kirkland, WA 98033-7870
(425)827-7476

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Robert Stirling
rstirling@stirling-dynamics.com
4030 Lake Washington Blvd NE, Suite 205
Kirkland, WA 98033-7870
(425)827-7476

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A novel approach is proposed for reducing the degree of interaction of a high gain flight control system with the airframe structural vibration modes, representing a complete departure from the traditional approach of using notch filters. In principle it offers similar or better performance than notch filters, while not suffering from the attendant low frequency phase lag that has an adverse effect on pilot handling qualities. Structural mode interaction can be a significant problem in high performance aircraft and other aircraft with low frequency vibration modes. Use of notch filters requires a compromise to be reached between airframe structural stability and handling qualities. Successful application of the proposed method will relieve the flight control system designer of the need for managing this compromise and will allow the achievement of full potential system performance with better handling qualities. Basic feasibility has already been established and Phase I will broadened this to cover practical implementation issues and to define test evaluation plans. Phase II will extend the method into actual test evaluation, either by laboratory test or flight test, or both. Other possible applications such as aircraft active control systems and control of space structures will be considered during the research program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
NASA is involved in development of advanced FCS concepts for various manned and unmanned aircraft which require treatment of interaction between the FCS and aeroelastic characteristics. Structural mode interactions are exacerbated by the introduction of adaptive systems, so the proposed SBIR project is relevant to these projects. Flight test and evaluation phases will require consultancy on the implementation aspects of the method. Other NASA projects, e.g. control of space structures, are potential applications. Enhanced scope of application and functionality of the NASA STARS software represents another NASA sales opportunity. Approximately 50% of consultancy and software sales would be with NASA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
New aircraft projects, modifications and upgrades planned by military and commercial aircraft manufacturers are potential customers for future non-NASA sales of the proposed design method. Demand will arise from successful demonstration of FCS performance benefits from avoiding notch filters. Changes to an existing FCS are normally quite difficult for a range of practical considerations, including certification issues, suggesting that the avionics companies form another customer base. Applications in other industry sectors; space, robotics, civil machinery, etc., form a significant prospect for potential future revenues. Approximately 50% of future revenue from consultancy and software sales is anticipated from these non-NASA applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A2.08-9752
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Modeling, Identification, and Simulation for Control of Aerospace Vehicles in Flight Test
PROPOSAL TITLE: Unstructured Mesh Movement and Viscous Mesh Generation for CFD-Based Design Optimization

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
ResearchSouth Inc
555 Sparkman Dr Suite 1612
Huntsville, AL 35816-0000
(256)721-1769

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Dr. Lawrence W. Spradley
lws@hiwaay.net
555 Sparkman Dr Suite 1612
Huntsville, AL 35816-0000
(256)721-1769

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovations proposed by ResearchSouth are: 1) a robust method to automatically insert high quality anisotropic prismatic (viscous boundary layer) cells into any existing CFD mesh; and 2) a robust unstructured mesh movement method able to handle isotropic (Euler), anisotropic (viscous), and mixed element grids for CFD applications, particularly, CFD-based design optimization. ResearchSouth is proposing to develop efficient, design-oriented application software that will significantly impact the current practice of computational design and analysis of aerospace vehicles. The most overlooked?and arguably the most enabling?technical aspect associated with the rapidly maturing CFD-based design optimization is mesh movement, especially for high Reynolds number viscous flow applications. CFD analysis based on unstructured grid technology is becoming the preferred approach for flow analysis of geometrically complex configurations. However, in the area of mesh movement and viscous mesh generation, the unstructured grid arena has experienced near paralysis for several years. We are proposing research that will provide robust solutions to both of these challenges and, thus, will provide air vehicle designers access to the full potential of unstructured grid technologies for performing design optimization as well as highly efficient "what-if-and-reanalyze" geometric modifications.


POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
NASA applications include design optimization of new access to space vehicles, interface with multi-disciplinary software, and propulsion system optimization. Our software will add critical functionality to NASA-developed unstructured grid CFD software including the SAMdesign package just delivered by ResearchSouth to NASA Dryden. Since our proposed mesh methods are also applicable to structural finite element analyses, the various multidisciplinary analysis and optimization efforts at NASA can also use this meshing software.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
No commercial software currently exists that reliably and robustly handles unstructured mesh movement. The potential market for our software is very broad?our software can be used for fluid applications in the aerodynamic, automotive, biomedical, turbomachinery, and hydroelectric fields as well as for structural and electromagnetic applications. Each of these markets can immensely benefit from design optimization, provided that unstructured mesh movement and viscous mesh generation are no longer impediments.




PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A2.09-9732
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Sensors and Airborne Instruments for Flight Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Point Coupled Displacement Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Engineering Acoustics
933 Lewis Drive Suite C
Winter Park, FL 32789-0000
(407)645-5444

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Bruce J. P. Mortimer
bmort@eaiinfo.com
933 Lewis Drive Suite C
Winter Park, FL 32789-2261
(407)645-5444

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Real-time displacement measurement techniques are needed to acquire aerodynamic and structural system characteristics in flight. This proposal describes the development of a new type of position sensor which we have termed a Point Coupled Sensor (PCS). This sensor is able to detect the position of a target, typically a small piece of metal or magnetic material, in one or two dimensions. The one dimensional (1-D) or linear embodiment of the sensor is similar in function to the well-known linear variable differential transformer (LVDT). In this configuration, it is anticipated that the PCS will provide similar measurement accuracies, but with significant cost, size and weight reduction. This makes the PCS especially attractive for use in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV's) and other applications where size and weight are important. The PCS approach can also be implemented as a two-dimensional (2-D) sensor, which may facilitate the measurement of complex surfaces, and holds promise for many new and evolving UAV and aircraft applications such as aeroelastic wings and measuring the position of swept surfaces or moving panels. The PCS two-dimensional concept also offers the potential to introduce novel surface sensor measurement functionality and could conceivably be fabricated within the composite aircraft structure.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Displacement sensing is prevalent on all aircraft platforms. Various sensors are applied to a multitude of functions including: Flight controls, control surfaces and actuators, landing gear, munitions, speed brake doors, brake and steering systems, fuel and engine controls, environmental controls. The PCS technology described in this proposal is especially well suited to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Space Flight where weight is of primary concern.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Second to temperature measurement, displacement is the most widely measured analogue parameter in both industrial and laboratory settings. Current LVDT sensors are a mature technology in widespread in use, with a market in the USA on the order of US$ 250 million p.a. The proposed PCS technology is believed to be superior to LVDT's in every respect and further offers the potential for flexible and planar configurations. As such, it could replace existing technology in a variety of commercial and industrial applications such as industrial tooling and measurement, and a variety of scientific devices, as well as extend capability into new applications demanding compact, lightweight, high accuracy displacement sensors.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A3.01-7836
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Next Generation Air-Traffic Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Agent-based simulation and assessment of NAS Security and Safety

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2785
(301)294-5200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Vikram Manikonda
vikram@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2785
(301)294-5245

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The key innovation proposed here is the use of agent-based modeling and simulation to evaluate the safety of the National Airspace under crisis operations and develop tools for real-time planning, scheduling, and resource allocation decision aids for crisis management. We view the problem as one of simulating and controlling the emergent behavior of autonomous agents (aircraft and air traffic service providers in this case) in crisis situations. We propose to use NASA's agent-based Airspace Concept Evaluation System as the modeling framework into which we will integrate our models. We propose to evaluate the impacts of these malicious agents on the safety of NAS by using simulation to assess short term and long term NAS-wide safety impacts in terms of loss of separation, near misses, collisions, re-routes, controller workload, and economic impacts. The agent-based system will provide a real-time planning, scheduling, and resource allocation decision aid to be used for crisis management, by providing the user capabilities to develop and execute playbooks that represent various policies. Finally, we propose to develop safety metrics that will provide command center traffic management coordinators indicators to predict off-nominal activities in the airspace.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Our primary customers for this effort will be NASA. Following September 11, 2001, NASA has recognized the need for shared responsibility for improving homeland security. A successful Phase I effort will result in a modeling, simulation and decision support tool that will enable policy makers to use simulation to evaluate and assess impacts of possible threats to the NAS, and develop strategies to reduce vulnerability. Specify benefits will be to bale to assess system-wide security risk assessment and incident precursor identification. The simulation tool with its associated metrics will also enable policy makes to evaluate economic impacts of safety policies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The simulation system developed in this effort can be adapted and modified for military for use in simulation war-gaming scenarios. The proposed technology can also be adapted to developed crowd management strategies in crisis settings.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A3.01-8498
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Next Generation Air-Traffic Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation Tool

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Mosaic ATM, Inc.
1190 Hawling Pl
Leesburg, VA 20175-5084
(703)737-7637

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Chris Brinton
brinton@mosaicatm.com
1190 Hawling Pl
Leesburg, VA 20175-5084
(703)737-7637

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Surface Management System (SMS), developed by NASA Ames Research Center in cooperation with the FAA, has received wide and significant acceptance by the air transportation community. The SMS utilizes flight plan data and airport surface surveillance data to track and model the operation of flights on the airport surface. Predictions of flight arrival and departure times from specific runways are generated by SMS. SMS provides these predictions of future airport operations to numerous airport, ATC and air carrier users to create shared situational awareness. NASA continues to conduct advanced research on airport surface traffic management concepts and tools. Fundamental research in this area has been very difficult to conduct in the past, however, due to the lack of electronic data representing airport surface operations. With the current deployment of airport surface surveillance systems, such data is now becoming available. This effort proposes the creation of a surface operations data warehouse and analysis tool for effective analysis and understanding of airport surface operations. Data mining capabilities will support research of taxi routing, sequencing and congestion management strategies used by air traffic controllers. Such a tool will also provide significant benefit in the SMS adaptation process.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation (SODAA) tool proposed herein will support NASA's advanced research into airport surface operations and decision support tools. Previous NASA efforts in the development of advanced decision support tools have benefited greatly from deep understanding of the ATC operation. Through data warehousing and data mining capabilities, the proposed SODAA tool will provide the infrastructure and information necessary for NASA researchers and other industry analysts to achieve this level of knowledge and understanding of the airport surface ATC operation. Additional tools will support the creation, validation and maintenance of SMS adaptation data.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Air carriers conduct analyses of airport surface operations in an attempt to reduce costly delays, but current information sources lack sufficient detail. A significant market exists for a commercial analysis product for air carriers. Mosaic ATM maintains close working relationships with numerous air carriers and is well positioned to obtain commercial funding to develop and implement tools to help optimize the daily air carrier operation. Note that FedEx and Northwest airlines already use SMS as an integral part of their daily operation for Memphis, and UPS will begin to use SMS as part of their operation for Louisville shortly.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A3.01-8856
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Next Generation Air-Traffic Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Network Centric Transponders for Airspace Integration of UAVs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
KALSCOTT ENGINEERING, INC.
3226 SW Timberlake Ln.
Topeka, KS 66614-4515
(785)856-3222

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Tom Sherwood
tom.sherwood@kalscott.com
3226 SW Timberlake Ln.
Topeka, KS 66614-4515
(785)979-1113

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The need for a small, lightweight, remotely-operable transponder for UAVs is identified. This would allow integration of UAVs into the national airspace while providing an equivalent level of safety during operations as manned aircraft. A network-centric, integrated transponder and altitude encoder is proposed to meet this need. Phase I includes device design and bench top testing of system components. Phase II includes design refinement, prototype fabrication, and comprehensive flight testing of the device in KalScott's UAV.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The transponder can be incorporated into NASA's Access5 effort to integrate UAVs into the national airspace safely. NASA currently flies several UAVs on earth science missions. This transponder can be applied to those vehicles. This transponder can be used on contractor-provided UAVs as well for NASA missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The transponder can be used for airspace integration of UAVs. Such vehicles are now increasingly used for homeland security, science, civilian, and homeland security missions.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A3.01-9231
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Next Generation Air-Traffic Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Revolutionary Wake Hazard Assessment Tool

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618-2302
(609)538-0444

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Todd R. Quackenbush
todd@continuum-dynamics.com
34 Lexington Avenue
Ewing, NJ 08618-2302
(609)538-0444

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Continuum Dynamics, Inc. (CDI) has developed a Multiple Aircraft Simulation Tool (MAST) that revolutionizes the ability to predict and assess wake interactions associated with multiple aircraft operating in the vicinity of one another. This tool incorporates CDI's state-of-the-art free-vortex wake modeling methods and aircraft wake diffusion and dissipation models within established flight simulation technology. This new technology is ideally suited to support the U.S. air traffic management system in evaluating methods to safely improve operational efficiency. The proposed effort is to enhance and repackage this technology in a manner targeted directly toward modeling "series" and "parallel" fixed (and rotary) wing aircraft approach patterns. The large body of recent data obtained from field tests and advanced CFD will be utilized to provide a new level of accuracy and efficiency in the prediction of the influence of turbulence, wind shear, stratification and ground effect on vortex wake evolution and decay. The final tool will be unprecedented in its range of application, accuracy and ease of use in modeling the wake interactions of multiple fixed wing and rotary-wing aircraft operating in a terminal area environment and will be ideal for planning and evaluating NASA's multiple corridor and simultaneous non-interference operational concepts.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed analysis would extend NASA's ability to evaluate potential air traffic patterns from the viewpoint of wake hazard. The tool would assist greatly in design and evaluation of new operational concepts, reducing or eliminating the need for expensive flight tests while providing a means for assessing pilot workload. The tool will be particularly useful in evaluating potential multiple corridor air traffic patterns and simultaneous non-interfering operations made possible with the implementation of NASA's WakeVAS system. This has the potential to provide a significant increase in airport capacity which is one of NASA's most important strategic objectives.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed tool will be of great use to the FAA and U.S. airports as well as NASA, as new air traffic patterns and operation procedures are evaluated in terms of safety and increased capacity. Coupling of a real-time version of the analysis into the Air Traffic Management (ATM) system could lead to improved predictions and display of wake hazard conditions. The tool would also be useful to aircraft manufacturers in assessing the impact of aircraft design on wake hazard issues as well as to contractors designing upgraded wake safety crew advisory systems.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 A3.01-9608
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Next Generation Air-Traffic Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Airport Surface Automation in the Absence of Surface Surveillance

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Metron Aviation, Inc.
131 Elden Street, Suite 200
Herndon, VA 20170-4758
(703)456-0123

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Laurel Stell
stell@metronaviation.com
131 Elden Street, Suite 200
Herndon, VA 20170-4758
(703)456-0123

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There is a very large variation in the difference between scheduled and actual flight arrival and departure times, which results in a high degree of uncertainty in the airport demand. Consequently, there is a great need for tools that provide awareness of both the current and predicted future situation. The Surface Management System (SMS) developed by NASA Ames has partially addressed this need; but both its display and its modeling currently assume that the locations of aircraft on the airport surface will be provided by surface surveillance. In this SBIR, Metron Aviation will study the prediction of airport demand with varying levels of surface surveillance. The Phase 1 objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of predicting, with limited or no surface surveillance, flight OOOI times accurately enough to enable airport surface automation. In Phase 2, we will investigate decision support display designs appropriate for the lack of surveillance and evaluate them at Atlanta.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
NASA could use the product of Phase 2 to adapt the Surface Management System (SMS) to airports that do not have surface surveillance. SMS currently requires accurate positions, matched to flight numbers, for aircraft near or on the airport surface. Without complete surface surveillance, SMS requires changes to both its model and displays, and this effort will provide solutions for this need. Furthermore, some developments from the proposed work may also increase the benefit of SMS even when there is surface surveillance data or when surface surveillance coverage is sporadic or missing in only part of the airport.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The FAA is investigating the deployment of a system with surface management functionality at the 30 top airports. Since not all these airports are on the ASDE-X waterfall, this system will require the model enhancements from this SBIR. Output from this system is expected to be available to airlines, so they would be interested in the decision support tools developed under this funding. ETMS could also use the output to replace its predicted takeoff times. For airports without this system, ETMS might incorporate the taxi time prediction algorithms to replace its estimates based on recent historical data.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B1.01-8892
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Exploiting Gravitational Effects for Combustion, Fluids, Synthesis, and Vibration Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: CMOS-MEMS Microgravity Accelerometer with High-Precision DC Response

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Evigia Systems Inc.
2805 Windwood Dr. #10
Ann Arbor, MI 48105-1487
(734)302-1140

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Navid Yazdi
nyazdi@evigia.com
2805 Windwood Dr. #10
Ann Arbor, MI 48105-1487
(734)302-1140

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase I SBIR effort initiates development of a high-sensitivity low-noise all-silicon CMOS-MEMS accelerometer for quasi-steady measurements of accelerations at sub 1 micro-g levels. The accelerometer module includes integrated low-noise CMOS circuitry with active offset and low-frequency noise cancellation to enable high-precision DC measurements. The high-performance of the sensor is enabled by innovation in both MEMS accelerometer and readout circuit technologies: i) Single-crystalline silicon capacitive accelerometer structure. The device has high sensitivity and low thermo-mechanical noise; ii) Innovative high-yield fabrication process that enables formation of high-sensitivity devices on top of CMOS wafers; iii) New and improved low-noise capacitive sensor readout CMOS circuit. This novel microaccelerometer has several NASA applications including measurement of residual accelerations on spacecraft and ground-based low-gravity facilities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed CMOS-MEMS accelerometer will reduce the size, mass, power requirements and cost of the instruments for measuring the residual accelerations on spacecraft or in ground-based low-gravity facilities. By using innovative device and circuit technologies the proposed MEMS sensor can resolve sub micro-g quasi-static accelerations as solicited by GRC and MSFC under topic B1.01 (Exploiting Gravitational Effects for Combustion, Fluids, Synthesis, and Vibration Technology). Also this device can be employed for space platform stabilization, and miniature self-contained or GPS-augmented navigation systems for micro-satellites, spacecrafts, aircrafts, and ground vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
High precision accelerometers with micro-g sensitivity have several non-NASA applications including self-contained and GPS-augmented navigation and guidance systems, oil-exploration and earthquake prediction, tilt measurements, and underwater acoustic measurements. The impact of low cost, small, high-performance micromachined accelerometers in these applications is not just limited to reducing overall size, cost and weight. It opens up new market opportunities such as personal navigators for consumer applications, and it enhances the overall accuracy and performance of the systems by making formation of large arrays of devices feasible (i.e. large sensor arrays for oil and gas exploration).


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B1.01-9908
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Exploiting Gravitational Effects for Combustion, Fluids, Synthesis, and Vibration Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Performance Fire Detector for Spacecraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Vista Photonics, Inc.
67 Condesa Road
Santa Fe, NM 87508-8136
(505)466-3953

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Jeffrey S Pilgrim
jpilgrim@vistaphotonics.com
67 Condesa Road
Santa Fe, NM 87508-8136
(505)466-3953

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The danger from fire aboard spacecraft is immediate with only moments for detection and suppression. Spacecraft are unique high-value systems where the cost of failure is measured in lives and dollars. Space crews have little or no chance to escape vessels on fire. It is imperative to detect the onset of combustion in microgravity at the earliest possible moment. Present fire detectors onboard spacecraft are inadequate due to sensitivity, time response, or both. Smoke detectors are insufficient for detecting the early stages of combustion, sensors are needed to detect the products of combustion directly. These sensors must meet stringent size, weight and power requirements. Vista Photonics proposes to develop rugged, compact fire detection instrumentation capable of selectively and simultaneously measuring the combustion species HCN, acetylene, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide at parts-per-million (ppm) or better sensitivities in a 1 Hz bandwidth. The enabling technology for meeting NASA's stringent mission requirements is a new rugged, compact, and lightweight optical path length enhancement cell that recovers the theoretical sensitivity of proven high-performance optical absorption detection techniques.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed technology, if successful, will find application in fire detection on high-value systems, especially spacecraft. Fire detection applications extend to aircraft and some buildings. The technology will be a general trace gas detection technique with applications in spacecraft habitability, air revitalization, waste processing, and plant production facilities during long-duration space flight.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The technology will find application in trace gas monitoring in chemical process streams. Human breath-based diagnostics of specific pathologies. Environmental monitoring and regulatory compliance in industrial settings.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B1.03-8694
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials Science for In-Space Fabrication and Radiation Protection
PROPOSAL TITLE: Improved Lunar and Martian Regolith Simulant Production

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Orbital Technologies Corp
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717-1961
(608)827-5000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Marty A Gustafson
gustafsonm@orbitec.com
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717-1961
(608)827-5000

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's new exploration initiative created immediate need for materials science and technology research to enable safe human travel and work on future lunar or Martian long-duration missions. To conduct this research, NASA must have lunar and Martian regolith simulant for materials experiments and prototype testing of transportation equipment, advanced life support systems, and in situ resource processing. This SBIR will conduct a feasibility study on a new generation of lunar and Martian simulants with improved composition and mineralogical analysis. For lunar regolith, Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) proposes to recreate the JSC-1 material and study post-production processes to add additional percentages of glass particles to improve composition. A study to assess the feasibility of creating a lunar highlands-type simulant will also be conducted. For Martian regolith, ORBITEC will mine the raw material for the JSC Mars-1 simulant with an improved extraction process to avoid the contamination of the soil that resulted in the non-Martian magnetic component. Additional grain-size particles will also be prepared and combined with the material to improve its grain-size distribution comparison. These innovations combined with the well-documented and received original JSC-1 and Mars-1 source materials will produce simulants that will assist NASA on its future exploration quest.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Materials science and technology research is crucial for safe human travel and work on future lunar or Martian long-duration missions. NASA needs the development of techniques and processes for in-space fabrication of critical path components for the exploration of space. To conduct this research, NASA must have lunar and Martian regolith simulant for materials experiments and prototype testing of transportation equipment, advanced life support systems, and in situ resource processing. The demand for these simulants is increasing daily. ORBITEC has already compiled a list of interested NASA scientists and engineers who have requested samples as soon as it becomes available.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
One of the most impressive outcomes of the past lunar and Martian regolith simulant production was its tremendous appeal for education and outreach. Educational supply companies purchased the material for educator kits and teacher workshops, and companies have already expressed interest in new simulant for classroom plant growth kits as well. In addition to education, the success of the Spirit and Opportunity rovers combined with NASA's ambitious exploration plans have energized the country's interest in space. A market for space souvenirs and display items is developing. Simulants neatly packaged for display or children's toys could be launched immediately after production.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B1.03-9074
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials Science for In-Space Fabrication and Radiation Protection
PROPOSAL TITLE: Intercalated and Hydrogenated Carbon Nanofibers for Multifunctional Radiation Protection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Applied Sciences Inc
141 W. Xenia Ave. PO Box 579
Cedarville, OH 45314-0579
(937)766-2020

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Michael Matuszewski
matuszewski@apsci.com
141 W. Xenia Ave. PO Box 579
Cedarville, OH 45314-0579
(937)766-2020

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Improvements in radiation shielding materials are needed to support NASA's human and robotic exploration programs. Shielding for both electromagnetic radiation (gamma and x-rays) and particles (protons and neutrons) are critical. Ideally, the shielding should be part of a multifunctional, structural composite material to maximize mission payload. To meet this need, ASI will develop structural composites enhanced by novel carbon nanofiber (CNF) materials. One version is CNF whose hollow cores are filled with heavy elements for electromagnetic by a novel intercalation technique. Another is hydrogenated CNF for particle shielding. The enhanced CNF will then be included in the resin of a standard carbon fiber reinforced structural composites where they will add radiation blocking functionality and enhance strength properties. In addition, the intercalated nanofibers will be compounded into polyethylene, a known proton absorber, to create a shielding material that simultaneously blocks all relevant forms of radiation. Materials will be tested for gamma, x-ray, and proton shielding, as well as multifunctional structural and electrical properties.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed technology would have application as multifunctional shielding-structural components in a variety of NASA missions requiring radiation hardening for electronics or radiation protection for humans. The Phase I team has an existing relationship with Northrop Grumman who has expressed an interest in this technology and possible in-house research efforts. During the course of the Phase I effort, the Phase I team will solidify a working relationship with Northrop Grumman, and work to define a specific NASA platform or program in which to demonstrate the new technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Applications in the commercial aerospace sector are comparable to those for NASA, though with a greater focus on radiation hardening for electronics.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B1.03-9315
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials Science for In-Space Fabrication and Radiation Protection
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multifunctional Carbon Nanotube/Polyethylene Complex Composites for Space Radiation Shielding

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
ZYVEX CORPORATION
1321 N. Plano Road
Richardson, TX 75081-2426
(972)235-7881

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Dr. Jian Chen
jchen@zyvex.com
1321 North Plano Road
Richardson, TX 75081-2426
(972)235-7881

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Polyethylene (PE), due to its high hydrogen content relative to its weight, has been identified by NASA as a promising radiation shielding material against galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), due to their small diameter, high-mechanical strength, and high-electrical and thermal conductivity, are recognized as the ultimate carbon fibers for high performance, multifunctional composites. Prior studies failed to produce the CNT/polymer composites that fully exploit nanotubes' outstanding mechanical, electrical and thermal properties because of poor dispersion of nanotubes in polymer matrices and poor adhesion between nanotubes and the polymer matrix,. Zyvex has developed a versatile and non-damaging chemical platform that allows us to engineer specific nanotube surface properties to permit homogeneous dispersion of nanotubes in various solvents and polymer matrices, and enables the significantly enhanced adhesion between nanotubes and the polymer matrix. The major innovation of our technical approach is to marry these two outstanding materials using Zyvex's chemical platform technology to produce a novel CNT/PE complex composite that not only has high radiation shielding performance, but also has high mechanical strength, high electrical conductivity, and improved thermal stability. Multifunctional CNT/PE complex composite will find broad applications in shielding humans in spacecrafts and habitats.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
?Lightweight, multifunctional structural components for aerospace transportation vehicles that will enable increased radiation shielding, increased strength and longevity, improved energy efficiency, and improved vehicle payload mass to lift-off mass ratios.
?Multifunctional structural components for the space structures (examples include space stations, orbiters, landers, rovers, habitats, etc.) that combine strength and radiation shielding.
?Components for liquid hydrogen tank.
?Components and coatings for deep space power systems, and in-space manufacturing and repairing.
?Advanced materials for fabrics and coatings used in space suits and other space applications.
?Coatings and bonding agents for high-value components and equipment (examples include EMI shielding materials, ESD protection, ultra-strong adhesives, and conductive coatings for aerospace systems and components).
?Composites for satellite armor.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
?Space and aerospace crafts and habitats for commercial space travel.
?Components for particle accelerators and nuclear reactors.
?Radioactive chemical, biological and nuclear waste containment vessels.
?Advanced materials for medical applications such as fabrication of prostheses and splints.
?Structural components for high-value civilian transportation applications (for example, more extensive use of composites for airframes, helicopter rotors, and skins).
?Lightweight, multifunctional materials for soldier uniforms, armor, and helmets.
?Professional sports and leisure equipment such as golf clubs, fishing rods, and tennis equipment.
?Advanced flywheels capable of significantly higher rotational speeds
?Materials for competitive yachting and car racing


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B1.03-9485
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials Science for In-Space Fabrication and Radiation Protection
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microwave Materials Processing for Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
RWBruce Associates Inc.
1594 Chickasaw Rd.
Arnold, MD 21012-2526
(443)822-3605

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Ralph W. Bruce
rwbruce@ieee.org
1594 Chickasaw Rd.
Arnold, MD 21012-2526
(443)822-3605

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
For a space-based fabrication effort to be effective, the weight, power requirements and footprint must be minimized. Because of the unique beam forming properties at the millimeter-wave frequency of 83 GHz, a compact and efficient materials heating system can be devised that can satisfy this need. To date, microwave and millimeter-wave based systems for materials processing have been developed only for terrestrially based manufacturing operations. The purpose of this SBIR proposal is to begin the development and to perform proof-of-concept tasks to demonstrate the feasibility of the microwave approach to space-based materials processing. Current conventional heating technology requires the heating of the complete volume of the furnace in order to achieve the temperatures necessary to perform a fabrication activity. This is typically a slow and energy intensive process. At 83 GHz, technology is available that can focus a multi-kilowatt beam into an area of 4 cm2 or smaller. Based upon the absorptive capability of the material, this may result in a temperature rise of several hundred degC/min which is confined to the immediate area of beam impingement. The result is one of putting the energy where it is needed to perform the task (e.g., ceramic joining, glass melting) more effectively.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
NASA's need to construct radiation shielding, pressure vessels, storage containers, habitat structures, roadways, pathways and work surfaces, on the Moon or Mars, relies on In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). NASA thus requires efficient technologies that will allow for in-space fabrication of needed structural and functional materials such as ceramics and ceramic composites. Millimeter-wave processing technology is an enabling one that should help reduce significantly the space requirements (i.e., footprint) needed to set-up a high-temperature materials processing facility.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The joining of high-purity ceramic materials is a continuing challenge. A recent project focused on the joining of precision ceramics to be used in an advanced accelerator design for the Department of Energy. This project demonstrated that millimeter-wave processing is advantageous to this type of application. Although this is a niche, it is indicative of its commercial potential. Also, the ability to join advanced ceramics in specific well-defined areas without significantly heating the surrounding material will find widespread use. Additionally, the ability to join at high temperatures while using low-temperature fixturing is a significant advancement of ceramic joining technology.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B1.04-7717
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Bioscience and Engineering
PROPOSAL TITLE: Understanding and Mitigating Adverse Health Effects in Space Using A System Physiology Software

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
CFD Research Corp
215 Wynn Dr.
Huntsville, AL 35805-1926
(256)726-4800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
S. Krishnamoorthy
jls@cfdrc.com
215 Wynn Dr.
Huntsville, AL 35805-1926
(256)726-4858

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's vision for Space Exploration aims for human interplanetary missions that have significant challenges on crew health and safety including fluid shifts, and post-flight orthostatic intolerance. A predictive software tool that advances the understanding of underlying biofluid dynamics is critical to affordably analyzing and designing protective systems and countermeasures. CFDRC proposes to develop such software that will enable new insights and techniques to significantly increase the knowledge base through simulations and dramatically increase the leverage of limited in-flight cardiovascular investigations. In Phase I, we seek to develop an innovative network-based System Physiology Software tool, leveraging an ongoing NASA funded lab-on-a-chip system design effort. In the proof-of-concept study, a physiologically relevant component network representing elements of the human circulatory system will be assembled in a user-friendly GUI environment. This network, interfaced with high-fidelity multiphysics software (CFD-ACE+) will be solved for detailed analysis of local hemodynamic stresses on vascular endothelial cell structure, and compute microgravity effects on fluid shift. In Phase II, component models will be refined with detailed representation for arterial, venous and lymphatic effects, along with incorporation of metabolite transport and baroreflex models. Interface to systems biology models (cellular regulatory networks) will also be developed. CFDRC is the technology leader in multiscale biological simulations and very well placed to successfully undertake this challenging task of delivering System Physiology Software to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed software will allow NASA decision makers to implement knowledge-based (as opposed to ad-hoc or empirical) practices and deploy preventive/protective measures against adverse health effects due to space environment on system physiology. The software will provide detailed understand of several problems including fluid shift, post-flight orthostatic intolerance, muscle atrophy, hematology, etc. Interfacing the software with high-fidelity or systems biology software will enable (Digital Astronaut) studies to understand gravity-mediated tissue stresses, effect of mechanical stresses on various cellular processes, which lead to a better understating of the impact of low-gravity conditions on human health.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Computational modeling of hemodynamics in cardiovascular systems is a useful means for predictive medicine, which may be implemented in a form of Computation-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) and/or Computation-Aided Surgery (CAS). Home, clinical and pharmaco diagnostic systems (combined multi-billion dollar market) are increasingly being used to assist in the diagnosis, disease management and drug discovery. A software platform that can interpret the raw sensor data in order to accurately assess the patient's current health status will be of significant benefit to public health. In addition, the software will also provide a multiscale simulation environment for the design and optimization of several biomedical devices.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B1.04-8635
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Bioscience and Engineering
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultrahigh resolution 3-dimensional imaging

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Southwest Sciences Inc
1570 Pacheco St Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505-3993
(505)984-1322

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Kristen Peterson
peterson@swsciences.com
1570 Pacheco St Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505-3993
(505)984-1322

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Southwest Sciences proposes to develop innovative instrumentation for the rapid, 3-dimensional imaging of biological tissues with cellular resolution. Our approach is a variant of optical coherence tomography that will use a very small, low power and compact white light source to provide 2 micrometer or better image resolution. This device will enable NASA researchers to non-invasively study the structure of living, functioning tissues and cells. The instrumentation is based on a compact, low cost, low power white light source and can be designed for operation in spaced-based laboratories.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Applications of interest to NASA are studies of cells and tissues of animals and plants grown in micro-gravity, studies of cells exposed to space stresses such as micro-gravity and radiation and studies of cell functioning in response to environmental or physiological stresses. In addition, this technology can be applied to micro-gravity developmental biology studies, such as inner ear development in xenopus tadpoles or zebra fish model organisms.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
A rapid, high resolution 3-dimensional optical imaging method will have important commercial applications in clinical and biomedical research including detection of cancerous and precancerous tissues, imaging of venous and arterial structures, optical biopsy and microsurgery guidance. This technology can be incorporated into endoscopes, catheters and similar devices for in vivo applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B2.01-7689
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Understanding and Utilizing Gravitational Effects on Plants and Animals
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Performance Fiber-Optic Sensor for Environmental Monitoring

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Los Gatos Research
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041-1518
(650)965-7772

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
An-Dien Nguyen
a.d.nguyen@lgrinc.com
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041-1518
(650)965-3459

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop a low-cost, compact, lightweight, rugged and easy-to-use environmental monitoring optical fiber sensor device based on the principle of cavity-enhanced absorption technique. This novel instrument will record concentration measurements of multiple gases including CO and CO2 with ultrahigh sensitivity, stability, and accuracy in real time with low power consumption and without external calibration. By increasing the measurement sensitivity of CO and CO2, the proposed device will allow reliable, gravity-independent monitoring of ecological stability in environments at arbitrary gravity range. In Phase I, LGR will develop and test the prototype fiber-optic-based ICOS device and algorithm that can simultaneously measure CO and CO2 with state of the art accuracy, specificity, repeatability, and sensitivity. The compact sensor device will measure both CO and CO2 concentrations in air with an uncertainty of less than 1 part in 1000 in less than 30 seconds, and require no calibration or reference gas. In Phase II LGR will construct a field deployable device optimized for this application. We will demonstrate the unit's inherent stability, ruggedness and performance in the field at a facility to be specified.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Optical fiber sensor technology offers significant advantages for advanced aerospace platforms because they are low cost, lightweight, compact, environmently rugged, insensitive to harsh environment, and consumes low power. Combined with a cavity enhanced absorption technique, the fiber sensor offers ultrahigh sensitivity for chemical detection applications such as environmental monitoring in air, liquid, or solids systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed fiber-based ICOS sensors may be applied to a wide range of chemical, biochemical, biological, and environmental monitoring applications such as industrial real-time monitoring, medical diagnostics, industrial process control, and atmospheric research.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B2.01-8002
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Understanding and Utilizing Gravitational Effects on Plants and Animals
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact, High Accuracy CO2 Monitor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
NOVAWAVE TECHNOLOGIES
230A Twin Dolphin Drive
Redwood City, CA 94065-1411
(650)610-0956

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Joshua Paul
jbpaul@novawavetech.com
230A Twin Dolphin Drive
Redwood City, CA 94065-1411
(650)610-0956

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I proposal seeks to develop a low cost, robust, highly precise and accurate CO2 monitoring system. This system will employ a novel mid-infrared laser source, which will be demonstrated during Phase I and integrated into a bench-scale laboratory instrument to perform CO2 concentration measurements. The results of these tests will demonstrate the precision and accuracy of the approach, and will be used to determine specifications for the Phase II instrument. The Phase I research will identify COTS sources for the system subcomponents of the Phase II prototype, which can potentially modified for the detection of other target species such as CO2 isotopes, methane, and CO. Commercial systems based on the Phase II prototype will be refined and marketed during Phase III.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
NASA's Fundamental Biology Program seeks to improve our understanding of gravitational effects on plants and animals. The success of this proposal will directly impact this effort by providing compact fieldable CO2 analyzers with the requisite precision and accuracy to aid this effort. Additionally, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise has taken a lead role in understanding Earth's atmospheric dynamics. In particular, to better understand climate change and global warming, a more detailed knowledge of carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is required. The success of this effort will directly impact this area as well.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The worldwide market for low cost, high precision CO2 monitors is quite large due to the need to monitor greenhouse gas emissions and enforce world-wide emissions standards. Other commercial arenas for the technology include trace gas monitoring, pollution monitoring, and industrial process monitoring.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B2.03-8663
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Understanding and Utilizing Gravitational Effects on Molecular Biology and for Medical Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Single Electron Transistor Platform for Microgravity Proteomics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
QUANTUM LOGIC DEVICES
7801 North Lamar, Suite B-161
Austin ,TX 78752 - 1017
(512) 302 - 5030

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Louis   Brousseau
lou@quantumlogicdevices.com
7801 North Lamar, Suite B-161
Austin, TX  78752 -1017
(512) 302 - 5030

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Proteomic studies in microgravity are crucial to understanding the health effects of spaceflight on astronauts. Unfortunately, existing tools for measuring protein, antibody, and enzyme expression are limited to earth-borne laboratories due to their complexity and size. This proposal offers a novel technology that provides a palm-top platform suitable for real-time experiments on the Space Shuttle or International Space Station. The technology uses nanoelectronic transistors coupled to antibody bioprobes to provide a label-free "direct detection" system that is rapid and easy to use with minimal skill. The system is completely self-contained, including all reagents and waste products, and operated from a PDA-style handheld computer. Phase I will demonstrate the detection concept and Phase II will deliver prototype units for testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed endpoint of this program is a handheld bioassay system that would be ideally suited for all biomedical research and diagnostic needs of current and future space missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Point of care and telemedical diagnostics are the most rapidly growing segment of the medical testing market, for which this technology would be ideally suited.



PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B2.03-9148
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Understanding and Utilizing Gravitational Effects on Molecular Biology and for Medical Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Nanodroplet Processor for Advanced Microencapsulated Drug Formulations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Nanotrope, Inc.
2033 Cambridge Ave
Cardiff, CA 92007-1707
(760)942-0301

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Donald Ackley
donackley@cox.net
2033 Cambridge Ave
Cardiff, CA 92007-1707
(949)697-7195

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of this proposal is to provide a demonstration of a nanodroplet synthesis of multifunctional liposomes for drug delivery based on immiscible microfluidics processing. In this initial study, the functionality of the liposomes will include (1) the surface functionalized particles for targeting specific cells and (2) the protected packaging of protein therapeutics that may be released upon specific binding of the liposome to a targeted cell. This goal will be accomplished using nanodroplet technology that exploits the properties of immiscible fluids to transform continuous fluid streams into highly monodispersed, isolated droplets with tight control of droplet size and generation rate. The nanoparticles are formed at room temperature with low pressure and shear forces to prevent the denaturation of protein drugs, which will be important for the treatment of major diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Since cells rapidly uptake nanoparticles with sizes less than 500 nm, the major objective for this proposal is demonstrate highly monodisperse particles in this regime. Furthermore, we anticipate that producing such particles in a microgravity environment will lead to an improved fundamental understanding of droplet formation itself and to the production of homogeneously distributed therapeutics in a perfectly spherical nano-particle.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications for the nanodroplet technology are for space medicine. The need for highly effective therapeutics and neutriceuticals are important for astronaut health, especially on long duration missions. Such a technology would provide an individualized approach to space medicine that is tailored to each crew member. The prospects of a technology that is capable of programmable drug dosage 'on-the-fly' that may be readily integrated into a drug delivery platform would be an attractive approach for preventative and high performance measures. The nanodroplet technology may be utilized for treating illnesses, traumatic events and psychological disorders on long term missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The Nanotrope targeted drug particles have the potential to successfully target drugs to specific cells in the human body with a high success rate. The technology provides a compact device that is capable of titrating particle compositions on demand, which can allow specific protocols for individual patients to be used, according to the response to initial treatment. In addition, the drug particles are delivered using inexpensive microfluidic devices that are readily adapted to conventional devices such as syringes or inhalers. Thus, we anticipate the facilitated integration of our on-demand, monodisperse drug formulation technology with a reduced time to market.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B3.01-8041
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Control of Spacecraft Cabin Atmosphere
PROPOSAL TITLE: Heat Pipe Heat Exchangers with Double Isolation Layers for Prevention of Interpath Leakage

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc.
1046 New Holland Avenue
Lancaster, PA 17601-5688
(717)295-6061

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
David Sarraf
dave.sarraf@1-ACT.com
1046 New Holland Ave.
Lancaster, PA 17601-5668
(717)295-6059

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Current manned spacecraft heat rejection systems use two heat exchangers and an intermediate fluid loop to provide isolation between the crew compartment air and the exterior fluid loop. Isolation is required because the fluids used are either toxic or can cause suffocation. The extra hardware doubles the mass of the system, consumes more power, and reduces reliability. Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc., supported by Hamilton Sundstrand, proposes to use a heat pipe heat exchanger to provide two levels of isolation between the two fluid streams. This will allow the safe use of the otherwise toxic or harmful exterior fluids with no danger to the crew and will avoid the mass and power penalty of the existing approach. This approach is also potentially lower mass than an incremental improvement to the existing exchanger. The Phase I work will include conceptual design of a liquid/liquid and liquid/air replacement for the existing exchangers and a liquid/air exchanger that replaces both system exchangers. A system-level trade study will be conducted to assess the impact of the new exchanger designs on power and volume consumption and on thermal performance. Representative exchanger segments will be fabricated and tested to demonstrate readiness of the technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications involve life support system for manned spacecraft. If successful, the program will allow the use of heat rejection systems using thermally-favorable fluids such as ammonia or Freon while avoiding the risk of contaminating the crew compartment with those fluids. This will reduce the mass, volume, and power consumption of the cooling system

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Non-NASA Commercial applications of the technology include bleed air coolers and oil coolers for Navy vessels, heat exchangers for ammonia refrigeration plants, and heat exchangers for food and pharmaceutical processing. The Navy expects to need between 10 and 50 bleed air coolers and at least 200 oil coolers per year. They require absolute isolation between the seawater coolant and the fluid stream being cooled to assure availability of the systems and to prevent catastrophic damage to other equipment.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B3.01-8208
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Control of Spacecraft Cabin Atmosphere
PROPOSAL TITLE: Methane Pyrolysis for Hydrogen & Carbon Nanotube Recovery from Sabatier Products

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Umpqua Research Company
P.O. Box 609
Myrtle Creek, OR 97457-0102
(541)863-7770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
James E. Atwater
jatwater@urcmail.net
PO Box 609
Myrtle Creek, OR 97457-0102
(541)863-2652

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Development of a microgravity and hypogravity compatible catalytic methane pyrolysis reactor is proposed to recover hydrogen which is lost as methane in the conversion of carbon dioxide to water via the Sabatier process. This will close the hydrogen loop which currently requires 50% resupply and also produce carbon nanotubes, a high value product which may be employed as an adsorbent or catalyst for removal of atmospheric trace contaminants, thus further lowering the resupply burden for manned spacecraft. Microgravity compatibility of Gradient Magnetically Assisted Fluidized Beds (GMAFB) has been demonstrated through a series of KC135 flight experiments. Metallic cobalt, which has been fluidized in microgravity using the GMAFB method, is an excellent catalyst for promotion of methane pyrolysis. Recently, fluidized bed catalytic methods have been shown to efficiently recover hydrogen, and produce single walled carbon nanotubes. Using the GMAFB method, this process can be rendered totally compatible with operation in the microgravity of spaceflight or the reduced gravity of planetary environments. By recovering all of the hydrogen which is lost as methane in the Sabatier reactor, the requirement for production or resupply of hydrogen is reduced to the absolute minimum.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The NASA application will be as Flight Hardware for deployment in support of future long duration exploration objectives such as a lunar base, Mars transit or Mars base. The primary application will be for the recovery of hydrogen lost in the Sabatier process for CO2 reduction to produce water in Advanced Life Support systems. Secondarily, this process may also be used in conjunction with a Sabatier reactor employed for propellant and fuel production from Martian atmospheric CO2. This process will also produce carbon nanotubes which may be employed for adsorption or catalytic destruction of toxic airborne or waterborne contaminants.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Production of carbon nanotubes is an area with extremely high economic potential. Numerous potential applications for these materials, include: nanometer sized semiconductor components and devices, field emission displays, hydrogen storage, sensors, energy storage and energy conversion devices, catalysts, and conductive and high strength composites. Carbon nanotubes, are extremely valuable products for which there are currently no efficient methods of high volume production, particularly for the production of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). A secondary commercial application of the innovation will be as a means for the production of hydrogen with extremely low CO contamination for use in fuel cells.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B3.01-8628
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Control of Spacecraft Cabin Atmosphere
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Composite Membrane for Space Life Supporting System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
T3 Scientific LLC
1839 Noble Road
Arden Hills, MN 55112-7834
(651)353-7429

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Chung-Yi (Andy) Tsai
Andy.Tsai@t3scientific.com
1839 Noble Road
Arden Hills, MN 55112-7834
(651)353-7429

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Space life-supporting systems require effective removal of metabolic CO2 from the cabin atmosphere with minimal loss of O2. Conventional techniques, using either metal hydroxide or metal oxide sobent, require after-mission regeneration or replacement, thus putting a critical cap on mission duration. More recent techniques, such as pressure swing adsorption-based process also require regeneration and use expendable resources. A novel approach to the problem is the use of a membrane device that can effectively separate CO2 in the presence of moisture, using space vacuum as the driving force. Such a membrane device has minimal mass, volume and power penalty and does not require regeneration; therefore, long-duration space exploration can be realized. In Phase I, we will develop a novel nanocomposite membrane with a microporous aminosilicate structure for enhanced CO2 separation with simultaneous humidity control. CO2 preferentially adsorbs onto the pore surfaces of the aminosilicate membrane and transports via surface diffusion, thus resulting in pore blockage or pore size reduction to prevent other inert gases such as O2 and N2 from permeating through. With the combination of molecular sieving and surface diffusion mechanisms, the proposed membrane can be expected to achieve superb CO2 separation performance for effective spacecraft cabin air revitalization.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications for the proposed novel membrane include environmental CO2 partial pressure control for spacecraft, space station, and spacesuit applications. This proposed novel composite membrane could be an enabling technology for NASA manned space program, allowing potential extended mission duration with less consumables compared to the baseline technologies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA applications for the proposed novel membrane include enhanced oil recovery, separation of CO2 from natural gas streams, CO2 recovery from fermentation processes, building CO2-level active control, and fruit and vegetable preservation.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B3.01-8857
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Environmental Control of Spacecraft Cabin Atmosphere
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Long-Term CO2 Removal System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Compact Membrane Systems Inc
325 Water Street
Wilmington, DE 19804-2410
(302)999-7996

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Kenneth J Pennisi
ken.pennisi@compactmembrane.com
325 Water Street
Wilmington, DE 19804-2410
(302)999-7996

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Current Technology for CO2 removal from enclosed air of spacecraft utilizes LiOH canisters for CO2 absorption. This absorption is irreversible so longer flights require more LiOH. For long duration flights it is essential that a small, lightweight system that recovers the CO2 be developed. This allows the CO2 to be used to regenerate O2 for re-use.

Compact Membrane systems (CMS) has identified a novel membrane contactor process for absorption and subsequent desorption of the CO2. Key to the process is that the contactor both operate effectively and that loss of the absorption/desorption fluid be kept to a minimum.

In Phase I, CMS will build system and demonstrate systems capability with a focus on key desorption unit operation. Analysis will demonstrate ability to transport CO2 while maintaining minimal loss of absorbent. System stability will be demonstrated by evaluating performance over wide temperature range (30-90o C). Chemical stability with absorbants will also be demonstrated. With all the above basic data in hand, we will evaluate the needed system size, weight and power consumption. Lastly we will compare results to molecular sieve adsorbants which are the incumbent for long duration flights.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
As humans increase their presence in space, the problem of CO2 removal will become more difficult. The long duration missions of the future will be technologically more demanding than the relatively short duration missions of the past and the current missions in earth orbit. There will be a greater need to reduce mission mass, reduce power usage and recover oxygen. The technology offered in this proposal addresses these critical issues.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
This is a cornerstone technology with numerous potential commercial opportunities. This includes (a) capturing CO2 for CO2 sequestering, (b) acid gas removal from natural gas, and (c) CO2 removal from submarines. There is a major CO2 sequestering initiative associated with global warming and low cost way to recover CO2 is essential. A parallel major initiative is developing greater supplies of natural gas. Removal of CO2 and other acid gasses will significantly enhance this objective. Submarines have similar CO2 removal needs and would therefore benefit from this technology.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B3.03-9437
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human Adaptation and Countermeasures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Earth Virtual-Environment Immersive Scene Display System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
PHYSICAL OPTICS CORPORATION
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821
(310)320-3088

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Tin M. Aye
sutama@poc.com
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821
(310)320-3088

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In response to the NASA need for a free-standing immersive virtual scene display system interfaced with an exercise treadmill to mimic terrestrial exercise experience in space, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Earth Virtual-environment Immersive Scene (EVIS) display system based on omnidirectional image projection and a wraparound multiplexed holographic collimating projection screen. A single unique, high-resolution omnidirectional wraparound image projector projects continuous wraparound imagery onto thin, curved, three-color-(RGB)-multiplexed holographic optics, which collimate the projected light into a virtual image. EVIS will thus display a greater than 180 degree (up to full 360 degree) free-standing FOV of flowing virtual earth scene to a crew member on a treadmill. Without multiple projectors, bulky optics, or a tiled screen, EVIS will be compact, lightweight, and power-efficient. It is producible at low cost by integrating commercially available microdisplays for the omnidirectional projector and by mass producing the multiplexed holographic collimating screen by means of established POC technologies. In Phase I POC will design in detail an EVIS display system for a treadmill, and fabricate a proof-of-concept model to demonstrate feasibility. Phase II will focus on optimizing both the material technology and components so that a fully operational prototype is completed.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed EVIS display system will benefit the psychological and physiological well-being of NASA space crews on ultralong-duration missions to the Moon or Mars. It can also benefit real-time telepresence, remote space exploration, and EVA applications, space flight training, flight navigation, and spacecraft and space station design.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The EVIS display system with a personal exercise machine will create a more inviting and pleasant environment (e.g., jogging in New York's Central Park or along a California beach) than the home or gym. It can also be used for simulation and training for government and civilian personnel programs such as commercial airplane flight simulation. Additional applications include remote-controlled robot telepresence for bomb and mine disposal, inspection and surveillance, and scientific and medical imaging.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B3.03-9533
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human Adaptation and Countermeasures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Non-Invasive Transcranial Doppler Sonogram Device for Detection of Embolic Air in Cerebral Arteries

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
GENEXPRESS INFORMATICS INC.
13091 Ponds Springs Road, Suite 150
Austin, TX 78729-6442
(512)219-8588

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Robert Chin
rchin@genexpressinfo.com
13091 Ponds Springs Road, Suite 150
Austin, TX 78729-6442
(512)219-8588

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Technology is needed to provide real-time assessment and evaluation of hematological parameters during prolong space flights and planetary missions. A key hematological parameter is the monitoring and measurement of emboli in the brain especially during Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) on planetary surfaces as well as orbital flights. A non-invasive, compact Transcranial Doppler (TCD) measurement device will provide monitoring of flight crew blood physiology during extended duration missions and deliver this data to onboard flight surgeons.

To address this need, GeneXpress Informatics (GXI) and Leonid Bunegin and Dr. Claudia S. Miller of the University of Texas Health Science Center (UTHSC) at San Antonio proposes to develop a non-invasive, portable TCD sonogram based diagnostic system for real-time monitoring and detection of cerebral artery air embolisms. The detection system uses intensity audio signals and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis to detect and locate the TCD audio signals of air bubbles in the middle cerebral artery (MCA).

In Phase I, GXI proposes to develop and demonstrate the non-invasive use TCD measurements for the determination of air emboli. In Phase II, GXI will proceed to a prototype development which will include construction and fabrication of a handheld field portable frequency-domain TCD measurement system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Technology is needed to provide real-time assessment and evaluation of hematological parameters during prolong space flights and planetary missions. A key hematological parameter is the monitoring and measurement of emboli in the brain especially during Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) on planetary surfaces as well as orbital flights.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Total mortality rates in severe trauma occurrences show that 90 percent die within the first hour. Whether in war time situations or automotive accidents, there is a need for technologies which can provide more expertise in the forward area at the site of the incident. This non-invasive TCD technology developed in this program will provide an aid to paramedics in evaluating a trauma patient on site and in real-time.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B3.04-7609
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Food and Galley
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development of a multipurpose extruder/press food processing system

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Triple "F", inc.
10104 Douglas Avenue
Des Moines, IA 50322-3600
(515)254-1200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Wilmot Wijeratne
wilmot@insta-pro.com
10104 Douglas Avenue
Des Moines, IA 50322-3600
(515)254-1267

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Insta-Pro International, proposes the design and development of a versatile, compact, lightweight, energy efficient, and easy maintained seed processing equipment that can be operated in low gravity environments. The proposed equipment, a scale down refinement based on successful current large scale Insta-Pro processing systems, can be used for cooking, shaping, texturizating, dehydration, phase separation, and stabilization of crops such as rice, beans, peanuts and soybeans to support human planetary explorations. The equipment will be designed to use internally generated heat for processing food to reduce or eliminate the need for inherently inefficient heating from an external source. In addition, the equipment will be optimized to minimize the Equivalent System Mass (ESM) while maximizing the quality of the final product. Anticipated results for Phase I will be detailed plans for the design of the optimized food processing equipment attained by computational simulation of various concept designs . This optimum design will provide the basis for hardware development and testing in Phase II and the manufacture and marketing (in Phase III) to a wide array of users.





POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)

The primary NASA application will be for cooking, forming and shelf life extension of food crops in long duration space missions such as Lunar or Martian mission. Additional applications include liquid extraction in a low gravity environment to produce vegetable oil from peanuts or soybeans as well as potential use for dehydration and volume reduction of wet solid foods, and heat treatment for microbial or enzyme inactivation to reduce biological hazards associated with wastes.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA commercial markets for the proposed multipurpose food processor include: federal agencies such as the Department of Defense food services; private sector markets such as commercial airline, rail, and maritime food preparation systems and the fast food industry, as well as institutions of higher education such as food engineering research and educational programs. Customized versions of the proposed processor has the potential to be commercialized as low capacity equipment to process seed materials available only in small quantities for organizations involved in biotechnological innovations, for small agribusiness in developing countries and for home use.




PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B3.04-7877
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Food and Galley
PROPOSAL TITLE: Enhancing the Processing Characteristics of Edible Beans

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Chi's Research Corporation
5354 Beachside Drive
Minnetonka, MN 55343-4117
(952)945-0230

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Uchenna Chukwu
doctoru@usfamily.net
5354 Beachside Drive
Minnetonka, MN 55343-4117
(952)945-0230

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced life-support systems, which use chemical, physical, and biological processes, are being developed to support future long-term human planetary exploration. As a result, there is a need to develop innovative food processes for baseline crops, such as dry beans (legumes) that have a shelf-life of more than one year and can support human life during extended space travel. Legumes are hydrated in large volumes of water to about 50% moisture to help reduce process times. Hydration is lengthy often requiring more than 8 hours using room temperature water, or boiling water for 2-3 minutes followed by soaking for at least one hour. Additionally, long cooking times ranging from about 30 minutes to over 2 hours are also required. We propose a reduction in the time, energy, and water requirements for processing legumes by using a novel combination of food grade carbohydrases to enhance the processing characteristics of legumes (Pinto, Navy and Kidney beans) prior to implementation of conventional (boiling, cooking, canning or microwaving) techniques.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Long-duration, shelf-stable food: Food-grade enzymes can be used to develop highly acceptable, shelf-stable food items derived from other plant-based food sources.
Food Processing: Food-grade enzymes can be applied to baseline crops, such as beans, wheat, soybeans, rice, and other grains to reduce the time, water, and energy requirements during processing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Market and commercialize the high-fiber, gas-free beans as functional foods to consumers and bean processors.

Develop a food processing aid, tentatively termed "Vegizyme" containing the proprietary blend of enzymes.

License and/or sell Vegizyme to consumers engaged in home preparation of beans.

License the technology to bean processors and other food manufacturers.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B3.04-8964
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Food and Galley
PROPOSAL TITLE: Broad Spectrum Sanitizing Wipes with Food Additives

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Microcide, Inc.
2209 Niagara Drive
Troy, MI 48083-5933
(248)526-9663

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
John Lopes
lopes@microcideinc.com
2209 Niagara Drive
Troy, MI 48083-5933
(248)526-9663

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Microcide proposes to develop novel multipurpose non-toxic sanitizing wipes that are aqueous based, have shelf life of 3-5 years, have broad spectrum microbicidal activity, detergency for cleaning and chelating properties to bind toxic metal ions. The proposed wipes can eliminate undesirable characteristics of presently used commercial sanitizing wipes by NASA. The commercial sanitizing wipes use ethyl and isopropyl alcohols, hydrogen peroxide, quaternary ammonium compounds (Qacs), bezyl-4-chlorophenol and phenylphenol as active microbicidal agents.

The proposed sanitizing wipes will use FDA approved food additive non-corrosive ingredients. By raising the pH, the microbicidal activity of the wipes can be terminated, which can help biodegradation and recycling the wipes. The wipes will also use recyclable cellulose carrier fabric. With food additive ingredients, these wipes will be safe for use on environmental and food contact surfaces, on fruits and vegetables as well as on skin, hands and outer body parts. The wipes will be free from any undesirable organoleptic properties. The wipes will have efficacy against a broad spectrum of environmental, pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms and also against both antibiotic sensitive and resistant bacteria. These wipes will be suitable for prolonged space missions for use on the shuttle, the ISS and the Planetary Outposts.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed Microcide wipes are novel multipurpose non-toxic sanitizing wipes that can prevent food contamination, improve hygienic conditions and indirectly save healthcare expenditure. The proposed wipes can serve not only the needs of prolonged space missions but also of all other commercial NASA activities. These sanitizing wipes will have broad-spectrum microbicidal activity against environmental, pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. These biodegradable and recyclable wipes can be used on environmental and food contact surfaces, on fruits and vegetables as well as on skin, hands and outer body parts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
In addition to their use in space, the nontoxic multipurpose sanitizing wipes proposed by Microcide will have wide-ranging commercial applications. Because of potential application on environmental and food contact surfaces, on fruits and vegetables as well as on skin, hands and outer body parts, the sanitizing wipes will be an everyday use item for general population. The numerous places the wipes can be used are homes, restaurants, offices, healthcare institutions, nursing homes, day care centers, food processing plants, school systems, travel industry, military and other consumers locations.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B3.05-8305
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Biomedical R&D of Noninvasive, Unobtrusive Medical Devices for Future Flight Crews
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact Wireless BioMetric Monitoring and Real Time Processing System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
ZIN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
3000 AEROSPACE PARKWAY
BROOK PARK, OH 44142-1001
(216)977-0300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Robbie A. Bruewer
robbie.bruewer@zin-tech.com
3000 AEROSPACE PARKWAY
BROOK PARK, OH 44142-1001
(216)977-0611

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ZIN Technologies in collaboration with the Cleveland Clinic Foundation will use their combined experience and research and development expertise to develop a new compact ambulatory biometric data system for space and commercial terrestrial use. This design will improve on the existing design onboard the International Space Station and other available systems by increasing the system resolution from 12 to 24 bits, reducing the weight by 40%, decreasing the overall volume by 70%, increasing usability, extending the dynamic range of biological signals that can be recorded, increasing on-board memory capacity, and providing additional instantaneous feedback to users through an extended local processing capability. Data will be acquired through a cell phone sized unit possibly attached to a subjects belt loop. Data is transmitted wirelessly to a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) where it can be accessed and viewed by the subject. Data will also be wirelessly transmitted to a processing unit for real-time transmission to ground. When out of range of the processing unit, data will be stored onboard the monitoring device for later transmission. The design will allow for real time data streaming to ground stations and easy accessible viewing of metrics by astronauts on-orbit (or medical subjects terrestrially).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Numerous NASA applications exist. Of course the most obvious application is support of health monitoring on human space flight and exploration missions. Additionally, numerous opportunities exist in support of ground based investigations that may or may not be directly related to human space flight. This includes baseline monitoring of astronauts health, health monitoring during strenuous training procedures, on-ground evaluation of physical training techniques and muscle/bone loss countermeasures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The availability of an economical, user-friendly device such as the one proposed here could open new directions for the study of many biological processes and offer clinicians the opportunity to monitor aspects of their patients' health that are not currently accessible. Among the applications contemplated are: feature detection and alert generation for electrocardiograms; long duration analysis of electromyograms; home-based sleep disorder analysis via EEG; seizure detection and alert generation via EEG; analysis of limb loading and joint motion after joint replacement surgery; Analysis of respiration data; physiological monitoring such as continuous blood glucose recording.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B3.05-8793
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Biomedical R&D of Noninvasive, Unobtrusive Medical Devices for Future Flight Crews
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultrasonic Derivative Measurements of Bone Strain During Exercise

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Luna Innovations Incorporated
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060-6657
(540)552-5128

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
John E Lynch
keena@lunainnovations.com
130 Research Drive Suite 300
Hampton, VA 23666-1339
(757)224-0687

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Luna Innovations, Inc., in collaboration with the SUNY Stony Brook, proposes to extend ultrasonic pulsed phase locked loop (PPLL) derivative measurements to the noninvasive assessment of bone strain during exercise. The PPLL is a high-resolution ultrasonic spectrometer that measures changes in natural velocity with parts in ten million accuracy. With this resolution, the PPLL can be used to measure a material's nonlinear elastic constants, which are related to changes in the speed of sound as it is loaded. Nonlinear elastic constants are more closely linked to bone strength than traditional absolute measurements of the speed of sound, thus providing an important new capability for bone health assessment.

This technology has been demonstrated on a number of engineered materials, including fasteners, heat-treated aluminum, heat-treated steel, composite materials, railroad rails, and adhesive bonds. In Phase ILuna's PPLL technology will be tested on bone ex vivo at Stony Brook's Biomedical Engineering Department to develop a strong physics-based model of how natural velocity changes as a bone sample is loaded. This research will lay the groundwork for Phase II, in which Luna's PPLL technology will be combined with Stony Brook's scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic (SCAD) technology for in vivo studies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Spaceflight is known to cause a range of physiological changes to the musculoskeletal system, including decreased durability of bony tissue. To counter these changes, NASA must develop exercise regimens and assess the effectiveness of these regimens. Luna's PPLL monitoring system, when combined with Stony Brook's SCAD technology, will provide a real-time, noninvasive measurement of bone strength during exercise, allowing NASA to develop more effective exercise countermeasures against the loss of bone strength.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Bone strength monitoring is a widespread concern, particularly for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a major public health threat for an estimated 44 million Americans, or 55 percent of the people 50 years of age and older. In the U.S. today, 10 million individuals are estimated to already have the disease and almost 34 million more are estimated to have low bone mass, placing them at increased risk for osteoporosis. The technology can also be used to assess fracture healing and the affect of exercise regimens on athletes.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B3.06-8032
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Waste and Water Processing for Spacecraft Advanced Life Support
PROPOSAL TITLE: Control of Solid Waste Using Low Temperature Oxidation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 West 52nd Ave
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033-1916
(303)422-7819

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
David T. Wickham
wickham@tda.com
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033-1916
(303)940-2350

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In February 2004 NASA released "The Vision for Space Exploration". The important goals include extending human presence in the solar system culminating in the exploration of Mars and other remote destinations. To accomplish this goal, affordable, new technologies to support long-term missions must be developed. One of the most critical problems facing such space missions is identification of effective methods to control solid waste. With current waste models, 1300 kg of waste occupying a volume 20 m3 will be generated in a 180-day mission to Mars. Unprocessed waste poses a biological hazard to the crew and continual exposure to odors from untreated waste is a serious threat to crew health and morale. The waste processing methods currently under consideration include incineration, microbial oxidation, pyrolysis and compaction. Although each has advantages, no single method has yet been developed that is safe, recovers valuable resources including oxygen and water, and has low energy and space requirements. In this Phase I SBIR project, TDA will conduct tests with a new, low temperature oxidation process that converts waste to carbon dioxide and water. In addition to having low power requirements, the system will be compact and reliable.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The most immediate NASA application for a low temperature oxidation process would be to control solid waste on a long-term space mission. In addition, the process would find use in removing carbon deposits from heat exchangers in high-speed aircraft that utilize fuel for cooling. In some cases, thin layers of carbon are deposited on the heat exchanger walls, which if left to accumulate, can cause the unit to fail. Therefore, identifying a cost effective, simple, and safe procedure to remove coke between missions represents enabling technology for the continued development of reusable high-speed aircraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
In addition to the use our process would find in controlling waste, there are several commercial applications. The process can be applied to any situation where oxidation at low temperatures is necessary. For example the process can be used to clean hydrocarbons from semiconductors, magnetic disks, medical devices, flight hardware, etc. High temperature processes would damage these components, however at the moderate temperatures required with this process, these components would not be harmed.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B3.06-8171
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Waste and Water Processing for Spacecraft Advanced Life Support
PROPOSAL TITLE: Thermally Regenerable Ion Exchange Resins

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Umpqua Research Company
P.O. Box 609
Myrtle Creek, OR 97457-0102
(541)863-7770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
James R. Akse, Ph.D.
akse@urcmail.net
PO Box 609
Myrtle Creek, OR 97457-0102
(541)863-2653

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future Exploration Initiative missions will require substantial reductions in ESM for water processing hardware. Significant reductions can be achieved using water treatment systems based upon thermally regenerable ion-exchange (TRIX) resins. Ion-exchange (IX) has been the preferred method for removal of aqueous ionic contaminants due to the efficiency of flow-through beds. Attributes of IX systems include ambient temperature and pressure operation, minimal energy use, rapid and efficient contaminant removal, and compared to other purification technologies, failure mechanisms are relatively benign. However, strong acid and alkali are required to regenerate these beds, making regeneration aboard spacecraft impractical. New hybrid TRIX resins developed at UMPQUA RESEARCH COMPANY offer the potential to remove ionic contaminants from water with an acceptable ESM, while retaining the intrinsic advantages of flow-through IX beds. Testing and further development of TRIX is proposed for removal of ionic contaminants from wastewater generated by future transit and early planetary base missions. The primary program objective will be the demonstration of efficient salt removal from different wastewater sources using TRIX resins. Phase I will demonstrate feasibility of water purification based upon TRIX. Phase II will result in development and testing of a fully functional system suitable for further independent testing by NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The ESM for current and future water reclamation systems will be lowered by replacement of ion-exchange sub-processes with a TRIX system. TRIX systems can also be designed to augment other water treatment methods, such as for ammonia removal and nitrate recovery from biological water processor (BWPs), salt removal from post-treated photocatalytic or catalytic oxidation effluents, or salt removal from intermediate treatment processes such as reverse osmosis (RO).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Employment of TRIX as a salt-free water softener for domestic and commercial uses, will be a major environmental benefit. TRIX will reduce regeneration chemical requirements for commercial ion-exchange systems. Commercial interest has been indicated by Novation Environmental Technologies for development of 'brine free' water softening methods and hardware to treat problematic industrial waste streams. Novation has expressed willingness to provide realistic waste stream compositions which cannot easily be treated by conventional methods, and to facilitate field trials in support of commercialization. Water purification systems based upon TRIX also have strong potential commercial application in the chemical, semiconductor, and pharmaceutical industries.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B3.06-9299
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Waste and Water Processing for Spacecraft Advanced Life Support
PROPOSAL TITLE: Catalytic Decomposition of Gaseous Byproducts from Heat Melt Waste Compaction

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Umpqua Research Company
P.O. Box 609
Myrtle Creek, OR 97457-0102
(541)863-7770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
James R. Akse, Ph.D.
akse@urcmail.net
PO Box 609
Myrtle Creek, OR 97457-0102
(541)863-2653

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Volume reduction is a critical element of Solid Waste Management for manned spacecraft and planetary habitations. To this end, a Heat Melt Compaction System is under development at Ames Research Center. During the heating process, certain volatile organic vapors are produced. Here we propose the development of a catalytic system for the treatment of these gaseous byproducts which will decomposed volatile organics into harmless inorganic substances such as carbon dioxide and water. These products may then be rerouted to the Life Support System for reduction to produce water (from CO2), and electrolysis of water to yield oxygen. Feasibility of the catalytic methods will be demonstrated during the Phase I research. The follow-on Phase II effort will result in the design, assembly, rigorous testing, and delivery to NASA of a prototype system, sized to operate in conjunction with the NASA developed compaction system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The NASA application will be as an adjunct to the Heat Melt Compaction System currently under development at NASA-ARC. The proposed system will treat gaseous byproducts which are created during the compaction process, and which otherwise would be vented into the cabin. This will ensure crew health and minimize any additional load on the Atmospheric Revitalization system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The primary commercial application will be as catalysts and catalytic reactors for employment in pollution control and environmental remediation. The proposed research will result in the development of improved catalysts and methods for the destruction of toxic organic vapors. These may be used to eliminate carbon monoxide and organic discharges in industrial stack gases, to remove volatile organics from indoor air (i.e., sick building syndrome), and to decompose organics which are volatilized during pump & treat methods for removal of contaminants from groundwaters and hazardous waste sites.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B3.06-9582
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Waste and Water Processing for Spacecraft Advanced Life Support
PROPOSAL TITLE: Spacecraft Water Regeneration by Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Eltron Research Inc
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder, CO 80301-3241
(303)530-0263

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Jesse W. Taylor
eltron@eltronresearch.com
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder, CO 80301-3241
(303)530-0263

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of this project is to develop advanced catalysts for a volatile removal assembly used to purify spacecraft water. The innovation of the proposed catalysts is improved oxidation activity for organic compounds relative to conventional systems. Additionally, by minimizing or avoiding noble metals in the compositions, catalyst cost is reduced and the materials are less susceptible to fouling. These characteristics will translate into lower weight, volume, and power requirements relative to current systems. Catalysts will be derived from a subset of Eltron-patented materials with demonstrated low-temperature oxidation activity and inherent water resistance. The technical goals will be to minimize the temperature and pressure requirements for operation, and resist catalyst leaching and hydrothermal sintering. These goals will be achieved by performing systematic studies that relate fabrication variables and compositions to catalyst characteristics. Candidate catalysts will be evaluated for destruction of representative organic contaminants, and activity will be determined as a function temperature and pressure. Coarse optimization of catalyst compositions will be performed, and the most promising compositions will be manufactured into grains with optimal dimensions and porosity.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The target NASA application for this technology is a catalytic component for a volatile removal assembly used to purify spacecraft water. Derivatives of this technology could be used by NASA for a catalytic air filtration unit.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications will focus on catalysts for catalytic wet-air oxidation (CWAO). CWAO is used to purify harsh wastewater from a variety of industries, such as paper pulp mills, breweries, and chemical processing plants. This same technology also could be used for purifying municipal and residential water.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B3.07-9030
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Biomass Production for Planetary Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: NOVEL ALL-PASSIVE LIGHTPIPE ILLUMINATION

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Applied Optical Materials
744 Stewart Canyon Rd
Fallbrook, CA 92028-8996
(760)451-0546

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
J Kevin Cammack
kevinc@aomat.com
744 Stewart Canyon Rd.
Fallbrook, CA 92028-8996
(760)451-0546

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR proposal aims to develop all-passive fiberoptic lighting systems that can be used on long space missions or here on earth. By addressing the traditional problems of concentration and solar tracking in a novel way, we will create a high efficiency lighting system that is also very durable and inexpensive. In this Phase I work, Applied Optical Materials will research two distinct methods for improving on conventional plastic fiber lighting technology. These innovations are directly relevant to the concentration efficiency of the system and have very high potential to reduce the cost and maintainability of passive lighting systems to a level commensurate with business and consumer applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
There is a need to find inexpensive, durable and power efficient means of lighting crops, promoting biomass decomposition, illuminating living quarters, etc. for longer space missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Americans spend over $40 billion annually to light homes and offices, and our consumption of electricity is directly related to dire ecological consequences such as global warming. The proposed system can address the needs of residential and commercial lighting in an economical and ecologically sound way.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B3.07-9224
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Biomass Production for Planetary Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Orbital Technologies Corp
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717-1961
(608)827-5000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Jeffery C. Emmerich
emmerichj@orbitec.com
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717-1961
(608)827-5000

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovation of the proposed project is the development of High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) systems to drive plant growth. Solar radiation is not a viable option for growing plants on the moon or on Mars for multiple reasons. On the other hand, lighting plants with electric lamps and rejecting the associated waste heat has energy costs that have driven NASA toward other options to provide food and fresh air to future Mars crews. The solution offered by this project improves upon the efficiency of a novel new light-distribution technology involving low-power, solid-state sources that emit specific-wavelength photons to match plant photoreceptors. The HELIAC lighting system consists of small individual "light engines" that provide a level of control precision far in excess of standard lamps. This precision enables lamp configuration to be adapted to species specific growth habits so that photons can be absorbed efficiently by all available photosynthetic tissues. HELIAC will also provide the capability to adapt spectral balance automatically to plant development stage. Finally, it will have the capability to automatically detect the proximity of plant tissue and power only adjacent light engines, thereby greatly decreasing power requirements, particularly during early plant development.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The production of edible biomass in closed or nearly-closed environments is essential for the future of long-term planetary exploration and human settlement on the moon or Mars. The proposed lighting system is well suited for use in large space-based applications. In addition to the potential for significant power savings over existing lighting systems, the use of solid-state lighting eliminates problems associated with traditional lighting in closed systems such as short operational life (requiring resupply), high mass and volume, limited control options, and safety concerns including high temperatures, glass envelopes, and toxic materials.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Controlled-environment agriculture profitability often is most limited by energy costs. Dense crop stands block overhead light from reaching the majority of lower leaves in closed foliar canopies, thereby compromising yield and requiring high light levels that are not absorbed efficiently. Light-distribution systems that are low power, relatively cool, that uniformly irradiate all leaves within a stand only with wavelengths most efficiently absorbed by photosynthetic tissue, and that 0automatically adjust emissions to target new tissues as plants grow in height or spread without wasting photons by lighting empty space will substantially lower energy costs of controlled-environment production and will improve profitability.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B3.07-9482
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Biomass Production for Planetary Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hydrogen Sulfide Micro-Sensor for Biomass Fouling Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Kebaili Inc.
316 Magnolia Drive
Laguna Beach, CA 92651-1752
(949)494-5892

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Mo Kebaili
mo@kebaili.com
316 Magnolia Drive
Laguna Beach, CA 92651-1752
(949)494-5892

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)is the leading chemical agent causing human fatalities following inhalation exposures. The overall aim of this project is to develop and produce an inexpensive, highly selective and sensitive solid-state chemical micro-sensor with low power consumption that is suitable for rapid detection of very low-level (ppb) concentration of H2S in ambient air.
The technology principle used to develop the micro-sensor is based on the knowledge that H2S is adsorbed into gold at an operating temperature range. By using a gold thin-film, and MEMS technology, we will produce a micro-sensor with the following specifications 1 mm x 1 mm micro-sensor, 3 seconds response and recovery time, 10 mW power consumption, and detection in the ppb range.
Phase I will investigate the feasibility of the design, fabrication, testing, and validation of the micro-sensor in collaboration with researchers from the Integrated Nanosystems Research Facility at the University of California Irvine.
During Phase II, the innovative solid-state micro-sensor will be integrated in a miniaturized battery powered wireless instrument for applications in biomass fouling detection.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The H2S micro-sensor can be integrated with other chemical micro-sensors to form an intelligent multi-gas sensors.
The design of a micro-miniature H2S monitor, that is wireless, and with very low power consumption, can be used in the following application areas:
Environmental monitoring and control for human life support.
Environmental control of spacecraft cabin atmosphere.
Monitoring of biomass production for planetary missions.
Biomass fouling detection

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
H2S is generated by bacteria in the mouth, and it is the cause of bad breath. An inexpensive, highly sensitive H2S detector, can help people with their oral hygiene, since they cannot smell their own bad breath.
A low cost H2S monitor for environmental and industrial applications.
A miniature H2S detector can be used as an H2S cartridge filter end of life indicator for respirators.
Atmospheric H2S monitoring with weather balloons.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B3.07-9667
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Biomass Production for Planetary Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microdischarge Array Flexible Light Source for High-Efficiency Irradiation of Spaced-Based Crops

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Anvik Corp
6 Skyline Dr
Hawthorne, NY 10532-2165
(914)345-2442

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Marc Zemel
mzemel@anvik.com
Anvik Corp., 6 Skyline Drive
Hawthorne, NY 10532-2165
(914)345-2442

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
It is desirable to develop a high-efficiency lighting source for large-area irradiation of space-based crops. The key requirements for such a system include high efficiency, light weight, easy and rapid deployment, compact storage, ruggedness, and low cost. Furthermore, in order to maximize the rate of photosynthesis, it is desirable that the light source deliver an emission spectrum that matches the absorbance spectrum of chlorophyll as closely as possible while minimizing the effects of emission outside of the visible spectrum. To address these demanding requirements and overcome the limitations of alternative technologies, we propose to develop a large-area, high-efficiency, flexible sheet light source using microdischarge arrays using the combined talents of Anvik Corporation and a team from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, led by Prof. J. Gary Eden. The development of a new technology to enable the fabrication of large-area, high-density microdischarge arrays on flexible substrates, possibly powered by solar cells, will enable dramatic advances in the portability, ruggedness, efficiency, and light quality of light sources for space-based crop irradiation and a wide variety of commercial applications, including LCD backlighting, large-area UV-curing, decorative lighting, photodynamic therapy, and germicidal applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed microdischarge array flexible light source can be used for high-efficiency irradiation of plants grown on planetary or lunar stations, space stations, or other spacecraft. Further, this light source could be integrated with an inflatable structure and powered by photovoltaics, making it a very low-cost and lightweight option for transport and deployment of such space-based greenhouses. Finally, the same technology used for crop irradiation could also be used for interior lighting of space structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The development of a new technology to enable the fabrication of integrated, large-area, high-efficiency microdischarge arrays on flexible sheets would enable the construction of a wide variety of devices, including flexible sheet light sources for LCD backlights, large-area UV curing, photodynamic therapy, automotive interior lighting, decorative lighting, and germicidal applications. Finally, through the use of roll-to-roll processing, such devices could be manufactured economically in high volumes. Such devices would be ideal for lighting applications where portability, efficiency, conformability, ruggedness, and low cost are required.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B3.09-7744
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Shielding to Protect Humans
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multifunctional, Boron-Foam Based Radiation Shielding

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
MER Corp
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706-9237
(520)574-1980

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Dr. Witold Kowbel
mercorp@mercorp.com
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706-9237
(520)574-1980

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The NASA vision of Space Exploration requires new approaches to radiation shielding. Both Spiral 2 and Spiral 3 concepts are extremely sensitive to weight reduction. Currently used thermal protection (TPS) and radiation shielding concepts are separate identities. As a result, the net weight of current TPS/radiation shielding concepts is very significant. In an effort to greatly reduce the mass of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), a totally new concept is proposed. It merges a novel approach to TPS combined with a totally new approach to radiation shielding. A boron carbide foam will be produced by a novel method. This foam will be integrated into a CEV TPS concept. As a result, the TPS will serve a multiple function including radiation shielding resulting in a significant weight saving.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The primary NASA application is in the area of the Crew Exploration Vehicle for Spiral 2 and Spiral 3.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The novel boron carbide foam can be used as radiation shielding in future commercial space travel.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B3.09-7988
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Shielding to Protect Humans
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nanocomposite for Radiation Shielding

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Materials Modification Inc
2721-D Merrilee Drive
Fairfax, VA 22031-3723
(703)560-1371

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Ramachandran Radhakrishnan
radha@matmod.com
2721-D Merrilee Drive
Fairfax, VA 22031-4428
(703)560-1371

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's Advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) program requires the need for materials that can protect astronauts and spacecrafts from ionizing radiations such as low and high energy X-rays. Currently, lead and lead-based material are used to fabricate shields not only for X-rays but for other types of radiation as well. Lead is heavy and toxic. In this Phase I project, MMI proposes to develop a polymer composite that utilizes a nanocrystalline heavy metal salt for radiation shielding.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The composite developed will be suitable for incorporation in protective clothing and gear for astronauts during NASA's missions such as the Advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) program, as well as radiation shields for large space structures such as space stations, orbiters, landers, rovers and habitats and enclosures that house X-ray detectors and sensors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The polymer composite can be used to fabricate medical gowns that can be worn instead of the heavy lead shields that are used during routine medical X-ray examination. The material can also be used to fabricate lab coats and other protective gear for personnel working with radioactive materials.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B3.09-8760
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Shielding to Protect Humans
PROPOSAL TITLE: Radiation Shielding and Hydrogen Storage with Multifunctional Carbon

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Advanced Fuel Research Inc
87 Church Street
East Hartford, CT 06108-3728
(860)528-9806

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Eric Rubenstein
ericr@AFRinc.com
87 Church Street
East Hartford, CT 06108-3728
(860)528-9806

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project addresses two vital problems for long-term space travel activities: radiation shielding and hydrogen storage for power and propulsion. While both problems have been studied for many years, there is currently no satisfactory technology for providing adequate non-parasitic shielding. Even in low-Earth orbit, astronauts must be closely monitored for radiation exposure, and some missions simply cannot be performed due to the current inability to shield astronauts (e.g. Mars or surface Lunar bases). The overall objective of the proposed project is to construct, test, and deliver a prototype for hydrogen storage and radiation shielding. The Phase I objectives are to validate/verify the radiation shielding capability of these systems and to operate it in a relevant environment, i.e. while being bombarded by ionizing radiation at a nuclear accelerator. These objectives will be accomplished in four tasks: (1) prototype preparation and characterization; (2) empirical study of radiation shielding at BNL Accelerator Facilities; (3) complementary computational study to broaden shielding characterization and to validate shielding code performance with respect to this nonparasitic shielding concept and (4) process and product assessment. The successful operation of the prototype would raise the TRL from 4 to 5 or 6 (system operated in a relevant environment).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The main NASA applications for the proposed technology is dual-use hydrogen storage and radiation shielding systems on board spacecraft, space station, and also smaller versions used for innovations in spacesuit design, possibly a specially modified Hard Upper Torso (HUT). The primary purpose of this effort is to develop a piece of hardware for NASA that can ultimately be an important component of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), providing at the same time energy-storage functionality. The systems developed as a results of the proposed study will be useful to NASA in at least two respects: 1) radiation shielding for people and electronics, and 2) fuel storage for propulsion or electrical power generation. The multi-functional material in the current study significantly boosts the hydrogen storage ability of compressed gas cylinders and provides excellent radiation shielding characteristics.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Commercial areas that are under exploration are primarily related to fuel cell systems, with automobiles and other transportation vehicles of particular interest. The main application of the developed carbons would be in gas-storage systems (automobiles, trucks, buses, locomotives, spacecraft, submarines, UAV's, etc.), with additional applications including radiation shielding in other aerospace environments (satellites, military/astronomical detectors sensitive to obscuring background radiation, high-altitude, long-duration aircraft, etc.). AFR has also been approached by a firm specializing in hazardous gas packaging for their interest in storing gases at less than atmospheric pressure. In such an application, our sorbent has the potential to double or triple the amount of gas in a cylinder. Other uses of carbons with well-controlled pore structure include carbon molecular sieve membranes for gas separations, ultracapacitor electrodes, and catalysts. AFR is actively working with Maxwell Technologies, our industrial partner, to bring our ultracapacitor electrode technology to market.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B3.09-9590
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Shielding to Protect Humans
PROPOSAL TITLE: Database of Nucleon-Nucleon Scattering Cross Sections by Stochastic Simulation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Eloimagnus Advanced Sciences & Technologies
6701 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 300
Bethesda, MD 20817-7500
(301)214-9076

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Sarah John
sarah.john@eastresearch.com
6701 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 300
Bethesda, MD 20817-7500
(301)214-9076

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A database of nucleon-nucleon elastic differential and total cross sections will be generated by stochastic simulation of the quantum Liouville equation in the Wigner representation, incorporating innovations of: (1) antisymmetrization effects of spin ? nucleons in phase space; (2) the first order quantum corrections as a stochastic process for two-nucleon dynamics; and (3) a linked list algorithm to streamline and speed computing. Phase I will produce a prototype 4-dimensional phase space simulation of one dimensional spatial scattering, which will be extended in Phase II to three dimensional spatial scattering with a full 12-dimensional phase space model. Significance includes design of radiation shielding materials for manned NASA missions into deep space, where galactic cosmic rays pose a serious health hazard. Computer codes simulating nuclear transport through materials, with associated input databases of interaction cross sections, enable radiation risk assessment of shielding materials. The proposed database of nucleon cross sections forms a subset of the input database. The simulation may potentially be extended to generate databases for nuclear elastic, inelastic, and fragmentation cross sections. Commercial applications include radiation protection for humans on earth under hazardous conditions. The simulation also has applications to nanotechnology and quantum information technologies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
For manned NASA deep space missions, the challenge of protecting humans and onboard instrumentation from galactic cosmic rays, while meeting the stringent requirements on spaceship design and payload, demands optimal design of radiation shielding materials. Computer codes simulating nuclear transport through materials, with associated input databases of interaction cross sections, enable radiation risk assessment of shielding materials. The proposed database will form a subset of the input database. Also, if nuclear fueled energy plays a role in NASA missions, appropriate shielding materials may be required to reduce the risk of radiation exposure to sensitive payload.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed innovation will have a commercial spin off, in conjunction with NASA technology, for developing protective radiation shielding materials for use in high radiation environments on earth. The proposed simulation is also of interest in atomic, molecular, nuclear, and interstellar sciences, and nanotechnology and quantum information technology at which scales purely quantum effects begin to gain dominance.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B3.10-9123
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensors for Advanced Human Support Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Second Generation of Reagentless Carbon Analyzer for Water Quality Monitoring

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
7607 Eastmark Drive, Suite 102
College Station, TX 77840-4027
(979)693-0017

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Jinseong Kim
jinseong.kim@lynntech.com
7607 Eastmark Drive, Ste. 102
College Station, TX 77840-4027
(979)693-0017

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Water reclamation is one of the basic functions of the closed regenerative life support systems needed for manned space missions. To assure the quality of the recycled water, particularly for human consumption, monitoring of key water quality parameters, such as total organic carbon (TOC), pH, and conductivity is critical. TOC instruments are used to assess the levels of organic contaminants present in recycled water. NASA seeks for significant improvements in miniaturization, accuracy, precision, and operational reliability, as well as long life, real-time measurement, in-line operation, self-calibration, reduction of expendables, low energy consumption, and minimal maintenance for those monitors. Current available TOC analyzers do not meet those standards. This proposal concerns the development of a small, effective, energy-efficient, reagentless carbon analyzer (RCA). It will combine (i) electrochemical technology to produce two key elements in TOC analysis, acid and oxidant, and (ii) photolysis for the complete oxidation of organic carbons to carbon dioxide. It will also incorporate a microfluidic design. During the Phase I effort, the feasibility of the proposed system will be demonstrated. During the Phase II project, a microgravity-compatible, automated system will be fabricated and delivered to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Successful development of the second generation of a reagentless carbon analyzer (RCA) will lead to water quality monitoring assuring that the chemical contents of the water environment of the astronaut crew habitat falls within acceptable limits for potable or hygienic water, which is essential to enable human planetary exploration missions ranging from a return to the Moon and through an initial Mars mission, including using the International Space Station.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Total organic carbon (TOC) analysis is a well-defined and commonly used analytical tool. Many water utilities monitor TOC to determine raw water quality or to evaluate the effectiveness of processes designed to remove organic carbons. Successful development of the reagentless carbon analyzer (RCA) as a hand-held device will have a high commercial applicability to a wide range of industries where water quality assurance and control is important, such as semiconductor industries or pharmaceutical industries.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B3.10-9471
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensors for Advanced Human Support Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Real-Time Novel Holographic Monitoring of Airborne Trace Contaminants Onboard Space Vessels

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
AlphaSniffer LLC
1865 33rd Steet #A
Boulder, CO 80301-2514
(303)545-5550

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Oyvind Nilsen
o.nilsen@comcast.net
1865 33rd Steet #A
Boulder, CO 80301-2514
(303)545-5550

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
New challenges and mission requirements constantly emerge, establishing the need for versatile equipment and instruments to perform the new/expanded tasks. AlphaSniffer propose the development of a compact chemical monitoring system that provides highly sensitive, selective, and rapid detection of trace contaminants that will be able to meet such new requirements. The monitoring system will have low power consumption and remain stable and reliable for 12 months or longer. The system is based on unique technology of detecting a chemical reaction/interaction of the sought-after chemical in a (polymeric) transducer material through real-time dynamic optical holography. Significant advantages over other competing sensor technologies include: fast response and recovery times (sub second), low ppb sensitivity, low power and compact size. Additionally transducer elements may easily be replaced if they are damaged/contaminated. The implementation of a single optical contact between the polymeric transducer element and the holographic detection system minimizes complications of replacing the sensing agents/transducers. Due to the rapid response, the transducer elements are only briefly exposed to the reacting/interacting chemical, drastically improving long-term stability and repeatability. When completed, this research should lead to the development of a compact state-of-the-art trace chemical monitoring system, with superior versatility and performance over other sensors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Due to the rapid measurement cycle of our holographic instrument, new possibilities in terms of measurements emerge. NASA for instance, does significant research in life support systems and bio-habitats environments. In addition to cabin environment monitoring, a rapid monitoring system would be able to perform real time monitoring of the environment in a closed habitat with plants or mice, where ethylene, CO, NO or other agents may provide critical understanding of potential space habitats.
Potential monitoring of liquid in the future will also open for new applications. Waste monitoring, water quality monitoring, detection of hyrdazine and biomedical testing in space for human diagnostics are applications of interest.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
AlphaSniffer's holographic detection technology can potentially become inexpensive and compact, while maintaining high performance. Together with low cost, replaceable transducers will enable AlphaSniffer to produce chemical and biological detection instruments that would not only target niche markets, but the general "consumer market" as well.
Potential applications include: detection instruments for first-responders, personal alert equipment for soldiers, inspection tools for law enforcement and customs, medical diagnostics tools, sensor networks for buildings and liquid process monitoring for the pharmaceutical industry.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B4.01-8696
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Market Driven Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fiber Optic Microcantilever Sensor Coupled with Reactive Polymers for Vapor Phase Detection of Ammonia

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Luna Innovations Incorporated
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060-6657
(540)552-5128

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Matthew S Hull
keena@lunainnovations.com
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg, VA 24060-6657
(540)552-5128

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Luna Innovations proposes to adapt its current aqueous-based, fiber-optic microcantilever sensor technology for real-time, monitoring of ammonia in air. Phase I studies will focus on confirming sensor operation in a vapor-phase detection format and will build upon Luna's current NASA SBIR Phase II program to develop novel affinity microcantilever-based biosensors for monitoring bacterial and chemical contaminants in space-station water supplies. The biosensor is based on the principle that as target organisms or molecules bind to a reactive microcantilever beam, coating deformation caused by the binding event deflects the beam in proportion to the concentration of bound target. Using gold-based coupling chemistries, any assortment of reactive polymers, oligonucleotides, or other suitable ligand can be attached to multiple microcantilever beams in an array format. This allows discrimination of select targets from a complex mixture of other compounds. Using patented interferometric measurement and signal interrogation technology, researchers at Luna have confirmed microcantilever beam deflection with subnanometer sensitivity in water. During the proposed Phase I program, Luna will focus efforts on vapor phase detection of ammonia using novel reactive polymers developed. The microcantilever sensor inherently lends itself to multiplexing using micromachined arrays and can be integrated with virtually any type of air-sampling device.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed research applies directly to NASA research focused on detection of toxic vapors. NASA is specifically concerned about monitoring for ammonia and hydrazine, which are associated with space-craft temperature regulation. Ammonia leaks in particular can damage couplings and jeopardize critical space-craft cooling features. More importantly, ammonia leakage within space-craft poses a danger to human health. The proposed sensor technology provides NASA with a low-cost, robust, real-time monitoring format for protection of both crew and space-craft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The affinity microcantilevers will not only be useful for space-craft-based air monitoring applications, but also will be adaptable for numerous other applications including homeland defense, smart-building HVAC systems monitoring, water quality and environmental monitoring, food safety, process monitoring, and medical diagnostics.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B4.03-8163
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Market Driven Space Infrastructure
PROPOSAL TITLE: Automated Rendezvous and Docking Infrastructure to Support Commercial Space Development

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Odyssey Space Research
2525 Bay Area Blvd., Suite 460
Houston, TX 77058-1572
(281)488-7953

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
David Strack
dstrack@odysseysr.com
2525 Bay Area Blvd., Suite 460
Houston, TX 77058-1572
(281)488-7953

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's safety mandate for crewed and high value spacecraft currently necessitates design requirements that create a cost barrier for commercial companies trying to provide on-orbit logistics services for NASA. The proposed innovation offers a means to facilitate commercial involvement in on-orbit servicing by developing a spacecraft that removes this burden from commercial vehicles. The spacecraft will:
? Perform automated rendezvous and capture to ferry commercial spacecraft to target spacecraft
? Provide a safe interface between simple, low cost, commercial spacecraft and high value targets (ISS, CEV, Lunar Lander, propellant depot, or high value satellites)

This will serve as key infrastructure element to enable emerging commercial space companies and other developers of low cost systems to play significant roles in NASA's Exploration program and/or ISS re-supply activities. This infrastructure will:
? Prevent restrictive and extremely expensive fault tolerance, safety, and Human Rating requirements from being levied on the commercial vehicles,
? Remove the need for commercial vehicles to design, develop, and test independent automated rendezvous and docking (AR&D) systems,
? Reduce the amount of expensive AR&D and safety related hardware launched and discarded on each flight, and
? Reduce the cost of integrating each spacecraft through standardized interfaces.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The primary purpose of the SBIR project is to create a new element of NASA's infrastructure that will enable the use of low cost commercial spacecraft in NASA's overall development strategy. Some examples are:
? Low cost ISS re-supply using commercial launch and spacecraft developers
? Unique solutions to some of the mission challenges for the exploration program
? Support and servicing of NASA satellites

The use of the spacecraft does not need to be limited to low cost commercial spacecraft. It can also be used for:
? Any automated rendezvous and docking program
? Test platform for Exploration program

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Any infrastructure that supports the introduction of low cost commercial spacecraft will have longer term commercial applications. Some of these include:
? On-orbit spacecraft servicing
? Commercial support of NASA's exploration mission or ISS re-supply


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B5.01-7782
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Telescience and Flight Payload Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Constellation C3I Crew-Ground-Experimenter-Developer Collaboration Services

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
AZ Technology Inc
7047 Old Madison Pike, Suite 300
Huntsville, AL 35804-2188
(256)837-9877

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
James Chamberlain
jimc@aztechnology.com
7047 Old Madison Pike, Suite 300
Huntsville, AL 35806-2188
(256)837-9877

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Command, Control, Communications and Information (C3I) environment will be significantly different for Constellation than for Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS). Missions will operate not only in Near Earth round-trip latencies (RTLT) of seconds but also Near Mars RTLT of 10 to 40 minutes. New classes of collaboration services are required to support the spectrum of Constellation missions and infrastructure. Integrating popular collaboration tools such as Groove Virtual Office on Constellation C3I space-based components and networks will be a major innovation. This project proposes experimental use in SBIR Phases II/III of ISS flight and ground capabilities to demonstrate new collaboration services for use in the Constellation program. These new space-based and terrestrial services will greatly improve communications among all Constellation personnel over current techniques. The approach includes: 1) Integrate instant messaging, e-mail, transcription, etc. with voice and video communications; 2) Design for automation and autonomy of space-based Constellation components; 3) Evolve development collaboration services into mission collaboration services over time; 4) Promote new collaboration standards, interoperability, standardized interfaces, and modularity; 5) Adapt the collaboration architecture to the ground and space networks and frameworks. Client-server, peer-to-peer, or a hybrid architecture may be most suitable.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Phase II will develop prototype collaboration services to be proposed for trial use by International Space Station (ISS) ground facilities - Payload Operations and Integration Center (POIC) and Mission Control Center (MCC) - for use in mission operations and support, including remotely-located experimenters. Phase II will also evaluate the possibility of flying a new collaboration tool on an ISS crew laptop for use in crew-ground-experimenter communications. Phase III will market these new collaboration services to NASA for standard ISS mission operations as well as for Constellation program development and support collaboration, which by 2008 should be maturing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Collaboration system popularity is booming (e.g., WebEx annual revenues rose from $0M to $200M in 5 years). COTS will be ideal for day-to-day business use; however, many organizations want to control and customize their own systems rather than relying on commercial services. There is great sales potential for systems that are integrated with and customized for large projects. Customers: corporate, military C3I, healthcare training, and grids used by distributed teams of research scientists. Specific products: add-on software tools for Apache JetSpeed and Groove Virtual Office developed for ISS/Constellation and adapted for business use. Services: software reseller-integrator for Groove, WebEx.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B5.02-8260
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Payload Logistics, Integration, Processing, and Crew Activities
PROPOSAL TITLE: Intelligence-Based Multi-Resolution 3D Visual Modeling, Registration And Obstacle Avoidance Capabilities For Unmanned Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
UTOPIACOMPRESSION, CORPORATION
11150 W. Olympic Blvd. Suite 1020
Los Angeles, CA 90064-1825
(310)473-1500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Dr. Pierre Grinspan
pierre@utopiacompression.com
11150 W. Olympic Blvd. Suite 1020
Los Angeles, CA 90064-1825
(310)473-1500

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The use of truly autonomous vehicles (UV) has been hampered by a lack of sophisticated and resource efficient obstacle avoidance systems. Current approaches have focused on either expensive active sensor systems or inferential processing techniques that are computationally intensive. In this proposal, UtopiaCompression Corporation (UC) presents a layered, intelligent and adaptive system concept that will facilitate true UV autonomous operations by solving the collision avoidance problem using inexpensive imaging sensors and modest computational resources.
UtopiaCompression proposes focused research to push the limits of automation in the 3D arena by providing a real-time, end-to-end solution tailored to NASA's sensor data and mission requirements. This would be accomplished by deriving and using 3D structures obtained from inexpensive sensors to compute and model a spatio-temporal vector field. UC's novel, iterative refinement, multi-resolution registration algorithms enable the inexpensive and efficient generation of the 3D structures. These methods would be integrated into navigation strategies utilized to command UVs for safe cruising (avoiding collision) through cluttered environments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
UC/DRA's technology, if integrated into the payload delivery and control mechanisms of orbiting and exploration machinery, would enable automated collision avoidance. This capability would measurably increase the safety of space exploration, both manned and unmanned, and decrease costs associated with equipment damage resultant from collisions. The proposed technology will minimize the crew time required for spacecraft operations through automation, enabling the most productive use of minimal personnel. In addition, the object avoidance capabilities can be integrated into unmanned space vehicles and exploration machinery such as the Mars Rovers, enhancing their mission capabilities and facilitating a greater degree of remote exploration.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
UC/DRA's adaptive obstacle avoidance technology has extensive utility for military and commercial uses. First, intelligent collision avoidance will greatly enhance the combat effectiveness of autonomous air vehicles in heterogeneous, 3D environments. The technology could be extended to include auto detection and tracking capabilities to detect anomalies, identify unusual or risk-associated patterns as well as appearances of certain targeted objects. Second, the commercial benefits would be to greatly increase the safety and effectiveness of public roads and highways as a means of transportation for trucking and passenger transport.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 B5.03-9484
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Development of Improved Outreach Planning and Implementation Products
PROPOSAL TITLE: Think Tek Learning Lab

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Steven Winter Associates Inc.
50 Washington Street
Norwalk, CT 06854-2721
(203)857-0200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Ravi Gorthala
rgorthala@swinter.com
50 Washington Street
Norwalk, CT 06854-2721
(203)857-0200

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) proposes to develop a nation-wide informal technology education program that integrates math, science, engineering and technology (STEM) through its Think Tek Learning Lab. The goal of the Lab is three-pronged: providing an after-school enrichment program for teens; arousing interest in math and science; and achieving outreach for NASA commercial technologies. The Lab will serve middle/high school students through after-school and Saturday classes, summer institutes, and school visits. The focus of this informal technology learning laboratory includes hands-on experimentation and exploration, design and construction, and interaction with a variety of technologies, scientists, and learning materials. The Lab will be a living NASA outreach spin-off with experiments that showcase real-life NASA commercial technologies. The project will support NASA's efforts to publicize the positive ripple effects that the space funding generates on the domestic front.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed Think Tek Learning Lab will significantly reinforce NASA's efforts on STEM education. In addition, the Lab will serve as a living NASA outreach spin-off that highlights the importance of space funding on day-to-day commercial and consumer technologies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
While informal education is a multi-billion dollar industry in the U.S., there are several successful nation-wide companies in the field of education. Examples include KAPLAN, Huntington Learning Center, Sylvan Learning Center and Kumon. There is no nation-wide education company with a focus on hands-on STEM education. That presented SWA with an opportunity to develop Think Tek . SWA will develop a pilot program in Asheville, NC, modularize it and market it throughout the country.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E1.01-8221
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Passive Optics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Electroactive Single Crystal and Polymer Actuator Concepts for Passive Optics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
TRS Ceramics Inc
2820 East College Ave Suite J
State College, PA 16801-7548
(814)238-7485

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Paul W. Rehrig
paul@trstechnologies.com
2820 East College Ave Suite J
State College, PA 16801-7548
(814)238-7485

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
TRS Technologies proposes large stroke and high precision piezoelectric single crystal and electroactive polymer actuator concepts?HYBrid Actuation System (HYBAS) for cryogenic passive optics devices such as Fabry-Perot interferometer and Fourier Transform Spectrometer for NASA remote sensing applications. Both single crystal piezoelectrics (PMN-PT and PZT-PT crystals) and electro-active polymer (EAP) are well known novel materials with large strain under electric activation. TRS has lead the development of single crystal actuators for applications with broad temperature range (<20K-300K). The National Institute of Aerospace has been extensively involved in electroactive polymer materials and device development and they recently invented the hybrid actuation system (HYBAS) which exhibits significant strain improvement by combining single crystal piezoelectrics and EAP. HYBAS actuator design considering special properties of single crystal with different crystal cut will be carried out using both analytical and FEM modeling. A HYBAS actuator with stroke of 1~2 mm will be prototyped and tested with and without pre-loading. The characterization data of HYBAS will be compared with the performance of the existing TRS actuators for consideration in Phase II etalon designs. In Phase II cryogenic etalons using HYBAS and/or other TRS cryogenic actuators will be designed, prototyped and characterized.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
HYBAS actuator controlled etalon for -Perot interferometer and Fourier Transform Spectrometers will allow broader range of spectral scanning for NASA remote sensing. Cryogenic HYBAS actuator technology also offer capability of large stroke, high precision and fast responsive for cryogenic adaptive optics, vibration control and smart structures in many future NASA missions such as JWST, SIM, SAFIR, TPF and others.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
HYBAS actuators are also attractive for many DOD remote sensing applications and adaptive optics programs as well such as DM technology for directed energy applications. Apart from the active and passive optics applications, large stroke, high precision and fast responsive HYBAS actuators are also good candidates for fiber optic steering, microwave tuning, vibration control and smart structures, electromechanical optical switch, and micro/nanopositioning for photonics and biomedical tooling, etc.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E1.01-8745
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Passive Optics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Mesoporous Silicon Far Infrared Filters

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Lake Shore Cryotronics Inc
575 McCorkle Blvd.
Westerville, OH 43082-8699
(614)891-2243

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Marc Christophersen
marc.christophersen@lakeshore.com
575 McCorkle Blvd.
Westerville, OH 43082-8699
(614)891-2243

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase I proposal describes a novel method to make optical filters based on mesoporous silicon multilayers, for use at cold temperatures in the far infrared spectral region. This type of filter consists of a lattice of different porosity layers formed in monocrystalline silicon by electrochemical means. Due to the nature of the material, mesoporous silicon filters do not suffer from thermal, mechanical, and environmental instabilities. More over, due to the high transparency of the mesoporous silicon throughout a large part of the far IR range, such filters can be made for wavelengths far longer than those that can be addressed with conventional interference filter technology. They will considerably outperform filters based on metal meshes. Such filters are expected to impact astronomical, commercial, military and scientific communities in many filter applications. In Phase I, it is proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of the method by fabricating porous multilayers with ultrahigh thickness and to evaluate a sintering technique to enhance environmental stability. In Phase II, optimized filters will be fabricated and their properties compared with design predictions. Phase III will involve product design, fabricating filter structures to meet customers' physical as well as optical needs, and marketing and sales investments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Far-infrared imaging is a powerful technique to study the center of our galaxy and beyond. However, this wavelength range is difficult to work in. At these wavelengths, room temperature objects emit strongly. The strong Earth background causes weak signal-to-noise ratios. Far IR filters are needed to separate extraterrestrial signals from this background to build a meaningful picture. Currently used filters suffer from problems stemming from the lack of materials that are transparent, stable and compatible with each other at these wavelengths. The proposed type of filter can solve these problems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Narrow band pass, band pass and band blocking mid and far IR filters are used in environmental monitoring, chemical and biological analysis, imaging and other areas. Customers include manufacturers of production equipment, as well as manufacturers and users of "consumer" optical components and equipment. Lake Shore proposes a new design for optical filters that has the potential to be an enabling technology. Hence, all these applications may be considered as potential markets for mesoporous filters.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E1.02-8411
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Monolithic, High-Speed Fiber-Optic Switching Array for Lidar

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
ADVR Inc
910 Technology Blvd Suite K
Bozeman, MT 59718-4012
(406)522-0388

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Tony Roberts
roberts@advr-inc.com
910 Technology Blvd., Suite K
Bozeman, MT 59718-4012
(406)522-0388

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed optical device is a fiber-based multi-channel switch to quickly switch a fiber-coupled laser among many possible output channels to create a fiber-based fixed-array laser transmitter for next-generation NASA lidar systems. The key innovation is the use of an arrangement of electro-optic prisms created in a nonlinear optical crystal through domain reversal to direct the laser into one of many possible output fibers. This design will provide several important features that are required, yet not currently available in a fiber switch, in order to achieve a fiber-arrayed lidar source, such as high optical power handling, reduced crosstalk, low optical loss, fast switching times, low power consumption, and robust construction in a monolithic package with no moving parts. The Phase I effort will demonstrate feasibility of the approach by creating a preliminary device with representative features to assess the suitability of the technology for use in lidar systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed switching array will enable the creation of a fiber-based fixed-array laser transmitter that, combined with a fiber-arrayed detector, can provide laser imaging with a shaped field of view for an enhanced lidar return signal and image resolution. Furthermore, the monolithic construction, low power consumption, and predicted high reliability will make the device suitable for airborne and space-based deployment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
In addition to its use as a electro-optic switching array for NASA lidar, the device will have applications in the areas of optical remote sensing and environmental monitoring, military applications, and basic research. In addition to lidar applications, the proposed switching device will also be useful in applications requiring all-fiber switching and multiplexing using high power lasers.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E1.02-8978
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact 2 micron seed laser

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
NP Photonics, Inc.
9030 S. Rita Road
Tucson , AZ 85747-9102
(520)799-7424

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Shibin Jiang
jiang@npphotonics.com
9030 S. Rita Road Ste 120
Tucson, AZ 85747-9102
(520)799-7407

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal is for the development of new compact, high power and extremely reliable 2 micron seed laser using newly developed Tm3+ doped germanate glass fibers, which exhibit high quantum efficiency. This type of fiber based seed laser is needed for constructing high energy pulsed 2 micron Ho-doped crystal lasers for LIDAR applications. We propose to use highly Tm3+ doped germanate glass fibers with high gain per unit length to form a short linear cavity to generate single frequency fiber laser operation. Germanate glass exhibits lower phonon energy compared to silica glass, increasing the quantum efficiency of 3F4 level of Tm3+ ions. Importantly, Tm3+ can be highly doped into germanate glasses, which results in so called cross-relaxation, dramatically improving the gain per unit length and the quantum efficiency. The single frequency fiber laser will be used to construct seed lasers by integrating with controlling electronics.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)

This fiber based seed laser can be used to generate high energy pulsed 2 micron Ho-doped crystal lasers, which are generally used for LIDAR applications in NASA. This proposed device is much more reliable compared to existing technology in NASA's touch operating environment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
This single frequency 2 micron fiber laser and seed laser can be used for many commercial applications, especially for fiber optic sensor where a long coherence light source is needed.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E1.02-9072
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact fiber lasers for coherent LIDAR

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Orbits lightwave, inc.
101 Waverly Drive
Pasadena, CA 91105-2513
(626)795-0667

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
yaakov Shevy
yshevy@orbitslightwave.com
101 Waverly Drive
Pasadena, CA 91105-2513
(626)795-0667

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This is a proposal to investigate the feasibility of developing a low cost, compact, lightweight, high power (>500m W) and narrow linewidth 1.5 and 1.06 micron fiber lasers based on a "virtual ring" laser cavity. We have already demonstrated "virtual ring" laser prototypes at 1.5 micron that push the performance envelope to unprecedented levels in a number of important parameters but with powers below 40 mW. In this research will increase the laser oscillator power to (>100 mw) and also boost it with a MOPA section. We will also investigate the feasibility of exending the virtual ring technology to the 1.06 micron band.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Coherent laser radar (LIDAR) use heterodyne detection by mixing the laser light scattered from a remote target with a reference local coherent laser oscillator. This technique offers high sensitivity as well as providing detailed phase and velocity information important for many current and future NASA missions. These include: velocimetry, wind sensing and aerosol particle size distribution. In addition, coherent lasers are important for deep space and inter-satellite communications systems especially at 1.06 ?m.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
We have already sampled mederate power "virtual ring" laser prototypes for potential defense applications. These include acoustic sensor system important for homeland defense. This application benefits from the low phase noise, low RIN and the outstanding frequency stability of the Ethernal laser. This and other applications can benefit from further R&D of our base-line technology. In addition, a high power Ethernal laser system can be importtant for coherent free space communications. LIDAR sytems are also needed commercially for measurement of wind speed and vortices.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E1.02-9711
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lidar Remote Sensing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Holographic Wavefront Correction for SHADOE LIDAR Receivers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Wasatch Photonics, Inc.
1305 North 1000 West, Suite 120
Logan, UT 84321-6832
(435)752-4301

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Richard D Rallison
rdr@ralcon.com
8501 South 400 West
Paradise, UT 84328-0142
(435)245-4623

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Current shared aperture diffractive optical elements (SHADOE) have intrinsic residual wavefront errors on the order of 20 waves which limits the angular resolution of the LIDAR application to a range between 150 and 400 micro-radians. It is possible to reduce these aberrations by constructing a secondary holographic correction plate using the aberrated wave from the SHADOE as one of the two construction waves. The other construction wave is either a collimated wave or an f#2 focused wave. All five overlapping apertures require individually constructed plates. This method of correction requires the use of the final playback wavelength for construction and so is useful for 532 and 355nm but not for 1064 nm. Computed diffractive optics can be used for 1064 nm using measured aberrations at the same wavelength. This proposal deals just with fabrication and test of the 355 nm LIDAR applications for which an entirely optical recording set up is adequate. Correction plates in the 2 inch diameter range are proposed with likely reduction in angular spread to under 50 micro-radians, which will greatly improve the signal to noise numbers in a LIDAR application.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Applications include improvement to LIDARs used in terrain and vegetation mapping with possible uses in coherent Doppler and other wind detection LIDARs. The UV elements may also be space qualified.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Commercial LIDAR applications such as terrain mapping, wind speed measurements near runways, pollution monitoring and possibly standoff material identification. The same technology can be used for production of big photon buckets for laser communications, fast spectro-photometers, solar collection and dispersion, solar laser pumping, improved resolution of large monochromatic telescopes and architectural lighting.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E1.03-7672
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors
PROPOSAL TITLE: In Situ Microradiometers: Smaller, Faster, and Scalable to Hyperspectral

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Biospherical Instruments Inc.
5340 Riley Street
San Diego, CA 92110-2621
(619)686-1888

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Charles R. Booth
booth@biospherical.com
5340 Riley St.
San Diego, CA 92110-2621
(619)686-1888

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Radiometers are a crucial element in NASA's studies of Planet Earth. This proposal addresses the basic need for a miniature spectrometer, flexibly configurable and optimized for above and in-water optical property measurements. The innovation we are proposing develops a 1 cm diameter photodetector module, called a "microradiometer." The microradiometer will consist of a photodetector, preamplifier with controllable gain, high resolution analog to digital converter (ADC), microprocessor, and an addressable digital port, all on one small, thin circuit assembly. We anticipate that the design will result in significant improvements in dynamic range, sampling speed, reliability, and reduced power consumption over existing instruments. In one embodiment, a single microradiometer forms the basis of a very small (much less than 2.5 cm diameter) single-channel submersible light sensor. In another application, clusters of microradiometers can be matched with front-end optics (collector/window/filter stack) to form small, fast, less expensive multiwavelength radiometers for a variety of measurements ? even hyperspectral applications. The envisioned microradiometer-based systems can be packaged into small underwater housings suitable for deployment on drifters, moorings, towed vehicles, and vertical profilers. Networks of these multiwavelength radiometers, configured to measure irradiance or radiance, can be operated synchronously by a central data acquisition computer.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
As the heart of a wide variety of new, flexibly deployed radiometers, this product directly supports current and future NASA satellite and aircraft missions and associated cal/val activities (e.g. AVIRIS, SeaWiFS, MODIS, VIIRS). The flexibility of the designs (standard profilers, multi-instrument free fall, castaway) support both inland, coastal, and oceanic research. This includes quantification of carbon budgets at sub-regional to global scales, coastal carbon dynamics, or even terrestrial applications such as tropical deforestation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
We see this development being used in our instruments literally wherever a photodetector has been used in the past. Non-NASA benefits in technology parallel the direct benefit to NASA, with the extension that the ease of networking microradiometers affords increased opportunity for multidisciplinary studies, both in the field and in the lab.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E1.03-7930
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Sensors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Power, Lightweight Cloud Water Content Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Anasphere, Inc.
6597 Maltse Lane, Unit D
Bozeman, MT 59718-6954
(406)994-9354

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
John Bognar
jbognar@anasphere.com
6597 Maltse Lane, Unit D
Bozeman, MT 59718-6954
(406)994-9354

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The water content of clouds, whether in liquid or ice form, is a key variable to be measured when either calibrating remote sensing systems or when calculating the climatological effects of clouds. While a variety of sensors exist for making these measurements, all of the existing sensors require far too much power or other energy input to be used on small platforms with limited payloads such as UAVs, balloons, and kites.
Anasphere has developed and completed preliminary testing of a novel cloud water content sensor which does not require any external energy input, but is capable of measuring both liquid water and ice content of clouds. Preliminary results have been extremely promising.
Phase I work will include the fabrication and demonstration of proof-of-concept sensors based on the designs investigated in the preliminary research, culminating in a balloon-borne flight with a radiosonde through a cloud. Phase II work will include the refinement of the design, extensive laboratory testing, and extensive field intercomparisons and trials.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
One area of application will be in supporting the development of remote sensors (including passive sensors, active radars, etc.) that are designed to measure these same cloud properties. Such sensors may be ground-, aircraft-, or satellite-based. Another area of application is the measurement of cloud water content in support of studies related to cloud properties, radiation transfer, and climate change. Until highly accurate remote sensors become available, field researchers will have a need to directly measure cloud water properties using in-situ sensors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Researchers in several other governmental agencies (including NOAA, DOE, and NCAR as examples) and universities will have applications similar to those of NASA researchers. Private businesses engaged in remote sensor development will also find the sensor useful in the testing and calibration of their sensors.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E1.04-7825
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Passive Microwave
PROPOSAL TITLE: A C-BAND RADIO FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE (RFI) DETECTION AND MITIGATION TESTBED

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
EMAG Technologies, Inc.
1340 Eisenhower Place
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-3282
(734)973-6600

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Kazem F. Sabet
ksabet@emagtech.com
1340 Eisenhower Place
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-3282
(734)973-6600

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) can render microwave radiometer measurements useless. We propose a method and an architecture that can be used to identify sources of RFI and be used to identify an optimal scheme for the mitigation of RFI. The system consists of a fully functional digital radiometer that can collect data in the field and pipe the pre-detected signal into, for example, a spectrum analyzer for in-situ analysis or into removable flash memory for later analysis. The digital radiometer employs a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) for employing flexible mitigation strategies. It will also use a programmable noise source for generation of artificial RFI in the laboratory setting, allowing for efficient mitigation algorithm development in a laboratory setting, independent of actual RFI, which may be intermittent. Thus this one instrument can be used to identify RFI, develop mitigation approaches for RFI, and validate the mitigation strategy. A flexible system is essential for this task since RFI takes many forms.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
NASA is seeking techniques for the detection and removal of RFI in microwave radiometers. Techniques which are proven to mitigate RFI will be incorporated into future spaceborne and airborne microwave radiometer instruments. The device under consideration here could serve either as a product or service to NASA. Systems that could benefit from this technology include, but are not limited to, Lightweight Rainfall Radiometer, GeoSTAR, ACMR, HYDROS, and future AMSR instruments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Aerospace corporations, Universities, government agencies other than NASA, and international groups also construct radiometers that could benefit from the results of this technology. Indeed, RFI mitigating radiometer technology developed by NASA will increasingly be exploited by other institutions, especially as enabling technologies like validated RFI mitigation techniques are developed. These institutions known to the authors to manufacture radiometers include, but are not limited to, Aerospace Corporation, ProSensing, Inc., Radiometrics, Inc., U. S. Navy, NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory, The University of Michigan and The University of Massachusetts.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E1.04-8518
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Passive Microwave
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniaturized MMIC-Based Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizers for Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Hittite Microwave Corp
12 Elizabeth Drive
Chelmsford, MA 01824-4147
(978)250-3343

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Michael Koechlin
koechlin@hittite.com
12 Elizabeth Drive
Chelmsford, MA 01824-4147
(978)250-3343

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
MMIC technology provides the technology base to reduce the size and weight of microwave and millimeter wave (MMW) equipment on board airborne and space-based platforms. Signal sources at MMW frequencies, however, have not been available in MMIC form widely. Hittite has developed a family of MMIC products to implement complete phase-locked synthesizers in using MMIC and mixed-signal ICs and demonstrated miniaturized frequency synthesizers representing size reduction of several orders of magnitude without sacrificing performance. Based on recent success in demonstration of critical MMICs and ICs, Hittite proposes to apply its novel MMIC concept to design MMW signal sources for application in earth monitoring sensors. Two different synthesizer architecture, one direct and one indirect, are proposed as candidate approaches. In both cases, frequency synthesis will take place at about 1/8 of the output frequency and then translated up to the final output with a fixed tone. The proposed approach relies on components operating at lower frequencies for better phase noise performance, and the method is applicable to generation of higher frequencies. The proposed program will lead to a family of novel miniaturized MMIC products for commercial communications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The products to be derived from the proposed program are commercial signal sources for applications in wireless personal communications, wireless local loops, multi-point distribution networks, and satellite communications terminals.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The products to be derived from the proposed program are commercial signal sources for applications in wireless personal communications, wireless local loops, multi-point distribution networks, and satellite communications terminals.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E1.05-8343
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Novel Low-cost Dual-Wavelength Precipitation Radar Sensor Network

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Remote Sensing Solutions, Inc.
P.O. Box 1092
Barnstable, MA 02630-0001
(508)362-9400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
James R Carswell
carswell@rmss.us
P.O. Box 1092
Barnstable, MA 02630-0001
(508)362-9400

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is committed to measuring precipitation on a global scale. In 1997, NASA launched the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission which carried the first spaceborne precipitation radar (PR). Operating at 13.8 GHz, the PR demonstrated the potential of spaceborne radars to map global precipitation. To improve rainfall estimates, the next generation system being proposed for the NASA Global Precipitation Mission is a dual-wavelength (Ku/Ka-band) precipitation radar (DPR). Operating at Ku and Ka-band, it will yield additional information on the drop size distribution (DSD). Advanced ground-based Ku/Ka-band DPR systems are needed to develop and validate the retrieval algorithms that will be used by GPM.

This proposed Phase I effort will investigate the required innovations to design and construct a novel, low-cost, scanning, dual-polarized DPR senor and sensor network. The focus will be on developing a low-cost ruggedized compact antenna, transceiver, power amplifier and real-time processing and communication subsystems. This advanced DPR sensor network will provide unprecedented spatial/temporal sampling and coverage and multiple methods to determine DSD: polarization, differential extinction, multi-look radar measurements of extinction. As a sensor network, limitations due to earth curvature, topography and ground clutter that affect the existing weather radar infrastructure can be overcome.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed novel low-cost scanning DPR sensor network system will support GPM efforts by providing an essential and unprecedented data set to validate and improve GPM retrieval algorithms and aide in calibration/validation studies. Deployed at the GPM super sites and elsewhere, it will provide direct and statistical comparisons with horizontal scanning radars, such as S-Pol, Chill and other systems, such that the new data from the DPR radars, either stand-alone or in networked configuration, can augment that of the established lower frequency radars.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed low-cost Ku/Ka-band DPR sensor and sensor network will enable many research institutions, such as universities, government and private sector research labs, to advance their efforts in the areas of precipitation studies, weather forecasting and long-term climate forecasting while fitting within their budgets. With billions of dollars being spent on weather products and forecasting, this unique and low-cost sensor network will improve local QPE measurements and forecasts. Initial market research shows a strong need for such a system and RSS plans to aggressively pursue this opportunity.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E1.05-8345
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Low-Sidelobe Frequency-Scan Millimeter-Wave Antenna for Cloud and Precipitation Sensing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Remote Sensing Solutions, Inc.
P.O. Box 1092
Barnstable, MA 02630-0001
(508)362-9400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
James R Carswell
carswell@rmss.us
P.O. Box 1092
Barnstable, MA 02630-0001
(508)362-9400

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA is committed to measuring clouds on a global scale and will soon launch CloudSat, which will carry the first space borne cloud-profiling radar (CPR). Operating at 94 GHz, the CPR will conduct a 2 year global survey of cloud properties, collecting quantitative information on cloud-layer thickness, base and top altitudes, cloud optical thickness, and cloud water and ice contents. A follow-on mission is envisioned that will fly a low-mass cross-track scanning antenna. This will provide future missions with much improved spatial coverage for comparison with numeric models and reduced time between subsequent measurements over the same region.

This proposed Phase I effort will investigate the required innovations to design and build a novel airborne prototype W-band (94 GHz) cross-track scanning antenna and wideband radar system. The proposed antenna will utilize a low-mass offset reflector and a frequency-scanned line-feed to achieve for the first time at W-band a cross track scan width of approximately 60 degrees. This design will lead to a prototype scanning radar system that can be flown on high-altitude platforms such as the NASA ER-2, WB-57 and Proteus. The prototype antenna will be compatible with existing space-qualified transmitters and can be scaled for space flight.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed electronically scanning W-band antenna and airborne scanning cloud radar will support various NASA research efforts by facilitating three-dimensional cloud radar coverage over a much larger domain than can be measured with existing nadir-pointing cloud radars. These data can be combined with those colleted simultaneously by scanning radiometric instruments to facilitate cloud microphysical retrievals over a large domain. Once proven these measurements can ultimately be collected on a global scale by flying the scanning radar on the next generation cloud sensing satellite.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed antenna system can be adapted for a variety of uses. Coupled with a high power transmitter and sensitive receiver it is an ideal tool for quantifying cloud properties. Such high performance radar has obvious applications for high-resolution tracking and target detection. The lightweight-scanning antenna feed may also be used in conjunction with inexpensive low power transmitters for high-resolution object detection over short distances such as in vehicle collision avoidance systems. RSS plans to aggressively pursue these opportunities


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E1.05-8490
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave
PROPOSAL TITLE: L and P Band MMIC T/R Module

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Hittite Microwave Corp
12 Elizabeth Drive
Chelmsford, MA 01824-4147
(978)250-3343

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Mitchell Shifrin
mitchs@hittite.com
12 Elizabeth Drive
Chelmsford, MA 01824-4147
(978)250-3343

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal is specifically written to address the need for improved L and P band T/R modules. The solicitation calls for investigation and development of core technologies that will significantly improve T/R module performance. Improvements needed include reduced power consumption, mass, size and increased data rates. Hittite microwave corporation is a fables semiconductor company that has been developing microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMIC) for over 19 years. As described in this proposal Hittite will use the Phase I program to determine the optimal partitioning of the T/R module considering the subsystem requirements, process technology and circuit topologies. The T/R module circuit functions are diverse imposing several different process requirements. For example the key process specification for the LNA is the minimum noise figure (Fmin) of the process, for the control functions the switch cutoff frequency, and for the PA the power added efficiency. Relevant processes to be considered include SiGe, PHEMT, MHEMT, PIN, MEMs, GaN and SiC. Actual process selection will be determined during the Phase I effort once specifications have been fully defined in cooperation with NASA technical personnel. The Phase II program will include the design, development and fabrication of MMICs to implement an L/P band T/R module.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed program will lead to a family of MMIC-based products useful in the commercial communication bands for personal communications, W-CDMA, GPS, GSM and ISM systems operating in the frequency range of 0.4 to 1.25 GHz. Hittite expects to develop a market for low-cost MMIC products operating in those bands.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed program will lead to a family of MMIC-based products useful in the commercial communication bands for personal communications, W-CDMA, GPS, GSM and ISM systems operating in the frequency range of 0.4 to 1.25 GHz. Hittite expects to develop a market for low-cost MMIC products operating in those bands.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E1.05-9679
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flexible T/R Modules for Large-Aperture, Space-Based SAR

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
SI2 Technologies, Inc.
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824-4000
(978)606-2601

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Erik S. Handy
ehandy@si2technologies.com
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824-4000
(978)606-2601

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SI2 Technologies, Inc (SI2) proposes to develop membrane compatible transmit/receive (T/R) modules for flexible, space-deployable synthetic aperture radar (SAR) antenna arrays. Large-aperture, yet lightweight SARs are desired for many Earth science monitoring applications as they may be placed at higher orbits which offer greater coverage and shorter interferometric repeat times. However, the technology for manufacturing T/R modules on flexible membranes has limited the development of these space based arrays. SI2's innovation is to apply its laser transfer Direct Write techniques to fabricate a flexible T/R module which can be integrated with each array element. SI2's proprietary laser transfer processes will be used to "print" pre-fabricated active electronics (e.g. conventional semiconductor devices such as amplifiers, switches, etc.) on large area, flexible substrates directly from off-the-shelf wafers. The result of the proposed effort will be a demonstrated pathway for manufacturing T/R modules on flexible substrates which will further the development of lightweight, large-aperture, electronically-steerable space based radar arrays.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed technology will advance the state-of-the-art in large-aperture, electronically steerable, space-based radar arrays which are required by future NASA Earth science monitoring missions. In order to reduce the cost of such systems, membrane antennas are being developed due to their lower weight and storage volumes compared to rigid systems. Conventional transmit/receive (T/R) modules are not compatible with membrane antenna technology due to their rigid packaging. The proposed effort will develop flexible T/R modules to meet this need. Specific NASA applications of a large-aperture space-based radar system include monitoring geophysical processes such as seismic activity, volcanism and glacial flow.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
In addition to NASA missions, large-aperture, electronically steerable, space-based radar arrays are required for a number DoD applications as well where greater resolution and real-time data are desired. Non-government applications of the technology are vast and range from electronic textile products to flexible displays and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E1.06-7635
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Passive Infrared - Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: InP/GaAsSb HBT MMIC for W-Band

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
MicroLink Devices
6457 Howard Street
Niles, IL 60714-2232
(847)588-3001

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Noren Pan
noren_pan@mindspring.com
6457 Howard Street
Niles, IL 60714-2232
(847)588-3001

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
High-speed devices using InP play a critical role in the realization of power amplifiers for wireless and optical communication systems. Current gain cut-off frequencies in excess of 200 GHz have been demonstrated for InP HBTs, indicating the potential of these devices for use in high bandwidth communication systems and high-speed direct digital synthesizers. To achieve a higher output power and higher efficiency, InP HBT based on GaAsSb base layer is proposed in this research effort. This novel material technology offers the highest potential to achieve the highest output power and efficiency at W-band. We would like to achieve at least 1W of output power at W-band with at least an efficiency of 40%.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
InP based HBT technology is a platform technology that can be used
for MMIC applications from X-band to W-Band. It offers the highest
output power and efficiency at these frequency ranges. There is no
other technology that can offer this type of performance

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
InP based HBT has the potential to migrate to lower frequencies such
as L and S-band. The potential exist for these amplifiers to be applied
to cellular applications which would significantly increase the volume
requirement.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E1.06-8105
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Passive Infrared - Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: AlInGaN-Based Superlattice Terahertz Source

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
WaveBand Corporation
17152 Armstrong Ave
Irvine, CA 92614-5718
(949)253-4019

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Vladimir Litvinov
vlitvinov@waveband.com
17152 Armstrong Ave
Irvine, CA 92614-5718
(949)253-4019

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
WaveBand Corporation in collaboration with Virginia Commonwealth University proposes to design and fabricate a new sub-millimeter source based on an InAlGaN superlattice (SL). Semiconductor SLs have proven their ability to deliver high-frequency current oscillations caused by specific electron dynamics in a narrow miniband. For this project, WaveBand proposes to demonstrate SLs based on one of the GaN-family materials that deliver high temperature and high power operation superior to those provided by conventional III-V materials based on GaAs and InAs alloys. The idea of Bloch oscillators has been around for a while, yet actual example has not been demonstrated. The reason is that dc-current instability prevents oscillations at high frequency. The innovation of the proposed work is that we plan to use short-period SLs with complex miniband electron energy dispersion that suppresses the dc-instability and allows electrons to oscillate at multiples of the fundamental Bloch frequency. MBE-growth of short-period SLs will be performed using formation of spontaneous superlattices from an immiscible composition.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Proposed source may serve as a compact local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver integrated system.
The innovation will benefit measurements testing the Earth's atmosphere: climate and meteorological parameters, including water vapor, clouds, aerosols; air pollution; and chemical constituents such as ozone and carbon monoxide. The device will be responsive to NASA needs for Advanced Communication Technologies for Near-Earth Missions where wide bandgap III-Nitride devices are sought for high-power high-efficiency solid state power amplifiers and integration of electronic devices with optoelectronic components on III-Nitride templates.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Solid-state terahertz-range sources are urgently needed in various applications including sensors for detection and analysis of hazardous chemical and biological agents, and sub-millimeter wave imaging systems for concealed weapons detection and spectroscopy,


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E1.06-9371
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Passive Infrared - Submillimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Quantum Cascade Laser-Based Local Oscillator for Terahertz Astronomy (7275-070)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Physical Sciences Inc
20 New England Business Ctr
Andover, MA 01810-1077
(978)689-0003

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Joel M. Hensley
hensley@psicorp.com
20 New England Business Ctr
Andover, MA 01810-1077
(978)689-0003

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Scientists at JPL measure radiation emitted in the far-infrared (or terahertz) region of the spectrum to study the history of the universe and the Earth's atmosphere. The most commonly used detection technique is frequency mixing between that emission and a local oscillator operating at a frequency close to the emission line. The local oscillators available today, such as optically pumped terahertz lasers or frequency-multiplied millimeter-wave sources, suffer from a number of shortcomings including limited tuning range, inadequate wavelength coverage, large size, and low wallplug efficiency. Physical Sciences Inc. has recently demonstrated a novel, tunable THz laser source based on an external cavity stabilized THz Quantum Cascade Laser with discontinuous tuning over a 30 GHz band at 147 wavenumbers. In the proposed Phase I program, we will use an available 158 wavenumber THz QCL to optimize the external cavity design for continuous, mode-hop free tuning over an expected range of 100 GHz with a target laser linewidth below 1 MHz. Such a laser has never been previously demonstrated. During Phase II we will prove practicality by optimizing the properties of the laser, packaging it into a form suitable for terahertz emission experiments, and delivering it to JPL.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
By using the laser source developed under this project as a local oscillator, JPL scientists will be able to measure terahertz emission from at least one new target species of importance to astronomy or atmospheric science. Future versions of this laser source will be tailored to match other target species, until the entire terahertz region of the spectrum has been covered. As a result, the JPL scientists will develop a better understanding of the evolution of the universe. In addition, they will learn more about problems with Earth's atmosphere, including global warming, ozone destruction, and pollution.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Compact, tunable terahertz lasers will be useful for container-penetrating detection of dangerous substances for homeland defense applications, detecting contraband substances for law enforcement applications, and detecting trace amounts of moisture for industrial process control.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E1.07-8287
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control for Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced pumps and cold plates for two-phase cooling loops

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Mesoscopic Devices LLC
510 Compton Street, Suite 106
Broomfield, CO 80020-1651
(303)466-6968

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Jerry L Martin
jmartin@mesoscopic.com
510 Compton Street, Suite 106
Broomfield, CO 80020-1651
(303)466-6968

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced instruments used for earth science missions require improved cooling systems to remove heat from high power electronic components and maintain tight temperature control for sensitive instruments. Mesoscopic Devices proposes to develop a pumped two-phase cooling loop that will provide high heat flux cooling (> 100 W/cm^2) in a lightweight system. In Phase I, an extremely compact pump optimized for two phase cooling will be demonstrated, along with advanced lightweight cold plates. A complete two-phase loop using the advanced pump and cold plates will be constructed and tested.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed two-phase pumped loop will enable cooling of multiple distributed loads, decreasing the mass and increasing the sensitivity of advanced instruments for terrestrial, aircraft, balloon and satellite missions. It can be used for cooling instruments, high power electronics, radar and laser systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Two-phase pumped cooling loops are expected to be enabling technology for high-power motor drives, rack-mount computers, advanced workstations, and microwave systems for vacuum deposition. The proposed system could be adapted for cooling phased-array radars, communications and industrial lasers.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E1.07-8911
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control for Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development of Modular Spray-Cooled Assemblies for High Heat Fluxes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Power Electronics Leveling Solutions L.L.C.
607 Gray Avenue
Fayetteville, AR 72701-3037
(479)444-8377

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Jeremy Junghans
pels_llc@yahoo.com
607 Gray Ave.
Fayetteville, AR 72701-3037
(479)444-8377

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This NASA SBIR project will develop modular spray-cooled assemblies that satisfy NASA power and mass budgets and can be scaled to cool multiple heat sources subjected to high heat fluxes and microgravity conditions. Much of the work on spray cooling has been experimental in nature and technological improvements have been the result of extensive experimental work. There is a need for a better theoretical understanding. Power Electronics Leveling Solutions L.L.C. (PELS) analytical team has formulated mathematically the conditions for extracting high heat fluxes from a heated surface in addition to the latent heat of vaporization that takes place in the formation of the bubble under phase change. PELS has now the opportunity of combining its analytical and experimental capabilities to develop modular assemblies based on spray cooling with the goal of achieving heat fluxes in excess of 100 W/cm2 while satisfying power and mass budgets.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The technology developed in this project has numerous potential NASA applications which can be broadly classified into the following two groups:
(1) Power amplifiers for T/R modules and transmitters.
(2) Modular microwave integrated circuits.
(3) Power lasers.
(4) Power modules for energy storage, flywheels, battery chargers, peak power trackers, motor drives, and smart solid-state switches

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The above applications are not limited to NASA since thermal loads having heat fluxes are found in many military and commercial applications. For example, the ambient temperature under the hood in an automobile could be in excess of 100 degrees C. Silicon-based automotive electronics have maximum junction temperatures such that traditional cooling systems like heat sinks and cold plate are not suitable. Even if they were suitable, the power densities of these systems are impractical for automotive applications. Therefore, systems relying on spray cooling will find many military and commercial applications (e.g., radar systems, dc-dc converters, power supplies).


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E1.07-9285
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control for Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: High efficency lightweight radiators

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
XC Associates, inc
347 NY Rte 43
stephentown, NY 12168-0099
(518)733-0187

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
john bootle
bootle@xcassociates.com
347 NY Rte 43
stephentown, NY 12168-0099
(518)733-0187

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
XC Associates proposes to build on prior work to develop and characterize a very high efficiency, lightweight radiator constructed from high thermal conductivity carbon fibers. The radiator will be suitable for use on instruments carried by future spacecraft. The phase I effort will address the thermal performance and size limitations of the composite design. Since cryogenic applications are becoming more common the thermal characteristics of the radiator will be measured down to 45K. Modern spacecraft thermal control needs to be low mass and low cost. Composite thermal radiators will realize a greater than 60% weight saving compared to aluminum and the costs can be addressed by the use of standard technology that can be easily applied to new designs. The major innovation to be demonstrated by this project is the use of highly orientated fibers that completely eliminates the low through thickness thermal conductivity normally associated with traditional carbon fiber laminates. This highly oriented lay-up also allows the thickness of the radiator to be tapered down to less than 0.020" while retaining very high stiffness. Therefore, the radiator is much thinner than the equivalent aluminum radiator, which combined with lower density of composite construction, accounts for the significant weight reduction.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The lightweight radiator will have direct application for cooling of instruments and spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The lightweight radiator will have direct application for cooling of instruments and spacecraft.
The technology also has significance for thermal management of missiles and radar systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E1.07-9391
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control for Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Nanocomposix, Inc.
4326 Proctor Pl.
San Diego, CA 92116-1060
(619)890-0704

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Steven Oldenburg
Steven.Oldenburg@nanocomposix.com
4326 Proctor Pl.
San Diego, CA 92116-1060
(619)890-0704

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future NASA instrumentation will require increasingly sophisticated thermal control technology. We propose a next-generation nanofluid that consists of precisely manufactured nanoparticles that are added to existing coolant liquids. Even at very low loading levels, the nanoparticles dramatically increase the thermal conductivity and the critical heat flux of the fluid. Due to their small size, settling, abrasion, and clogging issues are eliminated, enabling the nanofluid to be immediately incorporated into existing thermal management systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
For instrumentation that requires tight temperature control, a highly conductive fluid will allow for more efficient and even heat transfer from the fluid to the instrument. Liquid cooling systems that have both high heat capacity and high thermal conductivity will allow for precise temperature control of high heat flux applications. The nanofluids will also reduce the quantity of required coolant resulting in a weight reduction of ground and space based instrumentation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The nanoparticles will be prepared as an additive that will provide large performance increases in critical heat flux cooling applications without requiring any process or tooling modifications. The nanofluid will also improve the thermal performance of miniaturized heat transport devices that are designed for applications such as cooling small sensors and devices.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E1.07-9445
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control for Instruments
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniaturized Thermal-cooler for IC Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
LW Microsystem, Inc
37466 Stonewood Dr.
Fremont, CA 94536-6652
(510)209-7469

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Yin Liu
yinliu@lwmicrosystems.com
37466 Stonewood Dr.
Fremont, CA 94536-6652
(510)209-7469

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal is submitted for research on using MEMS technology to make unique, highly reliable, miniaturized capillary pumped coolers in the application of Thermal Control for Instruments (subtopic: E1.07). The proposed miniaturized thermal-cooler can be fabricated on Si wafer or directly on the back of the IC circuits. The proposed micro-cooler potentially has high mechanical reliability. The proposed micro-cooler has its own coolant supply and needs no extra coolant reservoir and supply.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Small size, low cost micro-cooler can be implemented in any high power IC to control the temperature in NASA and general applications. It can also be used in other equipment that requires operated at low temperatures, such as micro-laser generators, etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Small size, low cost micro-cooler has a huge application market. It can be applied at all the micro-processors in PCs to enhance the performance. The potential market can be over billion dollars. Currently, there is no similar product in the market.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E2.01-7724
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Guidance, Navigation and Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Cost, Vacuum Packaging of GN&C Sensors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
SIWAVE, INC.
400 E. Live Oak Avenue
Arcadia, CA 91006-5619
(626)821-0570

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Kumaraswamy Jayaraj
k.jayaraj@siwaveinc.com
400 E. Live Oak Avenue
Arcadia, CA 91006-5619
(626)821-0570

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Micro-electro-mechanical System (MEMS)-based gyroscopes, accelerometers and rate sensors are essential to miniaturizing the guidance, navigation and control electronics of satellite systems. Wafer level packaging is the preferred method of sealing MEMS devices to achieve low cost. However, devices are currently housed in expensive hermetic packages. In the case of gyros, high vacuum levels need to be created and maintained to achieve high Q values. Current hybrid hermetic packages are expensive, heavy and bulky. Although there is considerable activity in developing wafer level sealing techniques, there is currently no universal approach to seal MEMS devices at the wafer level. SiWave proposes to develop a universal wafer level sealing technology that: does not require processing of the device wafer, achieves room temperature sealing enabling encapsulation of sensitive devices and provides for an evaporable getter to maintain a high vacuum over the life of the package. SiWave will package a very high accuracy, absolute pressure sensor to demonstrate the concept as well as to quantify the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Once sealed at the wafer level, the device can be singulated and packaged using conventional plastic packaging techniques or housed in a low cost, plastic enclosure depending on the application.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
This development will allow the realization of low cost, miniaturized GN&C sensors for microsats and conventional satellites. Commercial and space satellite systems requires many sensors for GN&C and packaging remains the last hurdle in benefiting from the numerous technical advancements in the sensor technology. This program will eliminate this hurdle.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
With the explosion of wireless medications across the globe, the need for RF devices such as T/R modules, SAWs, and MEMS RF switches is escalating as never before. The technology proposed here will provide high-performance hermetic encapsulation of the devices at the low costs achieved through batch processing and wafer level packaging.
Applications include wireless pressure sensors for the automotive industry, SAWs for cell phone, RF Datacom, and radio communications, and optical communications. Also, it is estimated that the inertial sensor market is around $0.7-1.4 Billion/year, pressure sensor market is about $1-2.5 Billion/year and market for other sensors around $1.2-2.5 Billion/year.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E2.01-8142
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Guidance, Navigation and Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: Guidance and Navigation Using Sun, Stars, and Light Video Recognition

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
BROADATA COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
2545 W. 237th St., Suite K
Torrance, CA 90505-5229
(310)530-1416

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Matheos Kazantzidis
alewis@broadatacom.com
2545 W. 237th St., Suite K
Torrance, CA 90505-5229
(310)530-1416

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA requires innovative guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) technology that addresses the high performance, reliability, power and volume requirements of future Earth Science (ES) missions. Specifically, ES architectures will include platforms of varying size and complexity in a number of mission trajectories and orbits. Novel approaches for autonomous control of large fleets of spacecraft, rockets, balloons and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are desired. Special interest is apportioned to augmenting and providing alternatives to GN&C, relative range and attitude determination during close formation, and proximity operations using video image processing technology. Broadata Communications, Inc. (BCI) proposes a novel vision-based attitude determination and relative range GN&C system called Guiding Stars, Sun and Light (GSSL). It is based on an innovative, real-time, video image, point distance set based, recognition technology that works well with the problem at hand.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed technology is designed for spacecraft attitude determination, relative ranging and on-board GPS validation. Due to its interoperable design it has a wide commercialization potential. Other direct NASA applications include instrument pointing and and stabilization, the Microsat attitude determination problem, spin and three-axis stabilization in Microsats, miniature spacecrafts, orbit determination, formation flying, pointing control and GN&C for stratospheric balloons, autonomous navigation of UAVs, and groups of UAVs. The video and imaging based recognition technology presented can further be used off-line in a non-real-time fashion. As such, it can perform post-processing of available imaging and image/video querying based on content. The location of the camera of the image and/or image content can be automatically determined and queried. Queries using specific Guides can be performed allowing for scientific, learning, and entertainment applications that promote NASA missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial applications include both the technology's real-time and non-real-time capabilities. The former includes, GN&C automated systems toys, robotics and advertising, security, mapping, or photography blimps. The latter includes, content based image search and warehousing, high volume automated location or timing recognition in photography used by real estate agencies, filming scouting, state attractions (e.g., find pictures and photos that contained the Twin Towers on the Internet), police investigations based on video/image/camera location, etc.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E2.02-8010
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Command and Data Handling
PROPOSAL TITLE: Universal Space IP Transparent Proxy

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
BROADATA COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
2545 W. 237th St., Suite K
Torrance, CA 90505-5229
(310)530-1416

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Matheos Kazantzidis
alewis@broadatacom.com
2545 W. 237th St., Suite K
Torrance, CA 90505-5229
(310)530-1416

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA requires protocols and architectures that will allow reduced levels of mission funding, shorter mission development schedules, and facilitate high availability of flight electronic components. The administration is strategically moving towards Internet based architectures and technologies. Internet protocols, however, are not designed for space communications and must be seamlessly adapted to support the characteristics of this environment. We are proposing the development of a Universal Space IP Transparent Proxy that leverages an innovative modular architecture to achieve accurate network monitoring and measurement as a means to effectively deal with design and performance problems of IP protocols in space environments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The USIT system, once deployed, will allow NASA to plan missions with reduced levels of funding through the use of technology developed for common widespread Internet. It is not only applicable to Command and Data Handling for ES missions, but generically supports IP use in NASA missions. Besides near-earth, space, and deep space communications, it is directly applicable to general purpose satellite communications, specifically networks that are characterized by "Long Fat Pipes" (LFNs) or narrow bandwidth, long propagation, RF telecommunications systems. It can be used to direct the use or Error Control and Compression in an on/off board system. Due to its support for reproducible experimentation it has direct commercialization potential as a sophisticated emulation platform for NASA research and development.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Many non-NASA applications and markets exist that have similar characteristics and requirements for USIT. Potential applications include wireless Internet access networks, especially satellite, Internet Service Provider performance management of backup links (that usually employ wireless technology), Mobile Enterprise Networking (for example, construction and real-estate industry), packet cellular networks, etc. The modularity of the USIT design allows the product to enhance performance in different types of access networks including 802.11, fiber optics, Ethernet, Bluetooth Scatternets, etc. The USIT system can also be used as a tool for research and development in universities and companies.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E2.02-9745
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Command and Data Handling
PROPOSAL TITLE: Securing data for space communications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
CompSys Technologies Inc.
435 Creekside Drive
Amherst, NY 14228-2112
(716)564-0881

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Sumita Mishra
mishra@compsystech.com
435 Creekside Drive
Amherst, NY 14228-2112
(716)564-0881

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's vision of data exchange between space and ground nodes would involve the space network accessing public infrastructure such as the internet. Hence, advanced security measures have to be developed to ensure information integrity and authentication.
The proposed innovations in this work are 1) A hierachical security model, where each level has a different security requirement and varying capabilities (such as power and ad hoc measure), 2) An adaptive key management protocol suite that would cater to the security needs of the network at the various levels, and 3) A novel key management scheme that uses threshold cryptography and group key management concepts.

The significance of our approach is to provide a key management solution that provides strong authentication and data integrity, a solution that is flexible and can be adapted according to different security requirements and capabilities of the network and a scheme that considers the performance capabilities of the participating nodes and provides solutions accordingly.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
In order to realize NASA's vision of Sensor-Web entailing a host of in-space and terrestrial communication links, enhanced network protocols and technologies are desired. Hence the developed authentication and data integrity methodology will be highly applicable to future NASA networks that would support secure communication among NASA spacecraft, commercial GEO networks and the ground systems. The proposed methodology will ensure authenticated data transfer between the public domain (Internet) and space-based networks. It will also satisfy the goals and objectives of NASA's Space Communications project, particularly for Proximity Wireless networks that aim to develop "energy-efficient, reliable, miniaturized, integrated wireless network technologies to enable robotic missions on planetary surfaces and in-space vehicles."

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Wireless handheld devices are in use in several commercial applications including office buildings, universities and industrial plants. However, secure communication is one of the primary limitations of current commercial/military wireless networks. Current IEEE standards and solutions are inadequate as far as Information Assurance is concerned.

Hence, the proposed authentication and key management solution is attractive for NASA as well as the private sector because it provides a unique methodology that ensures secure transmission of data between the nodes of any wireless network. It can be easily extended for mobile environments that include both wired and wireless segments based on varying commercial standards. With the availability of secure wireless access, organizations can provide wireless access to their servers outside their firewalls and buidings.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E2.03-9154
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Communication Technologies for Near-Earth Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rigidized Inflatable Veritex(TM) Structured For RF Antennas

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Cornerstone Research Group Inc
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440-3325
(937)320-1877

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Stephen D Vining
viningsd@crgrp.net
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440-3325
(937)320-1877

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Cornerstone Research Group inc. (CRG) proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of a lightweight, deployable Veritex TM supporting annulus structure to support large radio frequency (RF) antennas. VeritexTM composites are similar to other high-performance composites, with the exception that CRG's shape memory polymer (SMP) resin, VeriflexTM, is used as the matrix resin. This allows for easy manipulation of the composite above the activation temperature, making it a unique material for use in dynamic structures and other applications requiring both load strength and "shape-shifting" modulus flexibility. In this Phase I program, CRG will develop and evaluate materials and related fabrication technologies based on VeritexTM, and develop a deployment scheme with built-in redundancy. This technical approach fulfills NASA's requirement for a very large, lightweight, on-orbit deployable RF antenna aperture structure by offering a practical, deployable, structural support that will address the short comings of current rigidized inflatable structures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Supporting NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, this project's technologies directly address requirements for inexpensive, lightweight, highly compact launch configurations, and reliable precise deployment for thin-film space-based RF antennas.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
This project's technologies developed for NASA systems would directly apply to systems operated by other government and commercial enterprises.
Government systems that would derive the same benefits would include but not be limited to space-based sensor and communication systems operated by Department of Defense.
This technology's attributes for deployable antennas should yield a high potential for private sector commercialization for RF applications by Ball Aerospace and Technologies has documented their interest in this commercialization opportunity (see letter of support on page 25).
Deployable Veritex(TM)tubes may also be useful for terrestrial structures in disaster areas such as shelters and bridges.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E2.03-9691
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Communication Technologies for Near-Earth Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Radiation hardened Turbo Coded OFDM Modulator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Space Micro Inc.
12872 Glen Circle Road
Poway, CA 92064-2029
(858)487-9295

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Peter Nolan
pnolan@spacemicro.com
9765A Clairemont Mesa Blvd
San Diego, CA 92124-3443
(858)309-7000

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Space Micro Inc. proposes to develop an innovative Turbo-Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Modulation (TC-OFDM) ASIC device. The proposed device provides data transmission at very high data rates (1 ? 10 Gbps), with high bandwidth efficiency (up to 8 bps/Hz), and with excellent bit error rate (BER) performance at signal-to-noise ratios approaching Shannon's theoretical channel capacity limit. The TC-OFDM modulator is programmable so that a single ASIC device can support a wide variety of communication links, with different data rates, FEC code rates, and RF channel bandwidths. The modulator also supports dynamic adaptation of FEC code rate and modulation during operation, to maximize data transmission in systems with time-varying communication link conditions. The proposed TC-OFDM modulator is radiation hardened for operation on spacecraft and high altitude airborne platforms. The end result of the proposed SBIR program is innovative TC-OFDM communication link technology and components that will enable greatly increased data transmission rates from space-to-space and space-to-ground, to meet the needs of future NASA earth science missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed TC-OFDM modulation scheme will increase the data transmission capacity for NASA's near-earth missions by more than a factor of 10 as compared to existing systems. The TC-OFDM modulator device that is developed under this SBIR program can be used directly on a variety of future NASA Earth Science platforms, including the next generation TDRSS spacecraft, LEO/MEO earth science satellites, and high altitude airborne platforms such as drones and balloons, as well as manned aircraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The technology developed under this SBIR is directly applicable to other commercial systems, including: very high data rate telemetry systems (both line-of-sight and space-based), line-of-sight microwave links for telecommunications, and foreign government space systems. There are also non-NASA applications in the U.S. Government DoD, including the transformational satellite (TSAT) RF downlinks, and data transmission from other reconnaisance satellites and aircraft.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E2.04-9530
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Onboard Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Impulse Nanoparticulate-Based Gel Propellants

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Eltron Research Inc
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder, CO 80301-3241
(303)530-0263

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
James H. White
eltron@eltronresearch.com
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder, CO 80301-3241
(303)530-0263

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposed Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Phase I addresses the development of advanced gel propellants and determination of their suitability for selected applications. Currently, propellant gels consist of fuel (or oxidizer) combined with a polymeric gellant such as a cellulose derivative and suspended aluminum (or silica) particles. However, higher specific impulse and density specific impulse, more efficient (i.e., finer) spray formation, and reduced pumping requirements are desired so that formulations incorporating combustible particulate species (solid additive and particulate gellant, which, ideally would be the same) are sought. Phase I will consider a matrix of formulations drawn from various highly combustible solid nanoparticulate species and additives. Properties (density and Isp) of various formulations will be calculated. Formulations with the desired calculated Isp will be prepared and measurements of surface tension between various system components performed. Rheological properties of the resulting gels will be measured and the flow and spray characteristics of candidate formulations evaluated. Finally, initial testing of preferred gel systems arising from Phase I will be conducted. Phase II will consist of extensive testing of preferred propellant formulations and determination of their suitability for various applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Successful completion of the proposed program will lead to formulation and characterization of advanced gel propellants for a number of applications, including those for thrust and maneuvering. The technology will enhance Isp, increase density, and reduce sloshing in a variety of liquid propellants. Application to toxic propellants will reduce safety and environmental concerns as well.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The technology would attract interest from companies involved in fuel and propulsion manufacture. Additionally, the use of nanoparticles in other applications such as fluid properties modification are conceivable. The use of the propellants in APUs for aircraft or ballast blowing in ships are other potential applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E2.04-9798
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Onboard Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Silicon Digital Propulsion System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
PHYSICAL OPTICS CORPORATION
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821
(310)320-3088

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Michael Gertsenshteyn
sutama@poc.com
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821
(310)320-3088

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To address the NASA need for innovative, advanced, high-precision micropropulsion technologies to increase the operational capabilities and reduce the cost of Earth Science under-10-kg spacecraft for long-life missions, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Silicon Digital Propulsion (SIDIP) system. SIDIP will be inexpensive and power efficient, with minimal mass, and will deliver digitally controlled, high-precision attitude control and in-space maneuvering through micropulses of regulated duration and frequency. The SIDIP system is based on two key innovations: development of a novel, MEMS-based periodic structure of subminiature microthrusters; and unique implementation of the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology that POC has developed for processing Si wafers for precise micromachining of the hundreds (or more) of subminiature field emission electric microthrusters on a 1 in. x 1 in. Si microthruster plate (MTP). SIDIP will remarkably increase the precision of in-space maneuvering, and improve attitude and orbit control. NASA Earth Science missions will benefit from SIDIP, especially for miniatusre satellites in a cluster or constellation. In Phase I POC will optimize the SIDIP system geometry, develop technology for micromachining silicon MTPs, and demonstrate technologies for fabricating pyrimids and oxidizing matrix channels. In Phase II POC will demonstrate an engineering prototype SIDIP.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
POC's Silicon Digital Propulsion system will have a wide range of NASA Earth Science applications. It will support many drag-free Earth Observation Missions, which require ultraprecise attitude control, and will, for example, maintain submicron accuracy in relative position of separated elements of a large-array optical telescope. SIDIP technology will also find wide application in satellite electrical potential control and mass spectrometry.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
In addition to nanosat control, the SIDIP system will have applications in ion lithography, and in ion sources for nanofabrication; protein mass spectrometry; and nuclear research. POC's initial market research indicates that the SIDIP system will have a particularly high commercial potential as an innovative technology for large-format field-emission devices; for large plasma TV screens, especially, it will reduce manufacturing cost, operating voltage, and power consumption, and will increase the brightness and resolution of the screens.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E2.05-8310
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Energy Storage Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: 400 Wh/kg Secondary Battery

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Material Methods, LLC
3720 Campus Drive, Suite C
Newport Beach, CA 92660-2677
(949)474-4487

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Alexander A Gorkovenko
agorkovenko@materialmethods.com
3720 Campus Drive, Ste B/C
Newport Beach, CA 92660-2677
(949)474-4487

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Summary
Lithium-ion battery technology will not provide significant breakthroughs beyond 200 Wh/kg. It will not provide adequate specific energy and cycle life for Earth Science missions. It will not enable the United States to reestablish its position of strategic technical advantage in portable energy storage. However, the next generation of secondary Li batteries is being developed in the US. It is based on lithium metal anodes and sulfur containing liquid cathodes. The sulfur-based cathode delivers a theoretical specific energy of 2450 Wh/kg, more than any other known cathode material of secondary cell. The Li-S battery needs advanced technology for improved stabilization of the Li anode in the corrosive environment of the liquid sulfur cathode. We propose a novel application of modern rocket fuel chemistry to create a self-healing, solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) layer. Li-S cells equipped with this robust passivation will stably perform at 400 Wh/kg level for ~ 300 cycles. At 200 Wh/kg a cycle life of ~ 1000 cycles is expected. The good low temperature performance and excellent rate capability features of Li-S cell will remain intact. These features are the next leap toward the advanced energy storage technologies required for Earth science observation platforms.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Advanced energy storage technologies for Earth science observation platforms that include traditional spacecraft, airborne platforms, such as piloted and unpiloted aircraft and balloons, terrestrial platforms, micro-spacecraft, and surface penetrators.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Li/S will replace Li/Ion in majority of commercial applications requiring portable energy sources, such as cell phones, laptops and pen tabs computers, camcorders, digital cameras. Since rate capability of Li/S cell (liquid cathode versions) is much higher than LiIon and is comparable with aqueous electrolyte systems, it will also penetrate high rate applications markets such as power tools. Aqueous electrolyte-based batteries, such as Ni/Cd and Ni/MeH, currently dominate power tools market. It is expected that the developed Li/S technology will penetrate this market. In this case one Li/S battery will be replacing four (by weight basis) counterparts.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E2.06-8384
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Energy Conversion for Space Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: CuInGaAlSe2 solar absorbers on flexible high-temperature substrates

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
ITN Energy Systems, Inc.
8130 Shaffer Parkway
Littleton, CO 80127-4107
(303)285-5111

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Dr. Lawrence Woods
lwoods@itnes.com
8130 Shaffer Parkway
Littleton, CO 80127-4107
(303)285-5135

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ITN Energy Systems (ITN) proposes to take the next step in spacecraft solar array development, building upon previous development and new findings to make the definitive light-absorber layer for high-power, lightweight and flexible thin-film photovoltaics (TFPV). ITN's innovative approach is to alloy CuInSe2 (CIS) with both aluminum and gallium bandgap widening elements in the chalcopyrite matrix to form CuInGaAlSe2 (CIGAS) for simultaneous optimization of the bandgap and material properties. Both Ga and Al will be used to take advantage of the alloy enhancing properties that each offers when used in moderation, while avoiding the detrimental issues when using too much of any one element to achieve the optimum bandgap of about 1.45 eV for a single-junction in the space solar spectrum. Furthermore, a recently available novel lightweight, flexible and transparent substrate will be used that was specifically designed to enable high-temperature CIGAS depositions as needed for the highest efficiency TFPV. TFPV specific power of over 1500 W/kg at the blanket/module level would be achievable The novel transparent substrates would also enable additional power from bifacial visible light collection and lower temperature operation, from improved infra-red (IR) transmission, in addition to enabling TFPV fabrication by low-cost roll-to-roll processing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
ITN's proposed technology, potentially decreasing the weight of spacecraft solar power by 75%, would have broad impact on NASA spacecraft weight and launch costs. NASA applications would also benefit from a wide-bandgap PV device, as proposed, for better thermal stability, better temperature coefficients, and higher-voltage solar arrays. Furthermore, the high specific power (W/kg) and ability of the proposed TFPV to be integrated into the balloon, high-altitude airship (HAA) or tent fabric, would enable balloon or HAA applications, in addition to modular and quick deploying tents for surface assets or lunar or Mars base power. The high specific power and power density would also enable Earth and Mars unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Two of the most important, near-term markets for high-efficiency flexible lightweight photovoltaics are spacecraft and aerostats/high-altitude airships (HAA). The target customers for this market are aerospace companies, defense, and communications industries. The largest market is in the evolving HAA industry, but there is also an opportunity in the well-established satellite community. Market projections indicate that approximately 16.5 MW of flexible thin film PV power will to be launched for HAA's, and 1.0 MW of space PV power will be launched between 2007 and 2011. In the long term, as the costs eventually come down with manufacturing process improvements and economies of scale, the PV space/HAA product technology can be leveraged for the implementation of the low-cost monolithic tandem PV terrestrial product. The terrestrial PV market is projected to be a $163 ? 302 M (min and max estimates) per year market by 2010 for thin-film technologies in North America alone, with a compound annual growth rate between 16.1% and 32.3%.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E2.06-8702
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Energy Conversion for Space Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Milliwatt Radioisotope Stirling Convertor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Sest, Inc.
18000 Jefferson Park, Suite 104
Middleburg Heights, OH 44130-3440
(440)234-9173

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
L. Barry Penswick
lbpenswick@ameritech.net
18000 Jefferson Park
Suite 104, OH 44130-3440
(440)234-9173

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Sest, Inc. proposes to perform a detailed evaluation at the both convertor and component levels of a small, low electrical output power (50 to 500 mW) Stirling cycle based convertor utilizing light weight radioisotope heater units (LWRHU) as the heat source. The proposed milliwatt radioisotope Stirling convertor (MRSC) will be optimized for output power with source temperatures in the range of 480 to 560 oK so as to provide electric power at convertor efficiencies in the range of 15 to 20% and sized to make maximum use of the existing LWRHU heat source. These efficiency levels are on the order of 2 to 4 times those of thermoelectric conversion systems. The evaluation processes will incorporate an in-depth evaluation of the structural materials and fabrications techniques required to maximize convertor specific power while at the same time insuring high reliability and long operating life. Due to the unique operating characteristics of convertors of this size a proof of concept linear alternator will be developed and tested during Phase I. At the completion of the proposed Phase I effort a specific final configuration for the detailed hardware design and fabrication in the Phase II effort will be fully defined. In addition a scaling study will be performed identify optimal configurations over the entire power range of interest.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed low power generating system, operating at power outputs in the range of 50 to 500 mW, has a number of potential NASA and US government agency applications. It provides small, robust stand-alone power systems for sensors and communication equipment integrated into single unit. The significantly greater efficiency of the proposed system will minimize the number of LWRHU, or related, heat sources dramatically reducing system cost and minimizing environmental concerns with the use of isotope heat sources. Extremely "aggressive" environments such as high external pressures, low temperatures, and chemically active sites represent areas of use of the proposed system. Another application is the use of the proposed system as the power supply for very small satellite systems that may find wider use in the future. The simplicity of the isotope heat source combined with the proposed MRSC convertor will yield high efficiency power supplied with long maintenance free operating lives.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
While the radioisotope heat source generally is limited to space applications, the potential also exists that this type of small self contained power source could be used for terrestrial applications. While recovery of the device will be critical, applications such as underwater environmental monitoring in deep-sea areas or under ice in cold climates represents strong possibilities. In these cases the power supply would be directly coupled with the sensor package forming a compact self-contained unit.

The advent of MEMS level combustion devices may also provide a long life, combustion driven heat source that could supply the necessary thermal energy for the low power MRSC system described in the proposed work. These combustors could be based on "conventional" combustion techniques yielding source temperatures well above those provided by the LWRHU configuration or utilize less conventional techniques such as low temperature catalytic reactions providing source temperatures in line with those of the LWRHU system. Application for such devices could include environmental monitoring, metering of remote / dangerous facilities (for example gas / oil wells) where non-conventional combustion techniques may have a premium and a wide range of self powered industrial and consumer products.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E2.06-8773
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Energy Conversion for Space Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Efficiency Quantum Dot III-V Thermophotovoltaic Cell for Space Power

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Essential Research Inc
6410 Eastland Rd. Suite D
Cleveland, OH 44142-1306
(440)816-9850

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
William King
king@essential-research.com
6410 Eastland Rd. Suite D
Cleveland, OH 44142-1306
(440)816-9850

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Quantum dots are nanoscale materials that have already improved the performance of optical sensors, lasers, light emitting diodes and solar cells. The unique properties of these nanomaterials offer tremendous benefit in developing high efficiency thermophotovoltaic cells as well. Theoretical studies predict a potential efficiency of 63.2% for an array of quantum dots sandwiched between the emitter and base layers in a typical photovoltaic junction. Significant gains can also be expected in the case of thermophotovoltaic cells.

We propose an InGaAs TPV cell which incorporates InAs quantum dots to provide sub-gap absorption and thus improve the short-circuit current. This cell could then be integrated into a MIM to achieve a TPV cell whose efficiency would significantly exceed (by about 15% to 20%) current SOA standards. These TPV cells can be used for deep space missions, with a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) fueled by plutonium-238 as the on-board source of heat.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Quantum dots will allow NASA not only to improve device efficiency by expanding the spectral response of individual cells, but to improve the temperature coefficients and radiation tolerance as well. The inherently radiation tolerant quantum dots can be used to take advantage of thermal assist in carrier generation which will actually benefit form higher temperature operation. This is extremely important as NASA attempts to increase array specific power with new designs and continues to expand the range of environments to be encountered in future missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Successful completion Phase I and Phase II of the proposed work will lead to the development of radiation-resistant thermophotovoltaic cells that will deliver power beyond the realm of any thermophotovoltaic cell that is now available, or under development. Upon achieving this goal, Essential Research plans to enter into licensing arrangement with Emcore Photovoltaic to manufacture and market this product, while working with them for a successful technology transfer and continuing R&D work on the product.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E2.07-8058
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Platform Power Management and Distribution
PROPOSAL TITLE: ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT, HIGH EFFICIENCY SILICON-CARBIDE (SIC) BASED POWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
ARKANSAS POWER ELECTRONICS INTERNATIONAL, INC.
700 W Research Blvd
Fayetteville, AR 72701-7174
(479)443-5759

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Alexander B Lostetter
alostet@apei.net
700 W Research Blvd
Fayetteville, AR 72701-7174
(479)799-6578

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Small Business of Innovation Research Phase I proposal seeks to investigate and prove the feasibility of developing highly efficient, ultra-lightweight SiC semiconductor based power electronic converters for Earth science mission vehicles. With high temperature operation of power electronics components, heatsinking and active cooling thermal management strategies can be significantly downgraded; thus reducing the size, volume, and weight of the overall power electronic systems by as much as an order of magnitude. This would translate directly to savings in space launch costs and in improving vehicle payload capacity. SiC power devices have a theoretical junction temperature operational limit of over 600 oC, and with the recent advancement of these devices, high efficiency ultra-lightweight power electronics system will become a reality within the next 5 years. SiC power devices also offer other improved performance characteristics over their silicon counterparts, including 10? the blocking voltages, 10? the power densities, reduced switching losses, and improved switching frequencies up into the 10s of GHz range. Modularizing these SiC power converters for easy utilization in all facets of NASA vehicular power management and distribution applications would provide the potential for substantial financial savings, improved reliability, and improved performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The development of ultra-lightweight SiC power converters would find application in a number of NASA orbital, aerospace, marine, and deep space missions. These converters would offer volume, weight, and performance benefits for energy conversion power systems, including; solar arrays, fuel cell or battery banks, nuclear powered cores, or other power sources. The same technology could be used in a wide range of other power electronics systems as well, including DC actuator/motor drives for vehicle or spacecraft appendages, AC motor drives, and power distribution/protection systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The ability to operate at high temperatures and high power densities makes the SiC technology attractive for deep earth petroleum exploration equipment, military motor drive applications (such as for hybrid-electric combat vehicles), commercial fuel cell power converters, or upgrades to the national power grid. Longer term applications would be driven by reduced costs, where it is envisioned the technology will dominate the industrial machines motor drive markets with high efficiency, high power density, motor integrated solutions. Baldor Motors, one of the world's leading manufacturers of electric motors and drives, has shown great interest in the potential of this technology for the commercial market-place, and has provided a letter of support.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E2.07-8325
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Platform Power Management and Distribution
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Temperature Electrical Insulation Materials for Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
T/J Technologies Inc
P.O. Box 2150
Ann Arbor, MI 48106-2150
(734)213-1637

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Dr. Junqing Ma
jma@tjtechnologies.com
3850 Research Park Drive Suite A
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-2240
(734)213-1637

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's future space science missions cannot be realized without the state of the art high temperature insulation materials of which higher working temperature, high reliability, and low cost are highly desired. T/J Technologies proposes to develop a high temperature, durable, readily processable electrical insulation materials. The key element of our approach is the development and demonstration, in a breadboard configuration, the feasibility of a new high temperature polymeric composite material based on organic-inorganic nanocomposites with tailored structure and composition that will dramatically increase the Glass Transition Temperature and working temperature of the host polymer, polyimides. Future work of this proposed research, during phase II, will be mainly focused on developing all the associated technologies. The development of high working temperature, durable, radiation resistant electrical insulation materials is important for on-board propulsion and power systems for manned and unmanned deep space missions within NASA as well as electrical and microelectronic industries for applications such as capacitors, electric motors, circuit-printing films, semiconductor coating, etc.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
For this program, we are seeking to directly address the market needs of NASA for high temperature insulation materials that are durable for soft x-ray, electron, proton, and ultraviolet radiation and thermal cycling environments, lightweight electromagnetic interference shielding, and high-performance, environmentally durable thermal control surfaces. Based on the unique nano-reinforcement mechanism, the proposed high temperature insulation material will possess superior thermal mechanical properties and will meet all the requirements for NASA's manned and unmanned deep space missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed composite material may find its use in the electrical and microelectronic industries for applications such as capacitors, electric motors, circuit-printing films, semiconductor coating, etc. The proposed composite materials may also be used as a new class of high performance engineering plastics.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E3.01-7624
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automation and Planning
PROPOSAL TITLE: Taxonomy Enabled Discovery (TED)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Inxight Software Inc
500 Macara Ave
Sunnyvale, CA 94085-2807
(408)738-6200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Ramana Rao
rrao@inxight.com
500 Macara Ave
Sunnyvale, CA 94085-2807
(408)738-6200

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposal addresses the NASA's need to enable scientific discovery and the topic's requirements for: processing large volumes of data, commonly available on the Internet, into useful information; intelligent search of large, distributed data archives and data discovery through searches of heterogeneous data sets and architectures; and search agents that support the use of NASA data. A precondition for data discovery in large distributed data environments, is the accurate and consistent characterization of the data stored in the archives. To accurately and consistently characterize data requires an enterprise policy and process for tagging data with metadata. Our proposal for a Taxonomy Enabled Discovery system (TED) provides a process and technology that assists and automates the process of generating and harvesting metadata. The approach employs a highly innovative taxonomy management platform, based on a hybrid of linguistic, statistical, machine learning, and advanced visualization techniques, enhanced with NASA data, supporting open metadata standards and a grid architecture. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach in a NASA NTRS OAI-PMH (Open Archives Initiative ? Protocol for Metadata Harvesting) environment and prototype.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Potential NASA Applications: Such a system would have broad applicability across NASA. STI (Science and Technical Information) NTRS (National Technical Report Server) network of distributed servers is the primary target. Other applications could include enhanced text mining for applications such as ASRS (Aviation Safety Reporting System), the ExpertFinder database, or the PLLS database (Public Lessons Learned System). More generally TED could enhance any application that processes and stores unstructured content, such as Web Content Management Systems, Document Management Systems, and Email Systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Potential Non-NASA Commercial Applications: TED could provide enhanced processing of unstructured data in a wide range of enterprise systems including document management, Web content management, email, information retrieval, and knowledge management systems.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E3.01-8639
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automation and Planning
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Constraint-based Geospatial Data Integration System for Wildfire Management

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
FETCH TECHNOLOGIES
2041 Rosecrans Ave, Suite 245
El Segundo, CA 90245-4789
(310)414-9849

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Steven Minton
Minton@Fetch.com
2041 Rosecrans, Suite 245
El Segundo, CA 90245-4789
(310)414-9849

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a constraint-based system for automatically integrating online, heterogeneous data sources with geospatial data produced by NASA in order to allow users to easily analyze terrestrial phenomena, such as wildfires. Current commercial technology permits only limited types of integration - usually between structured databases - in this regard. However, particularly with the emergence of the Internet, there now exist an enormous number of other online information sources that can be combined with maps, MODIS products, and other geospatial products in order to better assist human analysis. In this project we will extend an existing constraint-based data integration system that we previously developed to allow users to easily integrate online data, annotate and extend that data (to add a layer of "knowledge" on top of the raw data), and rapidly identify updates to data. This will result in a concise, rich, integrated interface that allows one to more easily and quickly analyze complicated phenomena. We intend to demonstrate the feasability of this approach in the context of a real application, wildfire management and pre-season planning.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The project will directly explore a specific application area, wildfire management and pre-season planning, where NASA products are of critical importance. The project team will collaborate with end users at the Okanogan-Winatchee National Forest, as well as with members of the Ecological Forecasting group at NASA Ames who are developing new data products relevant to wildfire prevention.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The technology described will allow online, heterogeneous data sources to be integrated with geospatial data in a customized fashion, an important capability for our existing military and government customers. In addition, this technology is critical for a new market we are exploring - situation monitoring for emergency planning and response.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E3.01-9377
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automation and Planning
PROPOSAL TITLE: Magic Bullet: Real-time Anytime Treatment Learning

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
bart-massey.com LLC
17757 Schalit Way
Lake Oswego, OR 97035-5441
(503)636-0320

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Tim Menzies
tim@bart-massey.com
1965 SE 23RD AVE
Portland, OR 97214-3957
(503)231-5277

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Quality vehicle health management systems are critical to the successful operation of modern sounding rockets, and other unmanned vehicles. Unfortunately, the software of these systems tends to be complex and rigid and thus expensive and failure-prone, especially given the several real-time constraints of rocketry. We propose to develop the ``Magic Bullet'' Adaptive Intelligent Vehicle Health Management (AIVHM) System, a novel adaptive control system for sounding rockets based on the technologies of treatment learning and Bayes classification. This system will be able to derive an appropriate control strategy for a vehicle in the event of partial system failure. Our relationship with the Portland State Aerospace Society (PSAS) provides us with a unique opportunity to evaluate and deploy these methods at extremely low cost and with extremely low risk, for simulation and even actual flight testing. The PSAS LV2 rocket has a navigation and control system architecture ideally suited to experimentation with the proposed system. As senior technical advisory to PSAS, our organization is well-positioned to prototype and deploy the Magic Bullet AIVHMs technology with PSAS. We expect this deployment to result in the information needed to scale the technology to larger, more complex, more demanding avionics applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The Magic Bullet AIVHMS is highly general: it should be useful wherever autonomous vehicles with intelligent VHM are required. Sounding rockets within NASA and elsewhere are prime candidates for the the AIVHMS. We believe that there is a strong potential for NASA to contract for either COTS avionics navigation and control packages containing Magic Bullet technology, or for consulting to apply the technology in-house.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Because of its expected simplicity and low cost, the Magic Bullet technology should be of near-term interest to commercial developers of inexpensive, high quality avionics. Groups exploring Unmanned Aerial Vehicle avionics (including NASA) should find the AIVHMS useful. Indeed, almost any kind of unmanned autonomous vehicle, including land and underwater craft, should be able to benefit from Magic Bullet. While it may be difficult to safety-qualify the Magic Bullet AIVHMS as a primary controller for human flight in the short term, it should nonetheless be usable in controlled-responsibility ancillary systems for commercial avionics.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E3.01-9496
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automation and Planning
PROPOSAL TITLE: Easy-to-Use UAV Ground Station Software for Low-Altitude Civil Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Seagull Technology Inc
1700 Dell Avenue
Campbell, CA 95008-6902
(408)364-8200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Gregory C Carr
gcarr@seagull.com
1700 Dell Ave.
Campbell, CA 95008-6902
(408)364-8200

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to design and develop easy-to-use Ground Control Station (GCS) software for low-altitude civil Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operations. The GCS software will allow a UAV user to 1) specify the mission in the user's language, rather than the traditional jargon of mission and flight plan-ning, and 2) execute the mission without relying on additional personnel who have specialized piloting skills. The user specifies the mission through a combination of natural-language instructions and graphi-cal interfaces, and the GCS software translates the user instructions into a mission plan that is executed autonomously. This innovation will enable a paradigm shift in UAV operations by freeing end users from their dependency on expert operators to fulfill the mission. The proposed Phase I work focuses on requirements analysis and the design and demonstration of a prototype GCS User Interface. We will also develop a plan for a Phase II effort to further develop and demonstrate the GCS software with an existing UAV platform for a specific application. This research directly addresses the NASA Earth Science Enterprise requirement for Automation and Planning technologies that "allow either spacecraft or ground systems to robustly perform complex tasks given high-level goals with minimal human direction."

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
NASA envisions that the results of the AIST topic work will "reduce the risk, cost, size, and development time of ESE space-based and ground-based information systems." The development of easy-to-use UAV GCS software directly addresses the requirements and goals of the AIST Topic. This innovative technol-ogy could substantially reduce the risks and costs associated with both the development and use of UAVs for observation and measurement. The software technology would be of immediate value to a number of the Earth Science Enterprise national applications including Agricultural Efficiency, Air Quality, Avia-tion, Disaster Management, and Homeland Security.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
A significant market exists for low-cost UAV systems for non-military applications ranging from wildfire fighting to traffic surveillance to crop spraying. A number of UAV technologies have been designed and developed to meet the demands of these civil applications. These include small and "low-cost" fixed-wing and rotorcraft UAV platforms, CNS technologies, and mission planning applications. In most existing UAV systems, the Ground Control Station (GCS) software and hardware require highly special-ized skills to plan and execute a mission. An analysis of the marketplace indicates that there is a need for easy-to-use ground stations for both commercial and scientific applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E3.02-8969
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Distributed Information Systems and Numerical Simulation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Configurable Project Collaboration Portal

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
SPLASHNOTE SYSTEMS, INC.
3080 Olcott Street, Suite 125-B
Santa Clara, CA 95054-3229
(408)986-6098

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Scott Tse
scott@splashnote.com
3080 Olcott Street, Suite 125-B
Santa Clara, CA 95054-3229
(408)986-8098

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SplashNote Systems is proposing to develop a more effective and innovative approach to project collaboration in distributed teams. The proposed system uniquely gives a non-technical user the ability to configure and structure ? within minutes ? the information context for team action as well as the functionality of the interaction. A key innovation is an intuitive Design Builder, which allows users to assemble a project page via drag-and-drop commands. Another key innovation is a transformation grammar, which converts semantic-based instructions into machine codes.

The resulting technology is especially well suited to the operational requirements of NASA. A web-based architecture allows distributed teams to collaborate from anywhere with Internet access. The project portal design enables everyone on the team to share the same contextual information, and to take action based on the latest information. Importantly, the ease with which the project interface can be defined allows each project to be quickly customized to the specific interactive demands of that project.

Phase I will focus on developing the design of the system, showing its feasibility, and researching the system's usability for NASA. Phase II will perform the engineering development of the system, and will result in a field-installable prototype ready for trials at NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
This project collaboration portal system is especially well suited to the conditions of project team operations at NASA, where teams are often widespread and projects are typically information intensive. Examples of potential applications can be found from the most esoteric scientific projects (e.g., collaboratory) to interplanetary mission planning to the most mundane daily administrative tasks (e.g., inventory collection, budget analysis).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
This system is especially valuable for dispersed groups that need to act within an information context. Examples can be found in many team-based, information-intensive industries, such as consulting, legal, accounting, and finance. Other examples include enterprises that require tight coordination with suppliers or customers (e.g., automobile, aircraft). Applications can also be found in government entities, such as branches of Defense, which often need to gather or share time-critical information and data in a structured format across several agencies. This system would be invaluable in such situations as coordination of supplies and logistics, resource allocation, and mission planning.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E3.03-7696
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Geospatial Data Analysis Processing and Visualization Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: User Centric Data Acquisition and Delivery Sytems for Precision Ag

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
NVISION SOLUTIONS INC.
Suite 146J, Bldg 1103, SSC
Stennis Space Center, MS 39529-6000
(228)688-3951

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Craig Harvey
charvey@nvs-inc.com
Suite 146J, Bldg 1103, SSC
Stennis Space Center, MS 39529-6000
(228)688-2205

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The availability of remotely sensed data has been improving with each new high-resolution satellite obtaining operational capability in orbit. However, the ability of commercial and government entities to efficiently share or sell this data has not kept pace. The proposed GeoSpatial data distribution system will exploit recent improvements in advanced computing environments and processing algorithms to provide on demand products with a "no minimum purchase" requirement.

The inability of data providers to efficiently create and disseminate small foot prints or even on-demand data products has been a limiting factor in expanding the use of remotely sensed data. Creating a system that can efficiently distribute data or products in small foot prints will greatly improve the economic viability of the entire industry.

Providing a customer initiated order system will make ordering up remotely sensed data as easy as creating a Web-based profile and interactively selecting and downloading the raw-data of choice or choosing and executing the real-time development of a data product. Pay by the square kilometer with no minimums. Use of the advanced functions provide unprecedented functionality to create a new, customer defined data product.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The prototype application will allow NASA to distribute data internally and to the public utilizing a fully automated distribution system. Providing data in requested geographic extent, projection, datum, or as a processed data product will create an entirely new set of data users.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The ability or inability to utilize remotely sensed data most often rests with the affordability of the data. The operational costs associated with sub-setting and delivering data are extensive, resulting in the extensive geographic extents required to make a commercial profit. The ability to automatically disseminate data in a user defined geographic extent will greatly increase the potential sales of all data vendors. This methodology can be applied to photography as well as satellite data. Building this hands-off data ordering and dissemination system will revolutionize the methods by which raster data is currently managed and sold.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E3.03-8126
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Geospatial Data Analysis Processing and Visualization Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Algorithms and Software Architecture for the Production of DEM data from LIDAR

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
DIAMOND DATA SYSTEMS
5732 Salmen St. Suite C
New Orleans, LA 70123-3288
(504)729-9100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Keith Alphonso
kalphonso@diamonddata.com
5732 Salmen St. Suite C
New Orleans, LA 70123-3288
(228)688-3145

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Diamond Data Systems (DDS) proposes the development of a new, advanced architecture, algorithms and software to support the end-to-end processing of LIDAR data to derive a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Our approach is innovative in three ways. First, we propose a complete end-to-end system instead of a solution that addresses only a single step of the complex problem of accurately gathering, processing, and reporting of the data. Secondly, we propose a system that is designed to minimize human interaction and manual data entry. Thirdly, and possibly the most important part of this innovation, is that we propose both the implementation of multiple algorithms to perform the data processing, as well as an extensible software architecture which allows new algorithms to be incorporated into the system in the future. This approach allows for the development of a dynamic system which can be extended in the future as better algorithms are developed. Our proposal is relevant to topic E3.03 in that it provides for the efficient production of a DEM product from an active imaging system (LIDAR). Current approaches to this problem only solve parts of the problem and do not provide an integrated system for end-to-end processing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
All Earth Science: An accurate model of the earth's surface is a key component in almost all earth science applications.
Homeland Security Decision Support: This technology provides the data that makes it possible to perform accurate modeling of gaseous cloud plume propagation.
Flood Prediction: Our technology will make it cost effective to gather the high resolution terrain data needed for this type of modeling.
Space Exploration: The study of the lunar and Martian surface will require extensive terrain mapping. Our technology will make this mapping feasible and cost effective.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The application of this technology will benefit the non-NASA market sector by making the processing of LIDAR data inexpensive enough to be commercially viable for applications such as agriculture, land-use, and urban planning.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E3.03-8392
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Geospatial Data Analysis Processing and Visualization Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Object Configuration Similarity Approach to Georegistration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Milcord LLC
1050 Winter Street Suite 1000, #10008
Waltham, MA 02451-1402
(617)905-1486

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Peggy Agouris
pagouris@milcord.com
20 Godfrey Drive
Orono, ME 04473-3610
(207)581-2180

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Conflation and co-registration are critical applications for NASA, especially for co-registration of datasets differing in scale, resolution, sensor spectrum range (e.g. optical with IR or thermal imagery). Traditional georegistration solutions in the geospatial, photogrammetric, and computer vision communities select a set of control features in an existing database and identify the same features in an incoming dataset. However, these registration algorithms are not robust due to variations in scale, resolution, and sensor characteristics, where the identification of control features becomes a complex and challenging process. Recent NASA sponsored innovations include Feature Analyst (FA) automation with a registration scheme that is along the lines of traditional tools (e.g. use few control features to co-register two datasets). Here, we propose a new approach based object configuration similarity. Our solution - a departure from traditional approaches ? uses abstract spatial relations (e.g. three square buildings forming an orthogonal triangle with a river running between them) as matching features, and transforms the registration problem into a spatial similarity assessment problem. Our approach results in unparalleled pull-in range as coarse location data are adequate to support the recovery of registration information for a configuration.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
NASA applications include the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Core System (ECS) Synergy Program, NASA Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC), Remote Data Store (RDS). We intend to pursue opportunities with DAAC prime contractor Raytheon, and University Lab Synergy partners.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Other potential users of our proposed technology is the Geospatial One-Stop Program, NOAA Electronic Navigational Charts Program, various NGA programs, DoD Distributed Common Ground System (AF), Army Common Ground Station (CGS) program (Army), UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) and SWARM (Smart Warfighting Array of Reconfigurable Modules) programs.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E3.04-8588
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Data Management and Visualization
PROPOSAL TITLE: 3D Multi-Channel Networked Visualization System for National LambdaRail

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
PHYSICAL OPTICS CORPORATION
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821
(310)320-3088

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Andrew Kostrzewski
sutama@poc.com
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821
(310)320-3088

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
National LambdaRail (NLR) offers unprecedented communication capabilities on the National and possibly International levels. Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new 3D multichannel networked (3DMCN) system for visualizing large collections of Earth science data in a highly distributed and networked environment, compatible with the high speed National LambdaRail (NLR), with the necessary interfaces and video processing hardware/software. One of the critical issues in the development of such systems is the capability to transmit high-resolution (High Definition format) multi-channel images/video from a central rendering/processing location to multiple visualization stations, which can be thousands of miles apart. To address 3D video/telepresence on the NLR POC will develop special compression software for multi-channel transmission, removing both intra- and inter-channel redundancy. At the end of Phase I POC will demonstrate 3D video transmission over multi-Gigabit Ethernet channels in a laboratory environment. In Phase II a full system with multiple visualization stations connected to the NLR will be developed, including network interfaces, video compression, and 3D video stations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The initial application of 3DMCN will be for Earth science data visualization, with particular emphasis on networked true 3D environment visualization. This initial application reflects the focus of this project on the needs of NASA. Other applications of the 3DMCN systems will include mapping: meteorological imagery for weather maps, satellite imagery for satellite image maps, topographic maps, digital elevation models (DEMs), and specialized maps showing geology, hydrology, demography, vegetation, agricultural land use, cities, forests, roads, etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed 3DMCN technology is ideal for multichannel live video transmission and storage. This technology has many applications in visualization, video communication, virtual reality, medicine, and related fields. In addition to advanced multi-channel 3D visualization, it will bring new bandwidth efficiency to computer training and simulation, video games, air traffic control, environmental monitoring, and automatic satellite orbit control.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E3.05-8825
SUBTOPIC TITLE: On-Board Science for Decisions and Actions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Autonomous Collaborative Agents for Onboard Multi-Sensor Re-Targeting

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2785
(301)294-5200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Goutam Satapathy
goutam@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive
Rockville, MD 20855-2785
(301)294-5249

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Technologies that support the configuration of sensors and satellites, and allow the reconfiguration or retargeting of sensors in response to user demand or significant events require mechanisms to autonomously understand the type and current state of on-board resources and to re-task these resources in such as way that the system achieves its global objectives. Here we propose the development of an integrated framework for onboard dynamic sensor (re)configuration, discovery and classification of data, based on SensorML (Sensor model language). We also model each satellite as a multi-criteria multi constraint optimization problem to optimize the usage of resources in response to significant events without adversely affecting the normal operations. This is achieved through negotiation among various satellites that have overlapping sensing capabilities so that globally optimal solutions can be found by computing joint plan qualities resulting due to sharing of resources. We propose to use IAI's propriety Cybele agent platform (www.cybelepro.com) that provides capability to model and simulate such complex distributed systems. DIVA a case tool developed by IAI would be employed to design and implement negotiation protocols among satellite agents to demonstrate the collaborative global optimization of autonomous planning process for multi-sensor retargeting.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The immediate NASA application is in integrating sensor configuration and control. A unified framework for sensor definition and discovery along with an intelligent autonomous control mechanism will enable a level of autonomy and dynamic responsiveness in remote satellite based monitoring capabilities. It eliminates the need for intensive manual intervention in the event of sensor failures or significant events by providing sufficient on-board intelligence to dynamically reschedule the resources.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Any resource scheduling and control problem can be addressed by this solution. Of special interest is factory scheduling and planning, decentralized control of autonomous robots, team formation in distributed systems, evolutionary systems such as ecological and natural systems.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E4.01-7642
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Innovative Tools and Techniques Supporting the Practical Uses of Earth Science Observations
PROPOSAL TITLE: MODIS-Based Products for Operational Decision Support Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
SMH Consulting
200 Innovation Blvd.
State College, PA 16803-6602
(814)237-4060

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Dmitry L. Varlyguin
dmitry@gdacorp.com
200 Innovation Blvd., Suite 234
State College, PA 16803-6602
(814)237-4060

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SMH Consulting proposes to develop a web-based decision support system to assist in Rapid Assessment, Monitoring, and Management (RAMM-DSS) on a regional scale. SMH Consulting will focus on the Chesapeake Bay Watershed and collaborate with the Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) for the RAMM-DSS development during Phase I. The RAMM-DSS will supplement operational decision support tools already in use with tailored data products routinely derived from NASA's MODIS data. Delivery of data products and information will be through a web portal where users can view, query, and download data for a specified area and time period of interest. The RAMM-DSS will support NASA missions by (i) lowering technical and logistical barriers to the use of ESE data, (ii) making ESE data easy-to-use for practitioners, and (iii) supporting educational initiatives on use of RS data in operational scenarios. The web delivery of data and information tailored to client requirements will bridge the gap between RS data providers and applicational users. Further, the educational component consisting of real-world, hands-on case studies and RS and satellite/sensor overviews, will aim to eventually close this gap altogether by making practitioners more knowledgeable and aware of the use of RS data in their daily operations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
This project will meet NASA goals by:
? Making MODIS-based data products and information useful and easy-to-use by practitioners on a routine basis
? Supporting the development of operational decision support systems
? Developing a unique, systematic method for delivery of MODIS-based data products to end-users by further processing Level 2 data to match exact user requirements and incorporating a unique "Alerting service"

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
? Monitoring of soil and crop conditions, identifying "problem" areas, and improving planting/harvesting schedules;
? Monitoring ground conditions and cost effectively allocating resources during, for example, snow storms and floods
? Identifying areas of LC changes to reduce expenses of county and state wide re-mapping programs and introducing information on current LC planning activities and assessments, modeling, and development initiatives;
? Enabling an early warning system for the detection and monitoring of, for example, forest fires and gypsy moth outbreaks; and
? Providing climate/weather modeling and forecasting entities with improved regional and global datasets on cloud and snow cover dynamics.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E4.01-7747
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Innovative Tools and Techniques Supporting the Practical Uses of Earth Science Observations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Monitoring Using Satellite Imagery

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Microtel LLC
111 Centerway
Greenbelt, MD 20770-1808
(301)345-4005

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Bruce Trout
Bruce.Trout@Microtel-LLC.com
111 Centerway
Greenbelt, MD 20770-1808
(301)345-4005

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Work done at Water Resources Center, University of Minnesota has demonstrated the feasibility of performing regional assessment of lake water quality using Landsat imagery. Microtel LLC is proposing to tune algorithms available from this research to process imagery collected by NASA Advanced Land Imager (ALI) to generate water quality mappings (secchi depth transparency and chlorophyll a) of the Chesapeake Bay. Extensive ground truth measurements collected routinely and specifically during satellite overflights by Maryland DNR will be utilized to verify results. This proposal is innovative because it will determine the suitability of NASA earth science data for managers concerned with stewardship of the earth's inland water resources. This proposal is significant because it will develop innovative technology that allow the routine use of NASA Earth science results in automated water quality decision support tools. This proposal addresses solicitation subtopic E4.01 "Innovative Tools and Techniques Supporting the Practical Uses of Earth Science Observations". Accurate and timely water quality maps of the Chesapeake Bay will provide a valuable source of information for water management and policy decision makers.


POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Use of satellite imagery to routinely perform Chesapeake Bay water quality monitoring:
? demonstrate the application of satellite imagery to assess critical problems (ie, water quality)
? might provide practical insight into user needs in future NASA remote sensing satellites
? could broaden the customer base for ALI imagery

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Generation of spatially intensive Chesapeake Bay water quality maps has the following applications :
? assist in water quality monitoring required by the 2000 Chesapeake Bay Agreement
? alert water resource managers to areas of concern
? identify point and non-point pollution sources
? measure the success of filtering by oysters at oyster restoration sites
? provide valuable information on Submerged Aquatic Vegation (SAV) habitat and greatly bolster efforts in large scale SAV restoration
? could be tuned for other water environments.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E4.01-9418
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Innovative Tools and Techniques Supporting the Practical Uses of Earth Science Observations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Building a Rangeland Decision Support System: Linking RANGES Products with DNDC

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Applied Geosolutions, LLC
10 Newmarket Road
Durham, NH 03824-2808
(603)868-2369

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
william salas
wsalas@agsemail.com
10 Newmarket Road
Durham, NH 03824-2808
(603)868-2369

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal is submitted under the Innovative Tools and Techniques Supporting the Practical Uses of Earth Science Observations topic. We seek to evaluate and demonstrate technical approaches for linking remote sensing rangeland products with a soil biogeochemical model to form a decision support system for improved rangeland management. The resulting decision support system will be unique and innovative by not only providing operational remote sensing observations of rangeland condition, but also web-based tools that utilize these observations to provide critical information on soil fertility/productivity, greenhouse gas emissions, and potential erosion and sedimentation. Our Rangeland Decision Support System will build off of existing RANGES and DNDC tools. Landsat and MODIS prototype processing algorithms for rangeland condition (height, forage production, fractional cover) have been developed under the previous RANGES project. Our decision support system will couple RANGES products with the DeNtrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model. DNDC is a unique, spatially explicit, soil biogeochemical model that simulates both aerobic and anaerobic soil conditions, estimates crop yields based on a detailed crop physiology-phenology model, and is designed for assessing the net impact of alternative management on long-term soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and emissions of N2O, NO, CH4, and NH3 for upland and wetland agricultural ecosystems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Our Rangeland Decision Support System will be designed to facilitate easy use of NASA Earth Observations from existing (Landsat and MODIS) NASA resources and addresses current interests in the Earth Science Application agricultural efficiency and carbon management program areas. Through our web-portal, a wide array of users will have access to remote sensing and model products that are critical for improved and sustainable rangeland management. RDSS would be also useful as a gaming tool for educational applications, natural resource managers and policy applications for better understanding of rangeland management, carbon and nitrogen cycling and sustainability of rangeland forage systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
We anticipate our routine mapping and monitoring of rangeland products will be a very useful service to support USDA Risk Management Program needs for Risk Management Products for Pasture /Rangeland and forage systems as part of the USDA Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC). In addition, as the US EPA Total Maximum Daily Load criteria are set for rangeland watersheds, tools will be needed to map and monitor pollutant contributions across these watersheds. The RANGES products coupled with the information on C and N cycling and susceptibility to erosion and sedimentation will be extremely useful for the TMDL process.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E4.02-9182
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Educational Processes and Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: CODE STEM - Moon, Mars, and Beyond; DLESE-Powered On-Line Classroom

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Nu-Trek, Inc.
16428 Avenida Florencia
Poway, CA 92064-1806
(858)487-8149

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Miriam Rauch
miriam@nu-trek.com
16428 Avenida Florencia
Poway, CA 92064-1806
(858)487-8149

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
"CODE (COrps DEvelopment) STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) ? Moon Mars and Beyond; DLESE-Powered On-Line Classroom" shares the excitement of President Bush's vision of space exploration with 8th grade students. Program fulfills standards-based 8th grade curriculum and will be implemented in two diverse Escondido schools (Grant, Rincon). San Diego County Office of Education will ensure relevance and integration into formal curriculum. Through thematic approach to learning and multi-disciplinary exhibit-centered final project, Program strives to engage broad cross-section of students and teachers.

Focus is on developing a theme-specific DLESE (Digital Library for Earth System Education) collection and portal. On-line learning communities and inquiry based learning protocols (San Diego State University) will enhance DLESE effectiveness. Implementation culminates with multi-disciplinary student exhibit at participating schools and San Diego Aerospace Museum, sharing excitement of space exploration with general public. In Phase II DLESE collection will be expanded to support additional grade levels (3rd, 5th, 8th, high school), there will be broad implementation in San Diego and Nashville (through Fisk University), and teacher training.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
DLESE-Powered On-Line Classroom stocks STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) pipeline at critical 8th grade junction. It is designed to fulfill standards-based curriculum, endorsed by San Diego County Office of Education, and will be implemented countywide in Phase II. This CODE (COrps DEvelopment) STEM concept can be used to deliver other content, fulfilling mandatory NASA outreach requirements (typically several percent of research budget). NASA spends approximately at 450-million dollars/year on outreach and we aspire to capture 1% of the market in CODE STEM Outreach Products.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
DLESE-Powered On-Line Classroom stocks STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) pipeline at the critical 8th grade junction. It is designed to fulfill standards-based curriculum, endorsed by the San Diego County Office of Education, and will be implemented countywide in Phase II. The CODE (COrps DEvelopment) STEM concept can be used to deliver other content, fulfilling mandatory NSF and DoE outreach requirements (typically several percent of research budget). NSF and DoE spend over a billion dollars/year on outreach and we aspire to capture 1% of the market in CODE STEM Outreach Products.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E4.03-9603
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Wireless Technologies for Spatial Data, Input, Manipulation and Distribution
PROPOSAL TITLE: Software Defined Radio (SDR) Overlay Node Gateway

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Whereabout LP
8726 Phoenix Ave
Universal City, TX 78148-2619
(210)240-0202

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Jason Scarlett
jscarlett@whereabout.net
8726 Phoenix Ave
Universal City, TX 78148-2619
(210)240-0202

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal details a novel mobile data transceiver solution that supports standalone wireless sensors and concurrently acts as a gateway between multiple sensor webs. This innovation uses Software Defined Radio (SDR) technology to communicate with a variety of sensor technologies using many different radio waveforms and communication protocols. The proposed system is designed to be adaptable to mission requirements and all aspects of its operation can be remotely modified after deployment. When possible, the solution uses commercial of the shelf technology (COTS) components and incorporates open data operability standards for information visualization.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
This solution will enable both real-time and delay tolerant data gathering from legacy NASA in-situ sensor webs already deployed by NASA earth science researchers and enable a new class of roving sensors. Applications within NASA include environmental and agricultural monitoring, border security, and resource and facilities management.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Applications that could be created from this research and development effort are found in most of the world's largest markets including military, public safety, agricultural, industrial, utilities, and the facilities management sectors. The innovation includes geo-positioning technology that enables a completely new class of dynamic, mobile data gathering applications that have yet to be commercially targeted.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 E4.03-9992
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Wireless Technologies for Spatial Data, Input, Manipulation and Distribution
PROPOSAL TITLE: Adaptive Wireless Transceiver

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
MOBITRUM CORPORATION
8070 Georgia Avenue, Suite 213
Silver Spring, MD 20910-4934
(301)585-4040

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Ray Wang
rwang@mobitrum.com
8070 Georgia Avenue, Suite 213
Silver Spring, MD 20919-4934
(301)585-4040

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Wireless technologies are an increasingly attractive means for spatial data, input, manipulation, and distribution. Mobitrum is proposing an innovative Adaptive Wireless Transceiver, which is targeted for NASA's Earth Science applications for field personnel and robotic platforms to interface with various wireless sensor networks, in real time, ingest data sequentially from a variety of input sensors, provide initial field verification of data and distribute the data to various nodes and servers at collection, processing, and decision sites. This effort addresses important technology gap for interfacing with various wireless sensor networks and transmitting/receiving data over long distances. This effort will include: (1) Design of the high-level system architecture of the adaptive wireless interface that employs model-based reasoning to achieve a specified level of competence in radio-related domains, (2) Design of the adaptive wireless module, and (3) Develop rules, procedures, software algorithms, and techniques through modeling and simulation for designing an adaptive wireless module. The proposed enabling technology will provide NASA an effective wireless device for Earth science, data relay, and other situational awareness.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Adaptive transceiver for wireless networked sensors will enable NASA's Earth sciences for spatial data input, manipulation and distribution activities as well as design and engineering collaboration to be more effective. Mobitrum anticipates the following applications that NASA will benefit from the proposed adaptive wireless transceiver technology: 1) Disaster recovery; 2) Field communications device for spatial data input, manipulation and distribution; 3) Sensor, measurement, and field verification applications; 4) Biometric identification applications; 5) Data collaboration and distribution applications; 6) Condition-aware applications; 7) Location-aware applications; and 8) first responders.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The opportunity for adaptive wireless technology lays in future wireless networks and communications. There are tremendous business applications and deployments for cellular 4G networks based on adaptive radios beyond 2004. Mobitrum anticipates the increasing popularity of mobile handhelds including PDA/Cell phones brings with it an exciting opportunities for the adaptive radio, which will serve a key factor to make handhelds deployable throughout heterogeneous wireless networks whether for corporations or for individuals. As a result, "true mobility" is created through the programmable radio bands, hence, more value-added services are deployable and increase revenue to wireless service providers and handheld makers.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S1.01-9116
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Particles and Fields Measurements
PROPOSAL TITLE: Gradiometer based on Nonlinear Magneto-Optic Rotation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Southwest Sciences Inc
1570 Pacheco St Suite E-11
Santa Fe, NM 87505-3993
(505)984-1322

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
David Christian Hovde
dchovde@swsciences.com
Southwest Sciences, Inc., 6837 Main Street
Cincinnati, OH 45244-3470
(513)272-1323

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase I SBIR project will demonstrate sensitive measurements of magnetic field gradients by nonlinear atomic spectroscopy. The gradients are determined by measuring the magnitudes of the magnetic fields in two atomic vapor cells. A vertical cavity surface emitting laser is used to create an atomic coherence. This coherent state is long lived because of the special construction of the atomic vapor cell. A measurement of the Larmor precession frequency of the coherent state gives a precise measurement of the magnetic field. The field measurement precision should be 0.3 fT in a 1 Hz bandwidth. Two such probes can be tethered at the ends of 80 m cables from a rotating space craft. Typical geophysical gradients of ~ 250 fT can be measured from a single spacecraft with excellent signal/noise. The system uses no cryogenic fluids, no consumable chemicals, and will operate from a few Watts of electrical power.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
NASA applications include measurements of fields and field gradients in the magnetosphere from space, measurements of lunar and planetary fields, and more sensitive measurements of magnetic storms from Earth's surface.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Precision magnetometry is used in oil and mineral exploration and hidden object detection at land and at sea. Applications include archeology and marine search and recovery. The extraordinary sensitivity of this approach opens up applications in advanced magnetic resonance imaging. Defense and homeland security applications include the detection of underwater or underground threats including submarines, camouflaged tanks, and mines.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S1.02-8016
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deep Space Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Gelled Propellants for Reduced Temperature Operation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
EERGC Corporation
18A Mason
Irvine, CA 92618-2706
(949)768-3756

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Mark Sheldon
msheldon@eergc.com
18A Mason
Irvine, CA 92618-2706
(949)768-3756

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal is responsive to NASA 2004 SBIR objectives (under Topic X6.05) seeking gelled propellant formulations "for long-duration missions involving low-power consumption (i.e., minimal use of heaters)." EERGC Corporation, in cooperation with subcontractor Northrop Grumman Space and Technology (NGST) Propulsion Systems, proposes to develop gelled propellant formulations (and development methodologies) optimized for high combustion efficiency, storability at variable low temperatures including freezing conditions, and firing at reduced temperatures to minimize energy requirements for heat up prior to firing. The approach is an innovation as it enables loaded gels with optimized low-temperature performance. The gel formulations will be optimized with respect to composition of gellants, additives, and loading agents, as well as characteristic size of particulate ingredients. The approach will consider the tradeoff impacts of propellant formulation and loading particle size on maximum attainable loading, solid phase burnout, susceptibility to separation from thermal cycling, and ultimately combustion efficiency. The project is relevant as it improves the competitiveness of gelled bipropellants with equivalent liquids, while incorporating gels' safety and handling advantages. The proposed program takes gel technology beyond that developed by EERGC under prior and ongoing DoD and NASA programs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
If successful, this project will provide NASA with: specific propellants with minimum energy requirements for storage and preparation for firing, while maximizing combustion efficiency; and improved methods for testing the impacts of freeze/thaw cycling. The methodology developed under this program could in turn be applied for formulations with different ingredients.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The products of this project will provide non-NASA beneficiaries (e.g. DoD and commercial space flight) the same advantages as listed above for NASA. DoD gel applications will utilize the methodology with different formulation constraints due to DoD requirements for plume signature minimization. The minimization of product quality impacts due to thermal cycling, and development of test methodologies for determining such impacts, has implications for optimization of gelled consumer product formulations.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S1.02-8854
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deep Space Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Shared Magnetics Hall Thruster

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Busek Co. Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760-2213
(508)655-5565

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Rachel Tedrake
rachel@busek.com
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760-1023
(508)655-5565

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In the proposed Phase I program, Busek Co. will demonstrate an innovative methodology for clustering Hall thrusters into a high performance, very high power propulsion system. The concept uses multiple thruster discharge assemblies with a common (shared) magnetic structure. The concept combines the benefits of clustering that include modularity, reliability, reduced beam divergence and throttleability with the cost, mass savings and power loss reduction of a shared magnetic structure. In Phase I, Busek will conduct a sub-scale demonstration of a shared magnetics cluster based on our existing BHT-600 (nominally 600 W input power) Hall thruster.

A methodology for shared magnetics clustering will be developed that can be applied to the full range of Hall thruster power requirements (100 kW ? 1 MW) envisioned by NASA for obit insertion, planetary transfers and manned exploration. In Phase II a 200 ? 400 kW shared magnetics thruster based on NASA's existing high power Hall thruster technology will be designed and built.

Busek is uniquely positioned to implement the proposed program having expertise in both the clustering of Hall thrusters and shared magnetics thruster development.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The cluster will enable cargo and propellant transport, pre-positioning missions for lunar and Mars exploration, and enable a reusable orbital tug. The cluster's redundancy is a benefit over a single, large thruster.
Moreover, the cluster can be throttled to run at high Isp or high T/P and can grow or shrink to fit different missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
As communication satellites evolve to use all electric propulsion, there is a need for larger power thrusters for orbit raising. The shared magnetic Hall thruster clusters, in principle, can be applied across the spectrum of thruster sizes. The Air Force anticipates a need for very high clusters of Hall thrusters in the 100kW to 150kW range for orbit transfer vehicles, space tugs, and re-supply vessels.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S1.02-9168
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deep Space Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aeroelastic Simulation Tool for Inflatable Ballute Aerocapture

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
CFD Research Corp
215 Wynn Dr.
Huntsville, AL 35805-1926
(256)726-4800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Peter A. Liever
jls@cfdrc.com
215 Wynn Dr.
Huntsville, AL 35805-1926
(256)726-4858

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project will develop a much-needed multidisciplinary analysis tool for predicting the impact of aeroelastic effects on the functionality of inflatable aeroassist vehicles. High-fidelity computational modules for fluid dynamics, heat transfer, structural dynamics, and dynamic motion will be coupled into a multidisciplinary computing environment. The multi-disciplinary system has been successfully applied for aeroelastic and dynamic simulations of fighter aircraft, hypersonic vehicles and planetary probes. The application range will be extended to the rarefied regime through integration of an existing NASA DSMC flow solver.

In Phase I, continuum flow regime sample analyses will be performed for a trailing ballute configuration to demonstrate the capabilities of the software environment. Simulations will demonstrate the insight gained into the aerodynamic, material stress and localized heating effects from various levels of simulation fidelity: steady and unsteady flow, rigid or flexible structure, and static or dynamically moving vehicles. The feasibility of implementing the DSMC flow solver in the multidisciplinary simulation framework will be demonstrated for the case of a steady-state shape deformation prediction. Phase II efforts will focus on fully implementing the DSMC code and other NASA codes in the multidisciplinary environment. Extensive verification and validation studies will be performed, leveraging planned aeroelastic ballute windtunnel tests.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed simulation technology will find direct and immediate applications with NASA and industry in ongoing aerocapture technology development programs. It provides significant capability advances in crucial areas of aeroassist vehicle development: 1) definition and screening of ballute configurations in the concept phase, and 2) verification of aeroassist system functionality across the flight envelope. Inflatable decelerator technology may find a multitude of applications under Project Constellation for providing deceleration and precision landing capability for cargo delivery to Mars outposts or in returning large amounts of down-mass from Earth orbit.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Additional application areas include analysis of space-based inflatable structures such as telescopes and mirrors, satellite solar panels and military reentry vehicles (inflatable decoys, etc) exposed to the atmosphere. The aeroelastic analysis of parachutes and parafoils and the analysis of high-altitude endurance airplanes with flexible wings will be improved. Further military applications include stabilization and deceleration of ordnance with attached inflatable decelerators.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S1.03-7572
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Multifunctional Autonomous Robust Sensor Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Distributed Reconfigurable Intelligent Multifunctional Autonomous Robust Sensor Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
American GNC Corporation
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley, CA 93065-1812
(805)582-0582

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Dr. Tasso Politopoulos
tpolito@americangnc.com
888 Easy Street
Simi Valley, CA 93065-1812
(805)582-0582

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Distributed Reconfigurable Intelligent software agent technologies are key and revolutionary technologies that are needed to fulfill spacecraft autonomy and robustness operations capabilities and functions. The Distributed Reconfigurable Intelligent spacecraft autonomy and robustness system integrates real time control and health monitoring with planning and scheduling to achieve the long-term mission objectives. This project develops the Distributed Reconfigurable Intelligent software agents consisting of automation in multi levels, knowledge base, inference mechanism, and communication. The proposed Distributed Reconfigurable Intelligent software agents for operations assistant takes advantage of innovative techniques of individual decision and control methodologies and emphasizes the synergism among all subsystems to assure the overall system performance. At the end of the project, a demonstration system will be established to evaluate the proposed software system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The NASA would directly benefit from this research effort by acquiring the novel Distributed Reconfigurable Intelligent software agents for unmanned vehicle autonomy. Our software agent design technique as well as the software product can apply to manufacturing, precision machine tools, process control, engine control and automation applications, including automobile and commercial aircraft manufacturing, robotics, flight controls, smart highway systems, etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The results of this project lead to the commercialized product: Distributed Reconfigurable Intelligent Software Agents for Unmanned Vehicle Autonomy. The applications of this technology arise in all areas of manufacturing systems, unmanned vehicles, Distributed Reconfigurable Intelligent vehicle highway systems, industrial processes, and command, control, communications and intelligence (C3I) systems.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S1.03-9701
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Multifunctional Autonomous Robust Sensor Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Active Pixel HgCdTe Detectors with built-in Dark Current Reduction for Near-room temperature operation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
EPIR Technologies
590 Territorial Dr.
Bolingbrook, IL 60440-4881
(630)771-0203

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Silviu Velicu
svelicu@epir.com
590 Territorial Dr.
Bolingbrook, IL 60440-4881
(630)771-0206

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
High sensitivity HgCdTe infrared arrays operating at 77K can now be tailored in a wide range of wavelengths from 1 to14 um. However, the cooling requirements make them bulky and unsuitable to be incorporated into robust autonomous sensor systems. We propose to develop detectors with high detectivity that operates at or near room temperature in the MWIR (3 to 5 um) and LWIR (8 to 12 um) atmospheric windows. These detectors are based on the active regions with HgCdTe bulk alloy layer and a secondary HgCdTe bulk alloy layer, which serves as a sink for both the dark and background currents. Room temperature or moderately cooled operation of these detectors is achieved by suppressing the Auger and radiative recombination mechanisms. We will also incorporate in each pixel a dynamic skimming that will reduce the effect of dark and background currents while enhancing the dynamic range. Therefore, we are designing detectors that are read out integrated circuit (ROIC) friendly.
We plan to achieve these objectives by combining the advantages of the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) crystal growth technique, an innovative nonequilibrium device architecture, photon recycling concepts, dynamic dark current skimming, and optimized read out circuit that will increase the operating temperature. High quality HgCdTe layers (for infrared detection) will be grown on large area (3-5") silicon substrates. This will make it possible to produce rugged, low-cost, large area focal plane arrays with higher operating temperatures and near-BLIP performance

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Near room temperature FPAs will be suitable for space-based spectroscopic applications. HgCdTe-based devices, with the advantages of small electron mass, high mobilities, and large electron saturation velocities have considerable benefits for a variety of new micro-electronic and optoelectronic applications, if near room temperature operation is achieved with a nonequilibrium mode of operation. As a consequence of negative luminescence at ambient temperatures, nonequilibrium devices cool their surroundings, thus creating the potential for a new application, "radiation coolers".

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Near room temperature focal plane arrays will find enormous applications in military, space and medical imaging areas for infrared imaging. Another area where these detectors will find enormous application is in the automobile industry, for example as driver's navigation aids in nighttime and foggy weather conditions. EPIR Technologies is fully committed to fabricate and commercialize uncooled infrared detectors and arrays if this program is successful.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S1.04-8064
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Technology for Micro/Nanosats
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rad-hard Reconfigurable Bi-directional Level Shifters technology for Micro- and Nanosatellites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
AMERICAN SEMICONDUCTOR, INC.
3100 S. Vista Ave. Suite 230
Boise, ID 83705-0230
(208)336-2773

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Kelly DeGregorio
kellydegregorio@americansemi.com
3100 S. Vista Ave. Suite 230
Boise, ID 83705-0230
(208)336-2773

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Various technologies available to space system designers that operate at different voltage levels. It is, however, important to interface, maintain, and update these systems. For example, the Sun Earth Connection (SEC) missions are likely to have a variety of experiments needing to be accomplished with a single nanosatellite. A rad-hard reconfigurable bi-directional level shifters would allow them to accomplish this goal despite the various multi-voltage level systems employed within the satellite. Additionally, a level shifter could be used to extend and/or expand the life of existing space systems. Presently and in the future, nanosatellites and other spacecraft have need for rad-hard reconfigurable bi-directional level shifters to enable there existing systems the ability to communicate logic signals to other lower voltage level systems. This proposal is to develop such a level shifter.

This will allow these systems to continue to conduct operations and missions for the existing and a growing number of future users. Space system applications for SEC missions have mass, power, cost, and rad-hard limitations on all of their circuits. A rad-hard reconfigurable bi-directional level shifter design would provide for these needs between multilevel voltage technologies to aid in their missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
American Semiconductor, Inc. will focus this SBIR to present a radhard reconfigurable bi-directional level shifters design, with bi-directional operation to permit two way communications between systems for the purpose of integration of current and future systems. This will allow systems the ability to communicate and function together utilizing a longer life span for current and future space-bound equipment. Benefits will also include a radhard, low power, and sub-lithographic process utilization. This will significantly improve the integration of components from different technology generations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The development of reconfigurable bi-directional level shifter components will provide significant performance improvement and better multifunctional use for space system designers. Two marketing channels are open for American Semiconductor commercialization of this technology.

Channel 1: American Semiconductor may license the reconfigurable bi-directional level shifter to support manufacturers who wish to use our IP library for their needs and requirements for general design.

Channel 2: Innovative technologies applied to reconfigurable bi-directional level shifter are attractive for licensing by parts companies such as JPL.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S1.04-8862
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Technology for Micro/Nanosats
PROPOSAL TITLE: Micro Resistojet for Small Satellites

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Busek Co. Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760-2213
(508)655-5565

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Vlad Hruby
vhruby@busek.com
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760-1023
(508)655-5565

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Micro-resistojets offer the best combination of simplicity, performance, wet system mass and power consumption for small satellites (<100kg, <50Watts) requiring mN level propulsion and low to moderate deltaV(<500m/sec). Classical competing devices such as cold gas thrusters have low performance, while liquid bipropellants have both high losses in the mN thrust range and are more complex. The advanced EP devices such as colloid thrusters are suitable for sub-mN thrust while electrostatic or electromagnetic thrusters are suitable for large deltaV missions where their higher dry mass is offset by higher specific impulse.

Busek therefore proposes to develop a complete micro-resistojet system operating on ammonia or methanol delivering thrust up to 5mN, specific impulse approaching 300sec, impulse bit smaller than 1mNsec and power consumption lower than approximately 10Watts. Ammonia was chosen because it is less toxic than hydrazine while offering similar performance. Methanol is non toxic, greatly simplifying s/c fueling which is especially important for low cost missions.

In Phase 1, breadboard system will be constructed and tested on our Maglev thrust stand that can resolve microNewton forces. In Phase 2 an Engineering Model of the system will be developed.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The micro-resistojet has a clear window of superiority when applied to small sats (<50kg) requiring mN level thrust with mission deltaV<500m/sec. Drag makeup and precisely controlled formation flight of multiple small satellites are examples of missions that require such propulsion. NASA's major missions such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) and Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) could also benefit from the micro-resistojet as the device that performs formation reorientation to point to different location in the sky. ESA is developing warm gas thruster for such applications which will be demonstrated on the Lisa Path Finder /ST7 DRS mission.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Surrey Space Systems LTD is the only commercial satellite provider that is actively selling small sats (<100kg). Their major customers are third world countries where the satellites serve as emergency communications platforms. The proposed micro-resistojet is applicable to these platforms. As we plan to develop a self contained "bolt up" micro-resistojet, it could also be used on any commercial satellites as a de-orbit propulsion. In such non-critical application it could operate at reduced peak temperature on any propellant that may be left on board including Xe, N2, N2O, butane, ammonia, methanol, hydrazine and water.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S1.04-9249
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Technology for Micro/Nanosats
PROPOSAL TITLE: Real Time Control Software for Electromagnetic Formation Flight

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
PAYLOAD SYSTEMS INC.
247 Third Street
Cambridge, MA 02142-1129
(617)868-8086

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Steven Sell
sell@payload.com
247 Third Street
Cambridge, MA 02142-1129
(617)868-8086

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As the focus of space system architectures changes from single, to multiple, and eventually to many spacecraft flying in formation, a greater demand on total lifetime impulse and precision control becomes unavoidable. A unique property of these spacecraft clusters is that controlling only relative positions within the cluster is normally sufficient to satisfy most metrics of performance. This opens the possibility of using inter-spacecraft forces and torques (such as those generated electromagnetically) as the primary means of control, eliminating the need for onboard propellant. Eliminating the dependence on a non-replenishable consumable (propellant) in lieu of a replenishable resource (electricity) allows even aggressive maneuvers to be repeated without limit for as along as the other subsystems last. A testbed has been developed at the MIT Space Systems that uses a combination of steerable magnetic dipoles and reaction wheels on each spacecraft allows for all relative degrees of freedom within a cluster to be controlled. Payload Systems proposes to design an avionics and software system which would not only be usable with the existing testbed, but would also be appropriate for an on-orbit demonstration. This effort would drastically reduce the risk and effort required to transition the technology from ground to flight.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed technologies are relevant to any constellation or coordinated flight missions with separation distances on the order of tens or hundreds of meters, and also to small satellite systems in the <=100kg categories. These include astronomy, earth observation, and many other near-term NASA applications (such as EOS-9, GEC, TPF, etc.).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications likewise include multisatellite formation missions and also small satellite (<=100kg) systems for DoD, DOE, and other government agencies, as well as commercial Earth-imaging and related for-profit applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S1.05-9216
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Information Technology for Sun-Earth Connection Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Performance Data Analysis Tools for Sun-Earth Connection Missions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Tech-X Corporation
5621 Arapahoe Ave Suite A
Boulder, CO 80303-1379
(303)448-0727

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
John R Cary
cary@txcorp.com
5621 aprapahoe
Boulder, CO 80303-1379
(303)448-0728

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Interactive Data Language (IDL) is a standard tool used by many researchers in observational fields. Present day Sun-Earch Connection missions like RHESSI or SOHO, or future missions, including the Solar Dynamics (SDO) almost exclusively analyze their data in IDL. However, the increasing amount of data produced by these missions, and the increasing complexity of image processing algorithms, requires higher computing power. Cluster computing is a cost-effective way to increase the speed of computation, but algorithms have to be modified to take advantage of parallel systems. Enhancing IDL to work on clusters gives scientists access to increased performance in a familiar programming environment. We propose to develop tools that enable IDL to profit from cluster systems. These tools will allow IDL applications to run in parallel without additional licenses. Finally, the parallelization will require no significant modification of the original programs. Enhanced data analysispower enables e.g. automatic image analysis on larger data sets. It can also help to reduce the response time to analyze data on demand,as desirable in virtual observatory environments. The wide spread of IDL allows scientists from other fields to profit from the increased execution speed.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The problem of increasing amounts of data that needs to be analyzed exists in all branches of NASA. Increasing the computing capabilities of the data analysis software is therefore of interest to all NASA branches. The widespread use of IDL throughout NASA makes the tools developed in this project applicable, not only to the Sun-Earth Connection theme but within the whole agency. In addition, the development of a low-cost alternative to the commercial IDL software is a cost reduction factor beneficial all NASA branches.


POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
IDL is widely used at National Laboratories, universities and private industry. Research branches processing observational data, including medical imaging, chemistry, and earth science, face the same problem of increasing amounts of data to be processed. Their interest is also to reduce the time needed to perform the analysis, making them potential customers for the tools developed in this project. The cost savings resulting from this project could make it even more attractive,especially to private industry.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S1.05-9852
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Information Technology for Sun-Earth Connection Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Computing Infrastructure and Remote, Parallel Data Mining Engine for Virtual Observatories

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
SCIBERNET, INC.
777 South Highway 101, Suite 108
Solana Beach, CA 92075-2623
(858)793-7063

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
homa karimabadi
homak@scibernet.com
777 South Highway 101, Suite 108
Solana Beach, CA 92075-2623
(858)793-7063

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a state-of-the-art data mining engine that extends the functionality of Virtual Observatories (VO) from data portal to science analysis resource. Our solution consists of two integrated products, IDDat and RemoteMiner:

(1) IDDat is an advanced grid-based computing infrastructure which acts as an add-on to VOs and supports processing and remote data analysis of widely distributed data in space sciences. IDDat middleware design is such as to reduce undue network traffic on the VO.

(2) RemoteMiner is a novel data mining engine that connects to the VO via the IDDat. It supports multi-users, has autonomous operation for automated systematic identification while enabling the advanced users to do their own mining and can be used by data centers for pre-mining.


These innovations will significantly enhance the science return from NASA missions by providing data centers and individual researchers alike an unprecedented capability to mine vast quantities of data. Phase I is aimed at complete definition of the design of the product and a demonstration of a prototype of the proposed major innovations. Phase II work will encompass the building of a full commercial product with associated production quality technical and user documentation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
NASA is a data centric organization and as such shares with many industries an urgent need for sophisticated data mining technologies to deal with the tsunami of data. Today, the vast majority of spacecraft data from past missions remain unexplored and this situation will worsen with the many planned multi-spacecraft missions (Themis, MMS, ST5, etc.). Our proposed solution provides the necessary data analysis infrastructure and tools for the existing and the planned missions. It leverages on-going efforts in the grid computing community. Our technology is also expected to be relevant to other divisions within NASA such as the Intelligent Systems Project which supports development of autonomous systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
All industries that deal with data are potential customers of our product. No commercial data mining engine offers all of these facilities and a few systems support only a small fraction of the solution. Given the customization of our solution to VO, NASA will clearly remain one of our main target areas beyond Phase II. However, we have already identified several other important markets for deployment of our product including NSF, and DOE within the Federal Government as well as pharmaceutical, bioinformatics, health care, fraud detection and network intrusion detection in the commercial sector.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S1.06-8748
SUBTOPIC TITLE: UV and EUV Optics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Deep Ultraviolet Macroporous Silicon Filters

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Lake Shore Cryotronics Inc
575 McCorkle Blvd.
Westerville, OH 43082-8699
(614)891-2243

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Vladimir Kochergin
vkochergin@lakeshore.com
575 McCorkle Blvd.
Westerville, PR 43082-8699
(614)891-2243

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase I proposal describes a novel method to make deep and far UV optical filters from macroporous silicon. This type of filter consists of an array of parallel, independent leaky waveguides made in the form of a free-standing, two-dimensionally ordered silicon structure with pore walls coated by a dielectric multilayer. The proposed filters offer unmatched levels of rejection within a very wide rejection band combined with a high level of transmission within the pass band that can be centered throughout the deep and far UV range. In addition, unlike common interference-based filters, the spectral position of the pass and rejection bands will not depend on the angle of incidence. The proposed filters will be light weight and may be manufactured cost-effectively in large quantities. In Phase I, it is proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of the method by fabricating pore structures with different pore wall coatings and measuring the transmission and other optical properties. In Phase II, optimized filters will be fabricated and their properties compared with design predictions. Phase III will involve product design, fabricating filter structures to meet customers' physical as well as optical needs, and marketing and sales investments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Deep and far UV imaging is a powerful technique to study auroral activity and compositions of atmospheres around solar system planets and moons. UV index forecasting, earth impact and other vital environmental information can be obtained. Available filters suffer from problems stemming from either a narrow band of high rejection or a wide band of shallow rejection, and degradation of the filter performance with the variations of angle of incidence. Problems with available UV transparent materials (moisture absorption, delamination) lead to difficulty in making robust or large area filters. The proposed filters can solve these problems and reduce costs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
UV filters are used for harmful UV radiation detection, water purification, proof-of-flame, water analysis, postal security systems, environmental monitoring, semiconductor lithographic instrumentation, medical analyzers and monitors (ophthalmology), high voltage corona detection and electrical spark imaging. Superior filters based on porous semiconductor technology may be adjusted for almost any wavelength throughout the extreme UV-to-visible spectrum, thus enhancing the performance of fluorescence instruments used for applications such as DNA sequencing, microplate readers, flow cytometry, human genome mapping, and pharmaceutical development They will be useful in biomedical research and Raman spectroscopy used in imaging applications, and process control in the chemical industry.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S1.06-9294
SUBTOPIC TITLE: UV and EUV Optics
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Efficiency Low Scatter Echelle Grating

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
DIFFRACTION PRODUCTS INC.
9416 W Bull Valley Rd - PO Box 1030
Woodstock, IL 60098-1030
(815)338-6768

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Edward Leibhardt
dpinc@aol.com
9416 W Bull Valley Rd - PO Box 1030
Woodstock, IL 60098-1030
(815)338-6768

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A high efficiency low scatter echelle grating will be developed using a novel technique of multiple diamond shaving cuts. The grating will have mirror surfaces on both faces for high efficiency in high orders. The grating will be manufactured using a 3/4 ton air bearing grating carriage that oscillates at 30 strokes per minute between two non-contact magnetic fields. The groove spacing will be controlled by an interferometer measuring system and feedback system between the optical blank and diamond cutting tool.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
NASA will be able to consider this new technology for applications that demand high efficiency with coarse diffraction gratings. Novel applications that require both sides of the grooves to be highly efficient can also be considered for the first time.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Non-NASA commercial enterprises will also be able to consider this new technology for applications that demand high efficiency with coarse diffraction gratings. Novel applications that require both sides of the grooves to be highly efficient can also be considered for the first time.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S1.06-9520
SUBTOPIC TITLE: UV and EUV Optics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Holographic Phase Nulls suitable for EUV quality Optical Testing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
SSG Inc
65 Jonspin Road
Wilmington, MA 01887-1020
(978)694-9991

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Jay Daniel
jdaniel@ssginc.com
4040 Lakeside Drive
Richmond, CA 94806-1936
(510)222-8110

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A number of future space sciences missions require optical surfaces that are accurate to nanometer and sub-nanometer levels. These applications include large aperture systems such as the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) chronograph, where mid-spatial frequency surface error content is restricted to 2 nm RMS, and EUV wavelength applications, like SHARPI, where full aperture surface errors need to be reduced to the single nanometer level. In most cases these optical systems require components which are generalized aspheres, with no simple point tests. Computer Generated Holographic (CGH) null optics are typically applied to test these optical surfaces. As the quality requirements placed upon these optics gets tighter, the precision associated with CGH manufacturing needs to improve as well. CGH's are produced using laser or e-beam based pattern generation tools which were originally developed for photomask generation in the lithography industry. Tinsley Laboratories proposes to develop CGH improvements in the area of substrate preparation and pattern placement errors. Tinsley, an industry leader in the application of CGH testing approaches, will work closely with Diffraction International, Inc. the industry leader in the area of CGH manufacturing. Tinsley's experience with the application of CGH tools, and our state-of-the-art Computer Controlled Optical Surfacing (CCOS) manufacturing processes, make us well suited to address issues related to implementation and substrate preparation. Diffraction International will provide support with regard to techniques which can provide improvements in the pattern placement area, and the evaluation of alternative manufacturing platforms that might be utilized to provide higher quality diffractive nulls. Our overall goal is to provide a 10x reduction in the residual error associated with current state-of-the-technology CGH null optics.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The enhanced precision promised by the proposed process improvements has direct application to chronographic applications like the Terrestrial Planet Finder and future EUV missions such as SHARPI and SOLAR-B.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Commercial applications include projection and inspection optics for EUV lithography tools. EUV lithography tools are currently targeting moving from proof-of-principle into production, in the 2010 timeframe. At that point demand could be in the 100's instruments/year with multiple optics required for each instrument.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S2.01-9097
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensors and Detectors for Astrophysics
PROPOSAL TITLE: High purity GaAs far IR photoconductor with enhanced quantum efficieny

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
TechnoScience Corporation
P.O. Box 60658
Palo Alto, CA 94306-2306
(650)838-9833

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Jam Farhoomand
jfarhoomand@mail.arc.nasa.gov
P.O. Box 60658
Palo Alto, CA 94306-2306
(650)838-9833

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal introduces an innovative concept aimed to significantly enhance the quantum efficiency of a far-infrared GaAs photoconductor and achieve sensitivity levels of 10E-18 W/SQRT(Hz) or better. We propose to employ a microwave source to assist the photoionization process by pumping the infrared-generated electrons from the excited states to the continuum. Since the microwave photons are low in energy, they are not available to directly ionize the ground state of the shallow donors. Therefore, the microwave pumping process is not expected to generate additional leakage current and the associated noise. This will allow us to cool the detector as low as necessary to reduce the thermal leakage current and improve the detector's noise performance. GaAs covers the 100-310?m spectrum where no other photodetector operates, it can be fabricated in large arrays, and is compatible with the established silicon readout technology.

The proposed concept can be applied in a broader scope to other photodetectors, such as Ge:Ga, to exploit their excited state photoconductivity and extend their long wavelength response. This effort fits well within the scope of the SBIR Subtopic S2.01 and will be a benefit to many large and small NASA projects such as SOFIA and SAFIR.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Space instruments developed under Origins Program such as SAFIR, science instruments for SOFIA, upcoming projects under Astrobiology Program, balloon-borne instruments for atmospheric research, and laboratory science instruments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Aerospace industry: In addition to the aerospace companies that are under contract to NASA and directly participate in the space program, there are those that independently manufacture infrared detector arrays in large formats. Some aerospace companies that would be interested in our product are Raytheon Vision Systems, Boeing, Rockwell, and Ball Aerospace. Science groups at universities and national labs: Astronomical science instruments for observations at ground-based observatories and instruments for basic research.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S2.01-9515
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Sensors and Detectors for Astrophysics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Metal Mesh Filters for Terahertz Receivers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
VIRGINIA DIODES INC.
321 West Main Street
Charlottesville, VA 22903-5537
(434)297-3257

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Jeffrey L Hesler
Hesler@VADiodes.com
321 West Main Street
Charlottesville, VA 22903-5537
(434)297-3257

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The best low-noise receiver solutions for frequencies above about 800 GHz rely on either a low-noise bolometric direct detector or a hot electron bolometric mixer. These receivers yield near quantum limited noise performance and have ultra broad signal bandwidth [ , , ]. However, due to their extreme sensitivity and inherently broad bandwidth the receivers are very sensitive to stray radiation. For direct detectors an input filter is required to define the receiver's frequency band and reject out of band energy. In the case of a heterodyne receiver, the signal band is defined by the back-end electronics, however, input filters are required to eliminate stray radiation that can saturate the mixer or create signal artifacts that degrade performance and prevent accurate calibration. Through this SBIR project VDI proposes to create a new generation of high performance and cost effective metal mesh filters for terahertz receivers based on innovative filter designs and fabrication techniques. These new technologies will allow the development of cost-effective and practical filters with the range of characteristics required for NASA's terahertz frequency space science and Earth science remote sensing programs.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
NASA's remote sensing programs for both Earth Science and Space Science require the development of low-noise receivers spanning the terahertz frequency range. Depending on the nature of the measurement to be made, either a direct detector or a heterodyne receiver will be required. However, both heterodyne receivers and direct detectors require input filters to limit the bandwidth of the energy coupled to the sensitive detector element. The innovative metal mesh filters to be developed will be the most versatile and cost efficient solution for this important application.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Terahertz receivers are presently being developed for a wide range of scientific, military and commercial applications. Recently, this technology has been applied to both medical diagnostics and security applications. As an example of a potentially large commercial market, many research groups are now developing terahertz imaging systems based on direct detectors. These systems will require input filters to prevent stray signals from saturating the sensitive detectors and causing image degradation. The filters proposed in this NASA SBIR project would also be ideal for this application.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S2.02-9108
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Balloons and Aerobots
PROPOSAL TITLE: In-situ Production of Hydrogen for Buoyancy on Titan

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
7607 Eastmark Drive, Suite 102
College Station, TX 77840-4027
(979)693-0017

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Alan Cisar
alan.cisar@lynntech.com
7607 Eastmark Drive, Ste. 102
College Station, TX 77840-4027
(979)693-0017

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Based on current observations Titan is believed to have a rich, dense atmosphere. If the findings of the Cassini and Huygens missions corroborate this, the next mission to Saturn is likely to include an autonomous vehicle capable of buoyant flight in its atmosphere. In the absence of oxygen hydrogen is the best choice of a buoyancy gas. Maintaining buoyancy for the duration of the one year mission will require a substantial supply of hydrogen to make-up for gas permeating through the gas bag. This gas can be obtained by reforming the methane, which is abundant in Titan's atmosphere. We propose to reform methane with a plasma reformer. This type of reformer converts methane to hydrogen gas and solid carbon, making separation and disposal of the carbon waste a straight forward process. It requires only methane and electrical power to operate, is tolerant of all impurities, and will reform all of the hydrogen containing materials fed in.
Lynntech has already demonstrated this technology in a larger unit. This project will lead to the development of a small unit that operates on a few Watts of power. Methods for harvesting methane and separating the hydrogen and the carbon will also be developed.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed reformer would serve a source of make-up hydrogen to maintain the inflation of the lighter-than-"air" craft that has been proposed for exploring Saturn's moon Titan. The reformer can utilize ambient methane and electric power to produce hydrogen and carbon which can easily be separated and the carbon discarded. This reformer offers an efficient and effective hydrogen source that would help make the exploration of Titan, and possibly other parts of the outer solar system, possible.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The reformer proposed here is a miniaturized version of a multikilowatt system currently under development as a source of hydrogen for vehicle power in areas where fuel must be reformed without the use of water. Whatever is learned in this project will be applied to that and other applications of the plasma reforming technology and will enable the development of units of intermediate size as well.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S2.02-9827
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Balloons and Aerobots
PROPOSAL TITLE: Superpressure Tow Balloon for Extending Durations and Modifying Trajectories of High Altitude Balloon Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
GSSL Inc
P.O. Box 909
Tillamook, OR 97141-0909
(503)842-1990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Timothy T Lachenmeier
Tim.Lachenmeier@gsslinc.com
P.O. Box 909
Tillamook, OR 97141-0909
(503)842-1990

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovation involves the concept of using a Superpressure Tow Balloon (STB) with existing NASA high altitude balloon designs to form a tandem balloon system that provides significantly higher performance at a relatively low cost. Performance improvements include: longer durations, higher altitudes and greater stability, larger payload percentages, improved trajectory control, and more operational flexibility. The STB and related technology specifically addresses the need for balloon design concepts for long duration missions which can provide: reduced material strength requirements; increased reliability; enhanced performance; reduced manufacturing time; reduced manufacturing cost; and improved mission flexibility. In addition, a STB offers a realistic opportunity for low cost trajectory control by providing effective vertical maneuvering which can strongly influence the horizontal latitude of the balloon's flight path.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The anticipated performance/cost ratio of utilizing this new STB technology is expected to gain wide acceptance within NASA's current customer base and open many new markets with its "break-through" performance capabilities. The proposed technology essentially improves the duration and payload capabilities of current standard balloon designs to become low cost long duration systems, current LDB designs to approach ULDB specifications, and ULDB designs to exceed their anticipated performance. The STB technology will also provide a near term low cost/low mass/low power trajectory control system that can be applied across the board to all of NASA's current terrestrial balloon designs and planetary aerobots to provide enhanced flight safety, improved recovery options, and the ability to more precisely target observations of opportunity.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The non-NASA commercial applications include a number of new DOD missions spurred by the growing interest in "near space" observation platforms. Other applicable markets include balloon platforms for communications, remote sensing, and homeland security.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S2.03-8242
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Effectiveness Heat Exchanger for Cryogenic Refrigerators

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Micro Cooling Concepts, Inc.
7522 Slater Ave #122
Huntington Beach, CA 92647-7738
(714)847-9945

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Jack Fryer
jayfryer@microcoolingconcepts.com
7522 Slater Ave #122
Huntington Beach, CA 92647-7738
(714)847-9945

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose an innovative high performance cryogenic heat exchanger manufactured of titanium by photo-etching and diffusion bonding. This is a parallel plate design of thin laminated titanium foils. Titanium is used because of it low thermal conductivity which allows more compact heat exchangers with lower parasitic heat loss. Photo-etched patterns in the foils create the flow passages for the hot and cold flows with solid barrier foils separating the streams. A difficult problem with high performance heat exchangers is balancing the mass flow rate between multiple flow passages required for all but the smallest levels of cooling; this problem can degrade exchanger ineffectiveness by factors of more then 3. Our manufacturing technique allows us to include flow balancing features within the flow passages to automatically balance the flow rates. Recuperative cycle cryocoolers, such as reverse Brayton, Joule-Thomson or their hybrids, require high effectiveness heat exchangers to reach cryogenic temperatures. Higher effectiveness leads directly to improved system efficiency or allows lower temperatures to be reached. Improved heat exchanger performance will directly lead to lower input power cryocoolers particularly for the 4-10 K temperature range where cryocooler system efficiencies are very low.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Multiple future NASA space missions require technology advances to cryogenic cooling to enable their missions. These include TPF (Terrestrial Planet Finder), Con-X (Constellation-X), SAFIR (Single Aperture Far Infrared), SPIRIT (Space Infrared Interferometry Trailblazer), and SPECS (Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure). Even though these missions cover diverse areas of the Electromagnetic Spectrum from X-Rays to far infra-red to submillimeter, each of them requires advances to 4-6 K cryocoolers (or cryogenic refrigerators) for the cooling of their detectors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Closed cycle refrigerators (CCR) for wireless network products. The Pentagon's Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) contract for wireless radios could require cryocoolers if superconducting devices are used or for improved performance of the A/D converters. Additionally, The Pentagon is developing a constellation of missile tracking satellites called the Space Based Infrared System - Low Segment (SBIRS-Low), which requires cooling of detectors and optics located on a telescope.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S2.03-8975
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Magnesium Diboide Superconducting Coils for Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR's)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
HYPER TECH RESEARCH INC.
110 E. Canal St.
Troy, OH 45373-3581
(937)332-0348

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Matthew Rindfleisch
mrindfleisch@hypertechresearch.com
1275 Kinnear Rd.
Columbus, OH 43212-1155
(614)247-4968

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
For Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators(ADR's) for space it is desirable to have very light weight, small diameter, high current density superconducting wires that can operate at temperatures in the 10-30 K range. Magnesium diboride, a light-weight superconductor wire is the ideal candidate coil material for ADRs in the 10-30 K range. During the Phase I we will determine how small of wire can be manufactured, and that coils can be made from the small diameter wires. This will lead to the development of full size ADR coils in a Phase II effort.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Besides ADR coils, magnesium diboride superconductors can benefit NASA applications for superconducting large aircraft motors, transformers, inductors, magnetic bearings, actuators, MHD magnets, and other potential power conditioning applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Commercialization of magnesium diboride superconducting wires will allow less expensive and more open MRI systems for medical use, and lower cost and more efficient power utility applications such as transformers, motors, generators, fault current limiters, and SMES.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S2.04-8440
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optical Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Subaperture Stitching Interferometry for Large Convex Aspheric Surfaces

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
QED Technologies, Inc.
1040 University Avenue
Rochester, NY 14607-1239
(585)256-6540

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Paul Murphy, Ph.D.
Murphy@qedmrf.com
1040 University Avenue
Rochester, NY 14607-1239
(585)256-6540

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The size and accuracy specifications of telescope mirrors are ever more demanding. This is particularly true for secondary mirrors, as they are convex and thus require large-aperture optics to test them. Subaperture stitching has the potential to provide accurate high-resolution maps of large-aperture aspheric optics without the use of dedicated nulls. QED has already developed the subaperture stitching interferometer (SSI), which combines a vertical workstation with a commercially-available 4" or 6" interferometer. Nanometer-level accuracies have been obtained on spherical optics by optimally compensating subaperture placement errors, as well as automatically calibrating for systematic errors such as reference wave error and distortion. Non-null capability is enhanced since the individual subapertures have significantly less aspheric departure. However, the system is currently only capable of testing up to 280 mm optics of mild asphericity. This proposal focuses on innovations for leveraging these considerable benefits of stitching (high resolution, automatic calibration, and flexible aspheric testing) to larger and more aspheric optics. Activities will include novel stitching strategies to calibrate for gravitational deformations, adaptive asphere calibration methods, specialised platform designs, and subscale testing. This will enable more cost-effective production of convex secondary mirrors and facilitate the testing of long-radius concaves, and even of assembled systems).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Successful completion of this work will significantly enhance the efficiency, capability, and flexibility of large-aperture aspheric testing, particularly for convex surfaces, but also including monolithic and segmented concave surfaces. Many NASA programs that depend on large-optics fabrication and testing would benefit. These include (a) Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEU) programs for space-based, large-aperture telescopes that look far into space, (b) Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) programs for airborne or space-based instruments that image the Earth and (c) Sun-Earth Connection (SEC) programs for UV & EUV imaging of the Sun and its interaction with the Solar System.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
In addition to many ground-based telescopes (e.g., CELT, GMST, VLOT), successful completion of this work could benefit other industries that require large, high precision, optical surfaces. This includes lithography systems (that have some of the most demanding commercial optical specifications), commercial satellite and surveillance systems, and large aperture DoD applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S2.04-9431
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optical Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultra-Lightweight Hybrid Structured Mirror

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Metal Matrix Cast Composites, LLC
101 Clematis Ave., Unit #1
Waltham, MA 02453-7012
(781)893-4449

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Yuejian Chen
echen@mmccinc.com
101 Clematis Ave., Unit #1
Waltham, MA 02453-7012
(781)893-4449

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
MMCC is proposing herewith a hybrid structured mirror that combines the advantages of SiC membrane and magnesium graphite composite. The significance of magnesium graphite composite is that it can be produced with quasi-isotropic properties and closely matched CTE down to cryogenic temperatures. In the proposed hybrid mirror, SiC membranes are used as the front and back faces of the mirror and an egg crate structure made of magnesium graphite composite is sandwiched between the SiC membranes. The proposed hybrid mirror structure is expected to have high specific stiffness, good thermal stability, be light weight, and producable at moderate cost.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Optical mirrors and other optical instruments operating at cryogenic temperatures for satellites, space vehicles, and space stations beyond geosynchronous orbits and deep space flight.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Optical apparatus such as optical benches, high speed scanning applications, and metering devices. Beryllium replacement materials for cost reduction, performance and non toxicity.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S2.04-9566
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optical Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rapid Damage-Free Shaping of Lightweight SiC Using Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) Processing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
RAPT Industries, Inc.
6252 Preston Ave.
Livermore, CA 94551-0234
(925)371-7278

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
George J Gardopee
Ggardopee@aol.com
6252 Preston Ave.
Livermore, CA 94551-0234
(925)371-7278

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed effort seeks to determine the feasibility of dramatically reducing the manufacturing cost and cycle time of lightweight silicon carbide mirrors by substituting a novel reactive atom plasma (RAP) process for traditional hard tool grinding and lapping. The RAP process employs an inductively coupled plasma torch with common gaseous fluorine compounds to produce a spatially controlled material removal profile. The plasma is scanned over the surface of the material to be shaped under the control of special algorithms to produce the desired optical form. The RAP process exhibits high volumetric material removal rates on SiC and other optical materials. The avoidance of surface and subsurface damage by the use of this non-contact RAP process is expected to significantly reduce the time and cost of optical finishing. RAP-shaped substrates will be polished by several candidate technologies to establish optimum finishing strategies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Lightweight silicon carbide mirrors are needed for advanced space astronomy and earth imaging missions spanning the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Based upon its material properties, SiC has been identified as an attractive replacement for beryllium and glass mirrors in future large aperture telescopes and interferometers. However, the cost and schedule for producing such optics by conventional technology has been prohibitive.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
SiC is an attractive material for applications in EUV lithography systems where it is a candidate material for illumination and imaging optics. It is also ideally suited for high stiffness, high agility wafer stages which must be optically tracked by laser based distance measuring interferometers. SiC is also attractive for high performance industrial scanners used in printing, cutting and welding.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S2.05-8791
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Photon Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Versatile, Compact, Low-cost, MEMS-based Image Stabilization for Imaging Sensor Performance Enhancement

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
LW Microsystem, Inc
37466 Stonewood Dr.
Fremont, CA 94536-6652
(510)209-7469

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Christian Gutleben
gutleben@lwmicrosystems.com
37466 Stonewood Dr.
Fremont, CA 94536-6652
(805)643-5360

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
LW Microsystems proposes to develop a compact, low-cost image stabilization system suitable for use with a wide range of focal-plane imaging systems in remote sensing and other space-based applications. The system would be used in conjunction with integrated rotation sensors/gyroscopes to deflect light to counteract the effects of vibrations. This approach has the advantage over both image processing software and conventional gimbal-based approaches in being able to stabilize the image to higher frequencies without compromising on image size, resolution or speed. The mass-produced low-cost devices at the core of the system along with the post-assembly electronic tuning of the stabilization module also enable significant cost advantages over other stabilization approaches.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Image stabilization for IR, visible, and UV satellite or aircraft based imaging systems used in remote sensing/earth imaging, non-ground based telescopes where the image panning functions would be especially useful and structure/vehicle/equipment monitoring in extreme vibration environments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Stabilization of hand-held optical imaging systems such binoculars, video cameras, night vision systems.

Stabilization of IR/night vision systems being integrated in passenger vehicles, and surveillance/security systems.

Military applications in image stabilization for imagers in guided missiles, weapons sights and unmanned air surveillance.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S2.05-9125
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Photon Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Speed, Low Power 256 Channel Gamma Radiation Array Detector ASIC

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
AGUILA TECHNOLOGIES INC.
310 VIA VERA CRUZ, SUITE 107
SAN MARCOS, CA 92078-2631
(760)752-1199

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
M Albert Capote
macapote@aguilatech.com
310 VIA VERA CRUZ, SUITE 107
SAN MARCOS, CA 92078-2631
(760)752-1199

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Building on prior success in detector electronics, we propose to design and fabricate a 256 channel readout ASIC for solid state gamma radiation array detectors having a power consumption of less 100 microW/pixel, an event detection throughput of more than 10,000 events/sec, and a dynamic range of 20-600KeV, while providing a spectral resolution of 1% or less in a footprint of less than 12 x 12 mm. This will allow the creation of high-speed 20 x 20 mm CZT detectors with 256 to 512 pixels (1 mm or less pitch). Starting with prior proven designs, we will introduce an innovative, patent-pending readout scheme that reduces digitization to only one signal per channel. We will also replace polling methods with sparse access and an innovative technique that can keep most of the pixels operating while reading out data. These innovations may increase the ASIC event detection rate by orders of magnitude while reducing system power and processing requirements. These innovations are essential for upgrading current gamma detection technology for future missions. There exists no ASICs today that can come close to achieving this performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Addresses essential problem area for NASA?fabricating CZT pixel detectors in a reliable and cost effective way. CZT detector technology has become a critical technology for NASA in hard X-ray astronomy. This proposal is critical for realizing the full potential of this detector technology in space platforms. Lack of a fast, low power 256 channel ASIC is one of the important challenges NASA faces in developing large area CZT focal plane detectors for hard X-ray missions on balloons and in space. The need is to develop a 256 pixel detector for a 20 x 20 x 5 mm CZT crystal.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
A variety of gamma ray imaging sensors are emerging in biomedical imaging. The potential market for such devices exceeds $10 million per year for Aguila. The availability of a high spectral resolution 256 channel ASIC would open a number of product opportunities, especially in hand-held probes for cancer surgery. Also, there is an urgent need for the technology in homeland defense. The technology is immediately applicable to handheld portable battery operated CZT detectors capable of differentiating potential terrorist nuclear materials from legitimate medical, industrial isotopes as well as normally occurring radioactive materials.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S2.05-9570
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Photon Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Superconducting Tunnel Junction Arrays for UV Photon Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
STAR Cryoelectronics LLC
25-A Bisbee Court
Santa Fe, NM 87508-1412
(505)424-6454

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Robin Cantor
rcantor@starcryo.com
25-A Bisbee Court
Santa Fe, NM 87508-1412
(505)424-6454

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An innovative method is described for the fabrication of superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector arrays offering true "three dimensional" imaging throughout the UV, visible and near-IR spectrum. Current state-of-the-art STJ detectors are fabricated from thin epitaxial Ta films that must be deposited at high temperatures on sapphire substrates. The subsequent metal films necessary to complete the STJ may be deposited at ambient temperature, but all of these films must be deposited uniformly with low stress and tight thickness control if acceptable device yields are to be achieved. We propose to develop a reliable and reproducible Ta STJ fabrication process using an advanced thin-film deposition tool that features a precision backside heater for reproducible depositions of high-quality epitaxial films and computer-controlled deposition modes that ensure excellent reproducibility and film uniformity (better than 98%) across an entire wafer. The combination of these unique deposition features is essential for the reproducible fabrication of reliable STJ detector arrays with uniform device properties and high production yields.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
STAR Cryoelectronics anticipates that the primary market for STJ detectors will be in instrumentation for astrophysics research. In particular, NASA has needs for improved detectors and detector arrays for next-generation astrophysics observatories for the UV region. The proposed STJ detector development is targeted to meet this need.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Private sector applications for the proposed STJ detectors include applications in x-ray and mass spectroscopy. As an advanced x-ray detector with high intrinsic count rates, STJ's are of considerable interest for synchrotron-based x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and for high resolution x-ray microanalysis, a critical application in the semiconductor industry. STJ detectors are also of considerable interest as extremely sensitive mass spectrometers for applications in genomics and proteomics.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S2.05-9854
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Photon Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Superconducting thin-film interconnects for cryogenic photon detector arrays

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Luxel Corporation
P.O. Box 1879
Friday Harbor, WA 98250-8040
(360)378-4137

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
David A. Grove
david.grove@luxel.com
515 Tucker Ave.
Friday Harbor, WA 98250-8040
(360)378-4137

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced imaging spectrometers for x-ray astronomy will require significant improvements in the high density interconnects between the detector arrays and the first stage electronics. These detectors operate at 50 to 100 mK, while the first stage is held between 1.3-1.5 K. Interconnects are needed that provide the required signal paths while imparting a thermal heat load on the detector stage of less than 0.5 microwatts. The innovation proposed to meet this need is a ribbon of ultra-thin polyimide supporting a high-density array of vacuum deposited superconducting traces. No such innovative high-density interconnects are available today. Phase I will test material properties of superconducting thin films fundamental to interconnect performance and prepare prototype devices that demonstrate the feasibility of this approach.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
A successful Phase I-Phase II outcome for NASA will be a new technology for the integration of cryogenic detectors with higher temperature electronics. Advanced detector technology has applications from sub-millimeter to gamma-ray energies. It is anticipated that a successful Phase I - Phase II outcome could supply interconnects to support missions such as Constellation X, The James Webb Space Telescope, the Single Aperture Far Infrared Observatory and the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Experiment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Technologies for medical imaging, lithographic inspection, and the non-destructive evaluation of structural materials are increasingly adopting cryogenic detectors and microcalorimeters. These applications require signal interconnections across varied thermal environments. The proposed interconnects will find use in quality assurance instrumentation for electronics packaging, medical imaging such as NMR and MRI, NDE of aircraft lap joints, and in microcalorimeter spectrometers used with scanning electron microscopes for microanalysis of thin films and MEMs devices.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S2.06-9070
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technologies for Gravity Wave Detection
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultra low noise 1.06 micron laser oscillator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Orbits lightwave, inc.
101 Waverly Drive
Pasadena, CA 91105-2513
(626)795-0667

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
yaakov Shevy
yshevy@orbitslightwave.com
101 Waverly Drive
Pasadena, CA 91105-2513
(626)795-0667

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) demand state-of-the-art ultra-stable and low noise coherent lasers. This is a proposal to develop a space qualified high power, single mode, low noise and narrow linewidth fiber laser based on a "virtual ring" laser cavity at the 1.06 micron spectral band. This novel laser architecture enables traveling-wave oscillation in a compact, linear and all-fiber cavity. This leads to unprecedented low noise and stable laser oscillator. The all fiber device also offers a highly reliable, compact and power conserving solution. We have already demonstrated virtual ring oscillators at the 1.55 micron band that rival the state of the ring laser architecture. In this research we will develop a 1.06 micron laser that can meet or exceed the LISA experiment required laser specifications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Low noise space qualified coherent lasers can also find use in other NASA space missions among them: inter-satellite and deep space communications and high resolution coherent Lidar for the Mars Lander mission. In addition, this technology can also be used for ultra high-resolution air-borne LIDAR systems for terrestrial applications. These system may not require the ultra high stability of the LISA experiment but the development of the base-line technology for a common platform can lead to NASA cost savings.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Inter-satellite coherent communications systems are contemplated for DoD and commercial applications. These systems require high power coherent laser transmitter and a low power source for a local oscillator probably at the 1.06 micron band. These systems can use essentially the same base laser technology developed for the space qualified LISA experiment.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S3.01-7863
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Precision Constellations for Interferometry
PROPOSAL TITLE: Radio Frequency Micro Ion Thruster for Precision Propulsion

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Busek Co. Inc.
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760-2213
(508)655-5565

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Kurt Hohman
kurt@busek.com
11 Tech Circle
Natick, MA 01760-1023
(508)655-5565

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Busek proposes to develop radio frequency discharge, gridded micro-ion thruster that produces sub-mN thrust precisely adjustable over a wide dynamic thrust range. Such propulsion is needed to augment and overlap the present micro Newton propulsion such as colloid thruster. The RF was selected to eliminate the internal cathode of the DC discharge ion thrusters. This cathode could be a life limiting component and consumes propellant. Two types of neutralizers are candidates for the proposed thruster and include Busek's carbon nanotube field emission cathode similar to that developed for the ST7 DRS mission and already demonstrated RF discharge cathode which consumes much less flow than comparable hollow cathode. The performance of the proposed RF micro-ion thruster is expected to approach that of the NASA JPL MiXI which represents the state of the art in small ion thrusters with DC discharge.

In Phase 1 the RF micro-ion thruster will be build and tested and second generation laboratory device will be designed. MIT, our subcontractor, will initiate the development the RF thruster numerical model to support the experimental effort.

In Phase 2 the thruster system will be constructed and demonstrated including the optimized thruster, neutralizer, key parts of the PPU and the feed system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Missions such as LISA, TPF, MAXIM, and follow on to the GRACE mission require extremely precise propulsion. Colloid thrusters have demonstrated that sub-micro Newton precision and thrust noise can be achieved. The ST7 DRS mission will document that this thrust precision yields s/c position accuracy within few nanometers. Propulsion with higher but overlapping thrust but relaxed precision is required for the coarse constellation adjustments and for reorientation of the constellation to observe other locations in the universe. Because of cryogenic sensors, the propulsion effluent should not thermally radiate or condense on cryogenic surfaces. These considerations lead to the proposed thruster.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Precision propulsion is required by DoD constellation missions such as the Space Based Radar. Commercial earth observation missions could achieve greater accuracy and resolution by using the proposed propulsion capable to maintain extremely precise and jitter free pointing.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S3.02-8161
SUBTOPIC TITLE: High Contrast Astrophysical Imaging
PROPOSAL TITLE: Optical Software to Calculate Terrestrial Planet Finder Contrast Including Polarization Effects

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Breault Research Organization, Inc.
6400 E. Grant Rd. Suite 350
Tucson, AZ 85715-3862
(520)721-0500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Gary L. Peterson
gpeterson@breault.com
6400 E. Grant Rd., Suite 350
Tucson, AZ 85715-3862
(520)721-0500

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
BRO will provide commercially available optics software that dependably calculates image plane irradiance to the precision required by TPF missions. Calculations will be compared to those predicted in the published literature. BRO will use the Gaussian Beam Decomposition Algorithm (GBDA), which works within fully 3D systems, simulates interferometers and deformable mirrors, includes polarization, and calculates fields at all propagation distances. In Phase II, BRO will increase the speed of the GBDA, write software to estimate the errors in calculations to include the effects of polarization aberrations on the irradiance and add optimization capabilities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed software is a tool that will be used to design, analyze and optimize the complex optical systems for imaging planets around stars.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
This is a general tool for optimizing systems for which diffraction and interference is an important contributor to their performance. Manufacturers and designers of systems that use interferometers, wavefront sensors, and deformable mirrors would use this software to design their systems and improve the performance of their products. The software would be used to design commercial interferometers and wavefront sensors.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S3.02-9660
SUBTOPIC TITLE: High Contrast Astrophysical Imaging
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Resolution Silicon Deformable Mirrors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Boston Micromachines Corp
108 Water Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4696
(617)926-8796

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Paul Bierden
pab@bostonmicromachines.com
108 Water Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4696
(617)926-8796

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal describes a plan to build a prototype small stroke, high precision deformable mirror suitable for space-based operation in systems for high-resolution imaging. The prototype DM will be fabricated through a novel combination of micromachining and wafer bonding steps, and will rely on single crystal silicon for all structural components, promising unprecedented thermal stability and optical quality. These DMs will have a 65 mm aperture diameter, 4096 of degrees of freedom, 1?m of stroke, and a highly reflective mirror surface that can be adjusted repeatably to within 1nm RMS over the controllable range of spatial frequencies. The device will address all fundamental requirements for DMs to be used in space-based applications, by combining the best features of conventional discretely-assembled macroscale DMs (e.g. large aperture, good optical quality, and high reliability) with the best features of integrated microelectromechanical system (MEMS) DMs fabricated using semiconductor processing techniques (e.g. nanometer-scale repeatability, scalability to >104 actuators, and compactness). By using the full area of a silicon wafer for each mirror, these MEMS DMs will be significantly larger than any previously-reported MEMS DM. The device architecture will parallel that of the highly successful commercial MEMS DMs that were pioneered by Boston Micromachines Corporation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed research activities would support all of NASA's planned large aperture missions. In these missions the inherent figure errors and compliance of lightweight primary mirrors will reduce the system's passive performance. It is expected that larger, lighter weight systems will require adaptive systems to achieve acceptable optical performance. Active and adaptive systems will be used to measure and correct wavefront errors for large aperture telescopes and control dynamic changes in the optical structure. Lightweight, low-power deformable mirror technology such as that described in this proposal will be required for several SSE and ESE roadmap missions requiring optical large apertures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The devices that are proposed in this program could be used for any application where dynamic wavefront correction would be required and the current technology (macro-scale DM or liquid crystal SLMs) is limited, either by cost, size, speed, or optical characteristics. Examples of such applications are inter-cavity laser correction, laser welding, long range laser communication and biomedical imaging. Each of these applications, if successfully demonstrated, would lead to a large commercial market for the proposed silicon deformable mirrors.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S3.03-9656
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Precision Deployable Lightweight Cryogenic Structures for Large Space Telescopes
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cryogenic Vibration Damping Mechanisms for Space Telescopes and Interferometers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
CSA Engineering Inc
2565 Leghorn St
Mountain View, CA 94303-1613
(650)210-9000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Kirsten Bender
kbender@csaengineering.com
2565 Leghorn Street
Mountain View, CA 94043-1613
(650)210-9000

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In its mission to understand how galaxies, stars, and planetary systems form, NASA's Origins Technology Program calls for advances in "enabling component and subsystem technology" for large space telescopes and other optical instruments that operate at cryogenic temperatures. In particular, the precision alignment of optical components that is required for detecting faint signatures from distant light sources presents a formidable challenge within a cryogenic environment. To meet this challenge, CSA proposes to mature magnetic eddy current vibration damping technology for use at 45 Kelvin and below. Eddy current technology is the only passive means for damping vibration in a target structure in this temperature range. Existing test data for CSA's prototype device (Figure 1) indicates that 4-8% of critical damping can be induced at temperatures as low as 17 Kelvin without adding significant weight to a target structure. The proposed Phase 1 effort would include development of analysis and test methods as well as conceptual design for a family of passive tuned mass vibration damping devices that are suitable for a host of NASA missions, including SIM, TPF, and JWST. The proposed effort offers a new approach to sub-micron level alignment and pointing control.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The design methodology developed during Phase I is expected to offer a means of suppressing vibration that is due to structural modes in numerous space based optical instruments. The family of eddy current tuned mass damping devices to be developed and tested during Phase II will be designed for direct application to NASA's SIM, TPF, and JWST missions. Phase I results will also provide an ample foundation for design of vibration solutions for other instruments operating at similar temperatures during future NASA missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Components in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) devices as well as commercially developed, space based optical structures suggest potential markets for the proposed development. While present market immaturity makes it difficult to forecast non-NASA commercial potential in greater detail, advancements in imaging capabilities are likely to result in continued development of optical structures that operate at cryogenic temperatures. The need for passive vibration mitigation in structures at cryogenic temperatures is likely to grow.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S3.04-8872
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Large-Aperture Lightweight Cryogenic Telescope Components and Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Cost, Silicon Carbide Replication Technique for LWIR Mirror Fabrication

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
SSG Inc
65 Jonspin Road
Wilmington, MA 01887-1020
(978)694-9991

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Jay Schwartz
jschwartz@ssginc.com
65 Jonspin Road
Wilmington, MA 01887-1020
(978)694-9991

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SSG proposes an innovative optical manufacturing approach that will enable the low-cost fabrication of lightweighted, Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) Silicon Carbide (SiC) mirror substrates. The approach proposed is a modification of SSG's slip casting forming process which has been demonstrated to produce aggressively lightweighted SiC optics. We propose to improve the process by applying innovative tooling that will allow us to replicate optical surfaces directly onto the SiC optics during the forming process. This approach will eliminate the costly and time consuming machining and polishing processes associated with traditional optical fabrication. The replication process we propose is different from standard replication processes in that it does not require any epoxy bonding layers. The final product will be as durable as traditional, monolithic SiC mirrors, and in this way will be suitable for space borne application. In Phase I we propose to produce a number of witness samples using the proposed forming process. Initially we intend to produce optical surfaces suitable for the 20 ? 40 micron waveband. The technology proposed will enable the production of large optical surfaces in a cost-effective manner, enabling multi-meter, deployable, LWIR optical systems, similar to JWST.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Direct applications of the developed fabrication process will include medium to large aperture (greater than 1 m segments) long-wave (~20 micron wavelength) telescopes. The process can also be applied as a modification of current optical manufacturing flow to reduce or eliminate a rough machining or grinding step in preparation of the optical substrate. In this manner, successful completion of Phase 1 and 2 may lead to reduced cost and schedule on a range of optical instruments including visible quality telescopes.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The low-cost mirror fabrication approach proposed will reduce the cost of IR quality SiC optics, making them suitable for a number of commercial and government applications. Commercial applications include infra-red surveillance optical systems, and infra-red spectral analysis sensors for in-situ process control and pollution monitoring.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S3.04-9218
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Large-Aperture Lightweight Cryogenic Telescope Components and Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: SynLam(TM) Primary Mirror Evaluation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Cornerstone Research Group Inc
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440-3325
(937)320-1877

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Stephen Vining
viningsd@crgrp.net
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440-3325
(937)320-1877

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), has developed sandwich core composite material (SynLam(TM)) and related fabrication technology to address the drawbacks of conventional materials and fabrication processes for space-based mirrors. The resulting technologies will directly address NASA's requirement for advanced, low-cost, high quality large optics fabrication processes for building imaging systems that support the Space Science Enterprise's Structure and Evolution of the Universe Theme. Extending recent CRG advancements in syntactic composites by tailoring the material system to cryogenic applications, the new material will achieve a balance of mass, structural, thermal, and optical properties that dramatically advances the state-of-the-art for space-based mirrors. The new material will also enable mirror fabrication techniques that are significantly faster and cheaper than current practice. Currently available syntactic materials show the potential of this class of composite for application in lightweight mirrors. Integrated development of the new material and new process technology will yield synergy in advancing the state-of-the-art in both areas.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Supporting NASA's Space Science Enterprise, this project's technologies directly address requirements for large-aperture lightweight cryogenic optics materials and manufacturing technology for Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization (CMB-Pol), Single Aperture Far-IR (SAFIR) and Sub-millimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS) optics systems. This project's technologies offer dramatically reduced areal density, thermal stability at low temperatures, tougher and stronger mirror substrate material, and reduced mirror fabrication cost and time.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
This project's technologies developed for NASA systems would directly apply to systems operated by other government and commercial enterprises.
Government systems that would derive the same benefits would include but not be limited to Space-based imaging systems operated by the Department of Defense.
This technology's attributes for imaging mirrors should yield a high potential for private sector commercialization for high-end research observatories and consumer-level telescopes or Space-based imaging systems. Ball Aerospace and Technologies has documented their interest in this commercialization opportunity (see letter of support on page 21).


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S4.01-9068
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Science Instruments for Conducting Solar System Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Powder Handling Device for X-ray Diffraction Analysis with Minimal Sample Preparation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
inXitu
PO box 730
mountain view, CA 94042-0730
(650)799-2118

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Philippe C Sarrazin
psarrazin@inxitu.com
PO box 730
mountain view, CA 94042-0730
(650)799-2118

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This project consists of developing a Vibrating Sample Holder (VSH) for planetary X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) instruments. The principle of this novel sample handling technique relies on vibrations generated in a sample holder to create movements in the powdered sample. The major benefit over conventional sample handling techniques is the possibility to characterize materials with grain-sizes up to two orders of magnitude larger, with no degradation in the data quality. It allows existing planetary sample-preparation systems such as rock crushers and drills to be used in place of fine-grinding mills normally required for quality XRD analysis. A secondary benefit of the VSH is that it offers a simple means of loading and removal of samples, with a limited number of moving parts. This research will answer a critical need for sample handling devices for conducting definitive mineralogy analyses in Solar System Exploration. The Phase 1 effort will focus on a feasibility study of two critical components of the system: the thin X-ray windows required for the sample holder, and the mechanism for controlling the granular flow. The Phase 2 R&D work will lead to a VSH brassboard prototype that can be remotely operated and interfaced to a planetary XRD instrument.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed system will enable planetary X-ray diffraction instruments to produce high quality data without complex sample preparation. It will be imbedded in a host instrument such as CheMin, the planetary definitive mineralogy instrument developed by NASA. The reduced constraints on sample preparation and compactness of the system will allow fitting XRD capabilities on a broader range of landed platforms. The technology could serve a variety of other types of in-situ planetary instruments requiring delivery of powdered material. It will also help in the implementation of remote XRD capabilities in terrestrial laboratories for the study of returned samples.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed technique will find a range of applications in industrial and research laboratories as a means to automatically load powdered samples in XRD instruments for analysis or process control (cements, inks, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, etc.), or to characterize materials that cannot be ground to fine-grained size (explosives, pharmaceuticals). It will also be essential to XRD instruments for field or remote analyses of hazardous substances, geological materials, etc. The Vibrating Sample Holder could be produced as a stand-alone unit fitted to commercial instruments or as part of a complete system that takes full advantage of its unique capabilities.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S4.01-9421
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Science Instruments for Conducting Solar System Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: A monolithic, non-field-widened Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer for Solar System exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS INC.
55 Middlesex street
North Chelmsford, MA 01863-1561
(978)251-4554

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Steven Watchorn
steve@sci-sol.com
55 Middlesex street
North Chelmsford, MA 01863-1561
(978)251-4554

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of this project is to produce a monolithic Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (a Fourier Transform Interferometer) for use in Solar System exploration. In Phase I, the gratings and beamsplitter for a visible-wavelength SHS (operating near 633 nm) will be constructed and aligned, to demonstrate that an isomorphic IR monolith can function. A complete IR monolith, with novel construction, will follow in Phase II. The viability of both the Phase I and Phase II constructs will be shown by detecting and analyzing interferograms for a monochromatic and a polychromatic source. The analysis of that data will use Fourier Transform code written by the experimenters in Interactive Data Language (IDL). It is expected that, in each phase, complete spectra of both sources over the spectral range of the instrument will be readily obtained from these tests. The Phase II instrument will be available for further research

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The SHS is far more robust than conventional interferometers, making it the ideal interferometer for space-based applications. The missions of the Mars Exploration and New Frontiers Programs ? particularly the latter's Venus In Situ Explorer and Jupiter Polar Orbiter ? would be fertile ground for the monolithic SHS. A SHS monolith would also mesh strongly with the Comet Surface Sample Return mission. As the Solar System is explored, remote sensing of planetary, satellite, and cometary atmospheres and ionospheres will become very important. The SHS is extremely well-suited to these missions of the coming decades.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The monolithic SHS is potentially a competitor to the FTIR or echelle-class spectrometers now used for environmental chemical detection and sensing. It also can bring the advantages of interferometry (in terms of improved throughput and compactness) to realms such as computer-card-based spectroscopy, where grating spectrometers are now used. These computer cards, featuring miniature spectrometers built directly onto their surface, are used in tasks ranging from diagnostic testing to portable spectroscopy to educational demonstrations and labs. A small monolithic SHS would make this device significantly faster and more efficient.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S4.01-9723
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Science Instruments for Conducting Solar System Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fiber-based Ultraviolet Laser System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Aculight Corporation
11805 North Creek Parkway S. Suite 113
Bothell, WA 98011-8803
(425)482-1100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
David C. Gerstenberger
daveg@aculight.com
11805 N. Creek Pkwy S., Ste. 113
Bothell, WA 98011-8803
(425)482-1100

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The purpose of this program is to develop a compact and efficient ultraviolet laser system for use in space-based uv-Raman instruments. The basis for this system will be a modulated diode seed laser followed by a fiber amplifier which is frequency-quadrupled to generate uv light at 245nm. The unique combination of a compact and efficient fiber amplifier with efficient harmonic generation will provide an ideal ultraviolet source for NASA missions in the Solar System.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Fiber lasers and amplifiers have the potential to enable a number of NASA space-based programs. Fiber lasers in the 1 micron range are useful for optical communications. Frequency-tripled lasers in the 300nm to 320nm range can be used for ozone Lidar applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Frequency-doubled fiber lasers in the 490nm range can be used for display applications and in bio-medical instruments such as cell sorters, flow cytometers, and DNA sequencers. Frequency-tripled lasers in the 327nm range can be used for stereo-lithography and materials processing such as micro-machining. Frequency-quadrupled fiber-based systems near 245nm can be used for detection of chemical and biological agents.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S4.01-9928
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Science Instruments for Conducting Solar System Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fast GC for space applications based on PIES technology

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
LENTERRA INC.
7 Tenney Road
West Orange, NJ 07052-1315
(973)731-6281

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Michael Kozhevnikov
michael@lenterra.com
7 Tenney Road
West Orange, NJ 07052-1315
(973)731-6281

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Development of a novel analytical instrument which combines the advantages of fast GC and a detector capable of identifying species is proposed. Experiments in the limited-space environment require from a GC system maximum productivity and universality with minimal resource consumption. A combination of a short-column fast-chromatographic separation technique with a low-power-consumption miniature detector capable of identifying unknown species would be an ideal instrument for flight analysis. The proposed instrument will employ the technology of Penning Ionization Electron Spectroscopy in plasma (PIES) which provides an excellent opportunity for the development of a fast-GC/PIES combination that satisfies these requirements. A new micro-PIES detector is proposed that uses continuous flowing afterglow discharge cell design enabling the measurement of PIES spectra in continuous flow at atmospheric pressure of the carrier gas. PIES spectra for permanent gases will be recorded in Phase I by a micro-PIES detector prototype. In Phase II of the project, a commercially viable micro-PIES detector and an analytical device combining fast GC and the micro-PIES detector, will be developed.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The project will result in an compact and versatile analytical instrument which will enhance scientific investigations on future planetary missions. The fast-GC/micro-PIES device is best suited for in-situ analyses required for NASA's solar system exploration missions. The instrument deployed either on orbital spacecraft, or for in-situ measurements, on surface landers and rovers, will be able to characterize the atmosphere and gases of planets and satellites. Another potential application of the instrument is gas analysis on-board of the spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Portable analytical devices which would provide fast and sensitive identification of analytes are required in the majority of the GC detection fields. The advantages of the proposed technology are in the optimal combination of the small size and weight, simplicity and ruggedness of the design, and the ability to identify unknown species. Such technologies are required for various industrial, forensic, military, security, research, environmental and educational needs. Some specific applications include microelectronics; airport security; weapons drug, alcohol, and other contraband detection; landmine detection; individual/consumer applications and hazardous waste treatment, among others.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S4.01-9989
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Science Instruments for Conducting Solar System Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Spectrometer for Particle Characterization with a New Multiple-Scattering Theory

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Felix ALBA Consultants, Inc.
5760 South Ridge Creek Road
Murray, UT 84107-6617
(801)264-8294

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Felix Alba
felixalba@comcast.net
5760 South Ridge Creek Road
Murray, UT 84107-6617
(801)264-8294

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There are two major commercial types of light-scattering particle size analyzers: Static Light Scattering and Dynamic Light Scattering. They are expensive, delicate, bulky, and must operate at extremely low particle concentrations. A fundamental mathematical model for high concentrations has been in need for decades and finally developed by the author after 25 years of research and development (METAMODELTM).

UV-NIR spectroscopy has a long successful history for molecular characterization of gases, liquids, or solids but commercial particle size analyzers based on this powerful principle do not exit. Seven impediments for its presence in the market are identified and their resolution either described as already accomplished by the author or achievable with a high probability of success during Phase I.

It is our long-term goal to develop a commercial UV-NIR high dynamic-range, miniaturized, robust spectrometer for particle size analysis in the range 1 nm to 10 um (METASIZERTM). During Phase I, a breadboard prototype to demonstrate feasibility will be developed.

We firmly believe that, due to its expected superior performance and lower cost, our innovation and its derivatives could revolutionize the field of particle sizing in both diluted and concentrated particulates. Applications are innumerable ranging from materials science through pharmaceuticals to environmental.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
* Colloidal engineering in Space. Highly concentrated colloids could be studied without sedimentation with our METAMODELTM theory predicting multiple-scattering effects;

* Aerosol characterization (AERONET, MPLNET, Mars Network);

* Joint atmospheric chemical identification and determination of aerosol particle size distribution and concentration (PSD/Cv);

* Joint biogenic identification and PSD/Cv determination;

* Characterization of jet engine emissions like the Nanometer Aerosol Size Analyzer developed at NASA Langley but with a much broader size range;

* Droplet size characterization of jet fuel sprays with high Cv where multiple-scattering is non-negligible so METAMODELTM is again uniquely positioned;

* Characterization of metal powders (rocket propulsion)

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
* Pharmaceutical
* Nano-Composites
* Nano-Medicine
* Food and Beverages
* Materials Science
* Polymers
* Mineral Processing
* Chemical
* Ceramic
* Paper
* Pigments and Coatings
* Cement
* Petrochemical
* Semiconductor
* Bio-Colloids
* Environmental
* Cosmetics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S4.02-7812
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme Environment and Aerial Mobility
PROPOSAL TITLE: 500?C SiC JFET Driver Circuits and Packaging

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
SemiSouth Laboratories, Inc
201 Research Blvd.
Starkville, MS 39759-7704
(662)324-7607

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Jeffrey B. Casady
jeff.casady@semisouth.com
201 Research Blvd.
Starkville, MS 39759-7704
(662)324-7607

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In the proposed development, SiC JFET control circuitry and normally-off SiC JFET power switch will be integrated in a single SiC chip that will provide digital output for driving piezoelectric, electrostatic, or electromagnetic actuators. Innovative device design, metallurgical ohmic contact and die attach development, and coordinated packaging approaches will result in SiC power I.C. technology capable of sustained operation at 465?C, an industry first. This development will result in a unique lightweight, low-cost, packaged all-SiC Smart Power Module able to reliably operate in extremely high temperature, pressure, and radiation environments. Silicon carbide active components (vertical SemiSouth SiC power transistors) will be evaluated for 465C ambient operation. Improvements in the metallurgical ohmic contacts, die attach, wire bond, and package will be investigated to extend the reliable operating temperature range. Additionally, passive components such as thick film resistors, NPO and diamond capacitors, will be investigated as well. Finally, all of this information will be used to develop compact device and circuit models to propose a complete packaged commercial solution for 500C capable SiC based driver circuits.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Additional NASA applications besides the Venus probe, which is an important mission, include reactor-based propulsion systems which require both temperature and radiation tolerance. The proposed technology development here will benefit the development of SiC active components, passive resistor, capacitor components, and packaging for high-temperature electronic systems needed in lunar based power management systems as well.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
High-temperature components are needed for geothermal, down-hole, and other drilling applications. Increasing the operational temperature range to 465C, as proposed here, will ensure additional reliability for the electronic solutions needed for these downhole systems, in particular for short temperature excursions above the desired operating point in power integrated circuits. Additional high-temperature applications which would benefit from this technology include in-situ combustion monitoring and active electronic braking systems.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S4.02-8070
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme Environment and Aerial Mobility
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Temperature/Pressure Sampling System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Honeybee Robotics Ltd.
204 Elizabeth St.
New York, NY 10012-4236
(212)966-0661

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Jerri Ji
Ji@HoneybeeRobotics.com
204 Elizabeth St.
New York, NY 10012-4236
(212)966-0661

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The National Research Council's Decadal Study released in July of 2003 recognizes Venus as an important and probable target for a New Frontiers mission within the next decade. NASA's New Frontiers missions are directed towards answering key scientific questions regarding planetary formation and evolution. Specifically, by drilling and taking in-situ measurements on Venus, insight into what global mechanisms affect the evolution of volatiles on planetary bodies, why the terrestrial planets evolved so differently from each other and how these processes operate and interact, will be gained. Honeybee proposes to develop a concept for an arm-deployed high-temperature/pressure (HTP) sampling system capable of drilling to a depth of 30-cm or more and quickly acquiring multiple core and/or unconsolidated samples from selectable depths. A Phase I award and subsequent Phase II award will bring a high-temperature/pressure sampling system to sufficient Technology Readiness Level in time for proposal of a landed Venus mission in the next round of New Frontiers solicitations. Funding under this year's SBIR program would be a critical step in the development of a flight-ready sampling system for inclusion on a Venus landed mission to be launched by 2011.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Honeybee Robotics anticipates that the high temperature, high-pressure drill proposed here will have a number of applications for future NASA missions. The New Frontiers mission in particular has recognized Venus as a possible mission destination within the next decade. For such a mission, the proposed drill will be essential for in-situ observations and measurements. Aspects of the technology may also apply to other extreme environments, such as the surface and subsurface of Europa, Titan, Mars' polar latitudes, comets and asteroids, and even the lower altitude regions of the gas giants (Jupiter, Saturn, etc.)

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The primary application identified by Honeybee Robotics is within the energy industry. Accessing natural gas at depths beyond 15000 feet, for instance, is beyond the current state of the art of terrestrial deep drills. One of the prohibitive aspects of this deep drilling is the risk associated with the high-temperature and high-pressure strata encountered at such depths. The work proposed here directly addresses this issue.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S4.02-8406
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme Environment and Aerial Mobility
PROPOSAL TITLE: Model-based Design Tools for Extending COTS Components To Extreme Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Lynguent, Inc
PO Box 19325
Portland, OR 97280-0325
(971)242-1410

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Martin Vlach
mvlach@lynguent.com
PO Box 19325
Portland, OR 97280-0325
(971)242-1410

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovation in this Phase I project is to prove the feasibility of using model-based design (MBD) tools to predict the performance and useful life of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components and COTS-based systems outside of their rated temperature range. These tools will consist of novel modeling tools, advanced system and data analysis capability. The modeling tools will differ from all known technologies in that they will facilitate the capture of experimental data on COTS devices that will get automatically transformed through novel modeling methods into newly created behavioral models with performance degradation and lifetime effects. These tools are relevant and important in providing NASA the means to quantify the reliability and lifetime (i.e., capability and risk) of COTS components and COTS-based systems and provide a trade structure for the assessment of competing technologies. Furthermore, these novel modeling and design tools will provide a means of integrating disparate models, allow agile evolution of models, and encourage MBD reporting mechanisms be used in reviews. Ultimately, these MBD tools will enable lower-cost system development and cost versus lifetime assessment, shorten development time, and extend flight-proven technology to broader applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The potential NASA applications include all manned and unmanned vehicles
that involve electronics (COTS-based or not). The tools being developed at
Lynguent will offer a consistent approach to modeling, simulation and data
management, test bench development, archival of test and simulation data
along with the models used for design, and specification management. The
API-based approach will enable this collaborative design environment to be
used for modeling and design debugging in all of the commercially available
tool flows. Thus, as a 3rd party add-on tool suite, these tools will apply
to electronics and mixed-technology systems that go onboard all NASA
vehicles.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Lynguent's tools are designed to be more mainstream than simply extreme
environments. Since these tools are based on hardware description languages,
they are applicable to any discipline (electrical, mechanical, hydraulic)
where models can be expressed in terms of differential, algebraic equations.
Event-driven phenomena can be modeled and simulated (i.e., digital or analog
event-driven). The mix of these disciplines is also possible (i.e.,
mixed-technology). So, among the non-NASA applications are any
electronics-based design involving analog, digital, mixed-signal electronics
as well as mixed-technology systems such as MEMS. This is an incredibly
broad market spanning the transportation and semiconductor industries and
military applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S4.02-9215
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme Environment and Aerial Mobility
PROPOSAL TITLE: Sialyte(TM)-based Composite Pressure Vessels for Extreme Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Cornerstone Research Group Inc
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440-3325
(937)320-1877

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Benjamin A. Dietsch
dietschba@crgrp.net
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440-3325
(937)320-1877

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
While traveling to Venus, electronics and instruments go through enormous pressure, temperature, and atmospheric environment changes. In the past, this has caused problems with the life expectancy of electronics and instruments. Cornerstone Research Group, CRG, proposes to develop a Sialyte(TM)-based composite pressure vessel to perform in such extreme environments. Sialyte(TM) is an inorganic resin that can operate at high temperatures and pressures and can prevent buckling when used as a sandwich structure core (good compressive strengths). Sialyte(TM) has thermal properties similar to a ceramic material, yet processing characteristics like an organic polymer. Sialyte(TM) is also resistant to many chemicals. CRG previously developed this material and is currently using it for structural and protective applications. By using Sialyte(TM) in combination with Nextel(TM) ceramic fabric, CRG can fabricate a filament wound structure using conventional composite manufacturing processes that will perform in extreme environments. The use of filament winding for fabrication will allow for many possible design options in an affordable manner. A Sialyte(TM)-based composite pressure vessel tank will not only meet but exceed NASA's requirements for a pressure vessel for extreme environments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Supporting NASA's Space Science Enterprise, this project's technologies directly address requirements for technologies for high temperature and high pressure environments for exploration of Venus and other planets. This project's technologies offer high temperature and high pressure capabilities using common composite fabrication processes for affordability. This project would also use X-Aerogels developed by NASA for their thermal and structural properties and provide a route to commercialization for this proven material.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
This project's technologies developed for NASA systems would directly apply to systems operated by other government and commercial enterprises. Government systems that would derive the same benefits would include but not be limited to electronic or instrument housing systems for harsh environments in military operations (Department of Defense). This technology's attributes for extreme environment survivability should yield a high potential for private sector commercialization for solar system exploration as well as inspection instrument housing for the chemical manufacturing industry.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S4.02-9279
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extreme Environment and Aerial Mobility
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Temperature Telemetry Transmitter for Venus Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Softronics Ltd.
6920 Bowman Lane NE
Cedar Rapids, IA 52402-1576
(319)431-0314

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Robert Sternowski
bobs@softronicsltd.com
6920 Bowman Lane NE
Cedar Rapids, IA 52402-1576
(319)431-0314

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed S-band telemetry transmitter will operate in the exterior Venusian corrosive, high pressure, 460oC ambient atmosphere without being contained in a thermally protective container. The sealed, radiation-hardened, high-reliability, silicon-carbide-based transmitter uses an ambient heatsink to cool its single high temperature transistor without the power, volume, and weight of auxiliary cooling. An innovative circuit architecture requires only one semiconductor device; other components are ceramic or temperature-compensated machined metal parts. Operating life on Venus is limited only by the external power source and acid erosion of the case; several months is anticipated. The transmitter accepts digital data and primary power in, and provides radio power out to its antenna. The transmitter's 10 watt RF output power to an integral omnidirectional antenna provides ample link margin for 50 kbps to a 2000 mile altitude relay satellite, and may be linearly scaled in power, data rate, and/or range as desired. Our proposed solution includes the complete communications system design and analysis, including modulation, link power budget, receiver, and antenna. This solution can also be applied to very cold Titan-like applications as well.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Applications include micro/nano/pico satellites requiring light weight and small size operating at MEO/GEO radiation exposure altitudes where SiC components will survive. Excellent scheme for general planetary exploration harsh environments, both hot and cold.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Applications include petroleum "down-hole" telemetry where environment is very similar to Venusian heat, pressure and acidity. The evolution of solid state power oscillators may open a new set of consumer and industrial products where a smaller, lighter solid state unit can replace a traditional heavy, large tube oscillator and transformer power supply. Similar DoD applications for low cost, expendable solid state high power oscillators and telemetry systems capable of high temperature operation.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S4.03-9587
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Flexible Electronics and Nanosensors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Highly Integrated, Reconfigurable, Large-Area, Flexible Radar Antenna Arrays

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Anvik Corp
6 Skyline Dr
Hawthorne, NY 10532-2165
(914)345-2442

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Dr. Marc Klosner
mklosner@anvik.com
Anvik Corp., 6 Skyline Drive
Hawthorne, NY 10532-2165
(914)345-2442

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Highly-integrated, reconfigurable radar antenna arrays fabricated on flexible substrates offer high functionality in a portable package that can be rolled up and transported on the ground, or deployed into space. High levels of integration allow for: reconfigurability of operating frequency and / or gain pattern; integration of control, information processing, and communications functions directly onto the antenna substrate; integration of MEMS sensors into the antenna substrate to monitor the system health during deployment and in service; and opto-electronic beam forming networks, providing immunity to electromagnetic interference. While the advantages of highly-integrated flexible antennas are significant, their fabrication is highly challenging due to the lack of manufacturing technologies that can meet all of the processing requirements on flexible substrates. In this program we will develop and demonstrate a lithography-based process technology that enables a variety of critical processes that cannot be carried out using existing patterning technologies, in particular: the fabrication of the radar elements and feed structures on very-large-area substrates; the reduction of manufacturing costs by using photoablation processes; high levels of integration by means of laser-crystallization, allowing for the integration of high-performance ICs; and a combination of processes to produce MEMS for on-board sensors and for reconfiguring the array.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed program will lead to highly-integrated flexible antenna systems, featuring sensors, processors, and command and communications systems. Additionally, the antenna will feature highly directional gain patterns as well as reconfigurability, to cover a large bandwidth and a wide range of scan angles. These antennas will be lightweight and, since they are flexible, they can be "collapsed" into a small volume for launch into space, and then "inflated" at the destination site. This highly integrated systems-on-flex program would also have applications in other areas of interest to NASA, such as integrated sensor skins, and solar sails / gossamer spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The highly-integrated systems-on-flex technology developed in this program can be used for fabricating mobile electronics, where a high level of integration on lightweight, flexible substrates is critical. There are also commercial applications in other large consumer market segments such as flat-panel displays, where portable wall-sized displays that can roll-up are the long-term goal of the industry; and in commerce, particularly in the areas of electronic labels and RFID tags.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S4.04-7759
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deep Space Power Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Carbon-Coated CFx Nanocomposite Cathodes for High Rate Lithium Primary Batteries

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Lithium Power Technologies Inc
20955 Morris Avenue, P.O. Box 978
Manvel, TX 77578-3819
(281)489-4889

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Zhong Shi
zshi@lithiumpower.com
20955 Morris Avenue
Manvel, TX 77578-3819
(281)489-4889

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future NASA planetary exploration missions require batteries that can operate in deep-space environments, including high radiation and extreme temperatures, and deliver high specific energy and power density. A novel electrode material that exploits the high gravimetric and volumetric capacity of the carbon monofluoride nanoparticles with high rate capability coated by an electronically conductive thin-layer of carbon is proposed in this work as a composite cathode for lithium primary batteries. Nanoscale carbon-carbon monofluoride composites will be prepared by high energy ball-milling method. The surface coating and dispersion effect of the carbon black as conductive additive will play a beneficial role in obtaining samples with small and uniform particle size, as well as in enhancing their overall electronic conductivity. The composite anode is expected to yield high specific capacity exceeding 1000 mAh/g, high rate capability, and good shelf life. The lithium primary battery based on this new kind of CFx-based cathode material will lead a high rate primary battery with an energy density exceeding 750 Wh/kg.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)

? For future Mars exploration missions, e.g. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (2005), Mars Scouts (2007 and beyond), Mars Science laboratory (2009) and the Next Decade of Mars Exploration
? For missions to outer planets Jupiter, Pluto (e.g. Europa Orbiter and Pluto Fly-by)
? Planetary orbiters and the earth satellites (e.g. LEO and GEO)
? Storage batteries

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)

? High rate applications (e.g. power tools, underwater vehicles, electric bicycles, high-tech gadgets, MD players, PDA)
? Electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles
? Electronic devices
? Wearable batteries for land warriors
? Load-leveling systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S4.04-7980
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deep Space Power Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Deep Space Cryogenic Power Electronics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS, INC.
5445 Conestoga Court, #2A
Boulder, CO 80301-2724
(303)443-2262

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Ben Nguyenphu
bennp@techapps.com
3251 Progress Drive, Room 3-107
Orlando, FL 32826-2931
(407)210-2113

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Technology Application, Inc. (TAI) is proposing to demonstrate feasibility of implementing silicon germanium (SiGe) strained-gate technology in the power complementary metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (CMOSFET) and logic devices for a logic and power transistor controller for space-approved stepper motors at cryogenic temperature. Power electronic systems contain digital and analog circuits, and the increasing complexity of these systems required for deep space missions and naval electric-powered propulsion requires a new approach in material and processes to operate efficiently at cryogenic temperature. The metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) is the building block for both digital and analog circuits. Silicon (Si) is a good material for fabricating power MOSFET and electronic devices for operation from 300 K to 77 K. Devices made from Si suffer from carrier freeze-out below 77 K. Silicon carbide (SiC) is another material suitable for power switch transistors; however, SiC deivices suffer from carrier freeze-out at temperature higher than that of Si. SiGe heterostructure bipolar transistor (HBT) devices are good candidates for low temperature operation. However, SiGe HBT devices suffer changes in characteristics as the operating temperature gets colder. SiGe HBT device switching waveform of a dc-dc converter became distorted below 120 K.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Deep space missions and NASA Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) require electronic devices and components capable of operating at extreme hash environments. The cryogenic temperature and radioactive environments that the electronic systems must endure require a new approach in materials and processes. Stepper motors are critical components in deep space missions to drive lens, filters or infra-red cameras. The ability to package the motor controllers in the extreme environments yields reduction in cost, weight, and improve the packaging of the spacecraft or instrument.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Power electronics for high temperature superconducting (HTS) motors such as the next-generation all-electric ships being developed by the Navy; significant size and weight reduction are potentially available in all-electric aircraft weapon and surveillance systems, wireless communications for both military and commercial applications. There are advantages for cryogenic cooling applications such as commercial cellular base stations and the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) program and superconducting magnetic coils contained in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment, magnetic levitation transportation, and particle accelerators.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S4.04-8373
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deep Space Power Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Preparation of All-Ceramic, High Performance Li-ion Batteries for Deep Space Power Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
TPL Inc
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109-4416
(505)344-6744

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Tuqiang Chen Ph.D
tchen@tplinc.com
3921 Academy Parkway North, NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109-4416
(505)342-4449

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Lithium (Li) ion batteries are among the most promising power sources for many civilian, military and space applications due to their high power and high energy densities. However, current state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries are not suited for operation in deep-space environments including high radiation and an extremely wide operation temperature regime (-100˚C to 400˚C), due to utilization of thermally and electrochemically unstable organic electrolytes.
TPL proposes to develop an all-ceramic, high performance Li-ion battery for deep-space power systems via a novel cell configuration, micro-fiber cells (MFCs), that ensures successful utilization of ceramic materials for all battery components. The superior properties of the proposed MFC-based Li-ion batteries will be achieved via formation and processing of functional graphite fibers that facilitate interfacial contacts and practical utilization of ceramic electrolytes.
In Phase I, TPL will fabricate the proposed MFCs via a solution approach and process the MFCs into rechargeable batteries having a wide operation temperature window, excellent radiation resistance, and a high specific energy. The functional fibers will be structurally characterized and MFC-based batteries will be electrochemically evaluated in the temperature regime. The concept of MFCs will be demonstrated. TPL has extensive experience in Li-ion battery chemistries and technologies. TPL's technical and management teams are well positioned to move this technology into the market.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
High performance Li-ion batteries will provide more stored energy for NASA's power systems in satellites, spacecraft, and probes.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Lithium batteries have extensive applications in commercial products including electric vehicles, cellular telephones, lap-top computers, digital cameras, tools, and other consumer products.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S4.04-9077
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deep Space Power Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Cathode Material For High Energy Density Lithium-Batteries

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
MER Corp
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706-9237
(520)574-1980

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Dr. Raouf O. Loutfy
rloutfy@mercorp.com
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706-9237
(520)574-1980

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced cathode materials having high red-ox potential and high specific capacity offer great promise to the development of high energy density lithium-based batteries. A novel advanced cathode material having higher capacity and operating voltage than conventional CFx cathode is proposed to develop high energy density lithium batteries. The proposed cathode material will be synthesized and characterized using different analytical and electrochemical techniques.

Several prismatic design lithium pouch cells will be developed with the proposed cathode material and lithium anode in carbonate-based lithium hexafluorophosphate electrolyte and will be tested to demonstrate the proof-of-concept.



POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The successful completion of Phase I work will demonstrate the feasibility of developing high energy density and long life lithium batteries for NASA's Deep Space Power Systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The U.S. progressively lost her position in each generation of new battery technology developed for consumer electronic applications. The rapid development of a new advanced battery technology with high capacity cathode materials is, therefore, essential for us in order to gain our worldwide competitiveness for portable electronics (such as memory backups, etc.) and medical (such as heart pacemakers) applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S4.05-9355
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Astrobiology
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Instrument for Detecting Protein Expression under Radiation and Microgravity

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt St
Watertown, MA 02472-4699
(617)668-6800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Louis Strong
lstrong@rmdinc.com
44 Hunt St
Watertown, MA 02472-4699
(617)668-6823

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
An understanding of the basic cellular mechanisms organisms use to cope with extreme environments is important as we search for life in other parts of the universe and seek to adapt terrestrial life beyond earth. Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. proposes to build an automated, high-throughput instrument to measure changes in protein expression levels in single living cells during passage in a space environment. Commercial libraries of clones expressing GFP (green fluorescent proteins) fused to individual yeast proteins are available for the entire yeast proteome. We will test the feasibility of using fluorescence measurements of these chimeric fusion proteins as an indicator of changes in the expression levels of the endogenous proteins upon exposure to radiation. Our instrument consists of a continuous, multi-well, suspension culture bioreactor that provides yeast clones that are sampled in a microfluidic flow cytometer. Light scattering and fluorescent signals from the yeast particles under flow will activate an in-line cell sorter to collect cells of interest for follow-up analysis. Since the instrument is self-contained, has low power consumption and a small footprint, and uses fluidic based cell separation, it will be suitable for collecting single cell protein expression information in a space laboratory.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Although this instrument's initial use is to study the effects of radiation on yeast protein expression, it may be applied to study effects of a space environment on any cell line grown in suspension culture, including extremeophiles. Adherent eukaryotic cells attached to microcarriers could also be used. While it purports to measure protein levels, it could also be applied to other fluorescence-based assays including mutational analysis, directed evolution studies, and screening of radioprotective compounds. Ground as well as space-based applications are contemplated. Long-term, unattended experiments are permitted by the simplicity of bioreactor design and automation of the cytometric analysis.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Many commercial applications arise for this instrument which combines a continuous cell culture bioreactor and a microfluidic flow cytometer/ cell sorter, including drug testing, combinatorial analysis, and stem cell differentiation. The bioreactor component fills an unmet need for culturing multiple clones or different cell lines under identical growth conditions in limited volumes. The cytometric analyzer/sorter provides an economical alternative to large-frame, general purpose, cell sorters in markets where high-throughput, dedicated purpose, cell screening is required. Multiple wavelength fluorescence measurements may be easily accommodated by using Geiger-mode APD arrays rather than single element APDs.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S4.05-9901
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Astrobiology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Single Molecule Scanning of DNA Radiation Oxidative Damage

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
The DNA Medicine Institute
116 Charles Street, Suite 6
Boston, MA 02114-3217
(617)233-7656

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Eugene Chan
echan@dnamedinstitute.com
116 Charles Street, Suite 6
Boston, MA 02114-3217
(617)233-7656

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal will develop an assay to map genomic DNA, at the single molecule level and in a nanodevice, for oxidative DNA damage arising from radiation exposure; this will result in a highly quantitative approach to real-time health monitoring, dose response studies, studies of cancer progression, and systematic analyses of immunologically compromised cells. Exposure to radiation damages DNA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are liberated, causing oxidative damage to DNA bases. The major consequence of this damage is misincorporation of bases during replication, leading to irreversible cell damage, cancer or compromised cell function.

Oxidatively damaged genomic DNA is tagged at the lesions using specific antibodies, and the resultant DNA is scanned in a linear manner by our single molecule nanodevice. The locations, amount, and type of lesions are recorded for each DNA molecule. Megabase pair DNA is scanned by the reader in milliseconds, at ultra-sensitive single molecule detection limits. The technology is highly practical based on our significant experiences in developing single molecule scanning technologies. The potential nanoscale device and analysis speed create new possibilities for routine implementation. This addresses a current unmet need since there are no existing technologies that allow comprehensive assessment of DNA oxidative damage.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Space radiation poses significant risks for human travel across the solar system. Substantial new research and technology for understanding the susceptibility and sensitivity to solid cancer, immunological damage risks, and other health risks are required. First, without adequate study of radiation effects to determine minimal thresholds for early detection of damaged cells, humans may be exposed to toxic levels of radiation without knowing it. Second, the development of our assay allows the real-time measurement and monitoring of levels of DNA damage during space flight. Third, new therapies that correct oxidative damage can be developed with a highly sensitive assay.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Drugs, environmental insults, and chemotherapy can oxidatively damage DNA, leading to irreversible DNA lesions. The effects of DNA damage are cumulative, since cancer and other disorders require multiple genetic defects prior to manifestation. First, there is significant opportunity for early disease detection, offering possibilities for timely intervention. Second, the existence of our proposed assay offers a new platform for drug companies to develop approaches to reverse oxidative damage, potentially through the upregulation of DNA repair enzymes, such as the enzyme OGG, which has a major role in the prevention of reactive oxygen species-induced carcinogenesis.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S4.05-9960
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Astrobiology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniature Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer for Space and Extraterrestrial Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Opti-MS Corporation
102 White Drive
Starkville, MS 39759-2635
(662)425-2512

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
David Ermer
dermer@ra.msstate.edu
102 White Drive
Starkville, MS 39759-2635
(662)425-2612

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Using a revolutionary ion-focusing scheme developed at Mississippi State University (provisional patent filed) we will be able to design and build a compact laser based time-of-flight mass spectrometer that is capable of detecting a wide range of masses. Mass resolution of above 104 can be achieved from 300 to c.a. 70,000 Daltons and above 3000 from 20 to 1.5'105 Daltons, making it possible to analyze the majority of molecules of biological interest at high resolution and high sensitivity. Our current estimates for the proposed design results in a volume of less than 0.75 liters, a mass of less than 2 kilograms and requires less than 5 watts of power. This includes the pulse forming electronics for ion extraction. We expect that both the mass and power requirements will actually be lower in the completed device. The device will allow the detection of biologically important molecules in an extraterrestrial or space application. The usable mass range will be from 1 to 1.5'105 Daltons; the design requires minimal tuning over this mass range. This will allow for the detection of most biologically important molecules.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
NASA has identified a need for a miniature, high-resolution, high-sensitivity technique to identify biologically important molecules for astrobiology applications. Laser-based TOF-MS is a powerful technique for the detection and identification of a wide range of atoms and molecules. For biological molecules, MALDI TOF-MS can detect DNA/RNA fragments, whole proteins and peptides and digested protein fragments. For these biological applications it is necessary for the TOF-MS to be able to analyze a range of masses from 300 ? 150K Daltons. In addition to biological applications, laser-based TOF-MS can analyze a variety of analytes from numerous matrices including isotopic and elemental analysis.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The market for MALDI TOF-MS equipment for proteomics research has been estimated to be $258M in 2004. Our MS technology can also be adapted to trap-based time-of-flight mass spectrometers with either an electro-spray or MALDI ion source. The total market for trap-based TOF-MS instruments was estimated to be $189M in 2004. The miniature, high-performance and relatively low-cost TOF-MS described in this proposal has tremendous commercial opportunities. The main applications for miniature TOF-MS is for the screening of infectious disease and biological agents. We also believe that the superior performance of our design will allow penetration into the general TOF-MS market.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S5.02-8939
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mars In Situ Robotics Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: AGATE: Autonomous Go and Touch Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
YODER SOFTWARE, INC.
715 W. Michigan Ave.
Urbana, IL 61801-4841
(217)377-5952

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Michael Seelinger
mseelinger@yodersoftware.com
715 W. Michigan Ave.
Urbana, IL 61801-4841
(217)377-5952

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovation (AGATE, for Autonomous Go And Touch Exploration) will enable single-sol "go and touch" instrument placement from distances of up to five meters for scientific exploration rovers. It will reduce the number of sols required to examine objects of scientific interest, while increasing the accuracy of instrument placement relative to visually-specified targets. AGATE, based on the proposing firm's patented MCSM control algorithm, is innovative in providing, for the first time, stereo-vision based precision control of the mobile base of the rover and the onboard robotic arm relative to a visually-specified target. This provides a significant advantage over current MER technology since the new system will automatically compensate for wheel slippage and kinematic inaccuracy in order to ensure accurate placement of the instrument relative to that target. The algorithm will use the NASA-JPL standard CAHVOR stereo-camera model used on the Sojourner, Spirit, and Opportunity rovers. A key element of the innovation will be the capability of autonomous, precise, and robust transfer of target information from the navigation cameras (used for long-range) to the front hazard cameras (used for positioning the robotic arm). In the commercial market, AGATE will enable a vision-guided forklift to engage autonomously pallets located on high shelves.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
AGATE will enable high precision mobile manipulation from distances of on the order of five meters and will be applicable to a variety of NASA applications, most directly on planetary exploration rovers. AGATE high precision go and touch capability will allow more science to be accomplished in the same number of sols by ensuring accurate placement of the instrument relative to the visually-specified targets. AGATE will allow for graceful system degradation by allowing the system to continue operating even with a reduced number of degrees of freedom. AGATE would also benefit assembly and maintenance tasks requiring mobile manipulation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
AGATE will enable computer-controlled forklifts to engage pallets located atop high shelves by providing the means for transferring visual target information from cameras on the forklift body to cameras attached to the forks. The AGATE system could be added to commercially available AGV (automatically guided-vehicle systems) enabling them to engage as-located pallets instead of relying on pallets prepositioned at precise, known locations. AGATE could be integrated onto standard forklifts as an operator-assist for engaging pallets located on high shelves. AGATE could also be used to control other commercial mobile manipulators, such as backhoes, cherry-pickers, etc.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S5.02-9551
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mars In Situ Robotics Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Mars Gashopper Airplane

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Pioneer Astronautics
11111 W. 8th Ave., Unit A
Lakewood, CO 80215-5516
(303)980-0890

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Robert Zubrin
zubrin@aol.com
11111 W. 8th Ave., Unit A
Lakewood, CO 80215-5516
(303)980-0890

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Mars Gas Hopper Airplane, or "gashopper" is a novel concept for propulsion of a robust Mars flight and surface exploration vehicle that utilizes indigenous CO2 propellant to enable greatly enhanced mobility. The gashopper will first retrieve CO2 gas from the Martian environment to store it in liquid form at a pressure of about 10 bar. When enough CO2 is stored to make a substantial flight to another Mars site, a hot pellet bed is heated to ~1000 K and the CO2 propellant is warmed to ~300 K to pressurize the tank to ~65 bar. A valve is then opened, allowing the liquid CO2 to pass through the hot pellet bed that heats and gasifies the CO2 for propulsion. The hot gas is piped to a set of thrusters beneath the aircraft, allowing vertical takeoff, after which the gas is shunted off to a primary rearward pointing thruster to generate forward flight speed. The hot gas system is also used for attitude control and main propulsion during landing. The advantage of the gashopper is that it provides Mars exploration with a fully controllable aerial reconnaissance vehicle that can repeatedly land and explore surface sites as well.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The gashopper enables greatly enhanced mobility for robotic Mars exploration vehicles. However the gashopper pellet bed rocket system (PBRS) has many potential important commercial applications in space. Small PBRS thrusters using ammonia could be used for stationkeeping and reaction control system (RCS) propulsion for satellites, as they would provide a non-toxic alternative with comparable performance to hydrazine. PBRS engines could also be used to great advantage to provide stationkeeping propulsion for the International Space Station employing waste CO2 from the life support system as propellant and the PBRS to provide thrust at a much higher level than possible using resistojets.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Another possible commercial application for PBRS technology is for rocket assisted takeoff (RATO) units for small aircraft. The PBRS engine can deliver large amounts of thrust, and because its propellant is CO2 it poses no danger of fire. A PBRS RATO system could be designed as a droppable integrated tank/engine units that would be heated on the airfield using local electric power. Such systems could enable the takeoff of aircraft that are forced to land on short airstrips in emergencies. Since such use of a RATO would avoid loss of an entire aircraft, it could be priced high.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 S5.03-7795
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mars and Deep Space Telecommunications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Highly Sensitive Photon Counting Detectors for Deep Space Optical Communications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Amplification Technologies, Inc.
1404 Coney Island Avenue
Brooklyn, NY 11230-4120
(718)951-8021

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Alexander Krutov
alex.krutov@amplificationtechnologies.co
1404 Coney Island Avenue
Brooklyn, NY 11230-4120
(718)951-3606

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A new type of a photon-counting photodetector is proposed to advance the state-of the-art in deep space optical communications technology. The proposed detector would operate at 1064 and 1550 nm, and combine high speed of operation with very gain and ultra low noise. The minimal expected parameters are a bandwidth of over 500 MHz (10 GHz might be possible), internal gain of over 1000 (100,000 expected), excess noise factor of less than 1.1 and count saturation rates of over 50 Mcounts/s. The detector would not require cryogenic cooling.

The detectors are based on the breakthrough technology of internal discrete amplification to achieve the unparalleled combination of high gain, low noise, and high speed. This represents a radical new approach to increasing sensitivity and speed of photodetectors.

The superior parameters of the proposed detectors could enable meeting the stated NASA mission goals of boosting data transfer rates in optical communication by a factor of 10-100 relative to the current state of the art. The new capabilities of the proposed detectors could lead to important advances in deep space and other optical communication systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed detector has the potential to become the detector of choice for such NASA applications as optical communication technologies for deep space to ground communication links, intersatellite links, Earth orbiting to ground, networking formation flying spacecraft, and several others. All of these applications currently lack an adequate detector that would fully meet application requirements. The new capabilities enabled by the detector could significantly expand the use of optical communication solutions. In addition, with some modifications the proposed detector could be utilized for LIDAR remote sensing at telecommunications wavelengths.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
In addition to deep space optical communications, the detectors could be modified for use in traditional fiber optical communications at 1.5 ?m. Because of better performance parameters, they could, for example, replace such current solutions as InGaAs avalanche photodiodes used in fiber optical telecommunications. This represents a very significant commercial market. They could also find use in commercial LIDAR applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X1.01-8023
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Finite Element Models for Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication Process

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
MODERN COMPUTATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
8723 Tiburon Drive
Cincinnati, OH 45249-3529
(513)530-5882

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Umesh Chandra
Mctuc@aol.com
8723 Tiburon Drive
Cincinnati, OH 45249-3529
(513)530-5882

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Small Business Innovation Research proposal offers to develop the most accurate, comprehensive and efficient finite element models to date for simulation of the material deposition processes; especially the electron beam freeform fabrication process. Phase I will deal with the basic thermal and mechanical (stress and distortion) models. A new scheme to model material deposition will be attempted; its feasibility will be tested on multi-pass deposits. A commercial finite element analysis code, ABAQUS, will be used to which a new capability for prediction of morphology will be added. During Phase II, several other key modeling issues such as the prediction of grain size, study of the effect of convection in the melt pool, parametric study, experimental validation, simulation of a demonstration part, and on-line process control will be addressed. These models will be applicable to ground-based as well as space-based systems. They will assist in understanding the effects of the various process parameters (e.g., power, feed rate, traverse speed and gravity) on variables defining the product quality; e.g., interlayer fusion, morphology, grain size, stresses and distortion. The models will also be applicable to laser, TIG and other metal deposition processes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The availability of the proposed modeling technology will play a crucial role in the success of several NASA programs. NASA has identified many applications of the electron beam deposition process ranging from near to far term; e.g., on-orbit construction of space structures on the order of tens of meters to a kilometer in size, development of a small multifunctional system to manufacture space parts during long-duration human exploration missions, and the development of a miniaturized automated system for structural health monitoring and repair. It can be used with titanium, nickel, aluminum, steels and other materials of interest to NASA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
In addition to the EBF3 process, the proposed technology will play a crucial role in the development of laser metal deposition processes. These two emerging processes are being actively developed for many non-NASA applications primarily for the manufacture of near net shape aircraft engine and frame parts made of advanced materials; as well as for the repair, refurbishment and modification of parts. These processes are also of considerable interest to the automotive industry. The proposed modeling technology is applicable to TIG, and autogenous as well as nonautogenous welding processes also.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X1.01-8632
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: In Situ Manufacturing of Plastics and Composites to Support H&R Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Makel Engineering,Inc.
1585 Marauder Street
Chico, CA 95973-9064
(530)895-2770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Darby B Makel
dmakel@makelengineering.com
1585 Marauder St
Chico, CA 95973-9064
(530)895-2771

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Our proposed Phase I program will develop a reactor system for the synthesis of polyethylene from carbon dioxide and water. The proposed work will result in hardware capable of the in-situ fabrication of high-density polyethylene suitable for the construction of inflatable enclosures and panels, which can be used to construct extraterrestrial habitats. In-situ production of habitat structural materials would result in substantial cost savings compared with transporting the material from Earth. The system will serve as an engineering prototype for for future missions to demonstrate in-situ production of consumables. We expect that the technology to produce ethylene and polyethylene will be sufficiently mature to be considered for demonstration in the 2005 or 2007 programs.
Our proposed program addresses two fundamental technology issues:
(1) In Situ Synthesis of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Oxygen
(2) In Situ Synthesis of Materials for Isolated Habitat Construction and Support.
It addresses several key crosscut issues based on the use of In Situ Resources, e.g.,
- Life Support for Spacecraft Including Space Station Freedom
- Life Support for Lunar and Martian Bases and Colonies
- Propellants for Propulsion for Planetary Rovers and Return Vehicles.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Development of closed ecological life support system that utilize the waste products which are formed in manned spacecraft and surface bases are key to the successful planning and execution of prolonged space missions. Makel Engineering's program will synthesize ethylene, and, subsequently polyethylene that can be used in the construction of habitats, tools, and replacement parts. The in situ production of polyethylene and perhaps nutrients provide enormous cost savings ($5B to $10B) for early Mars missions. We expect the reactor system would be part of a Phase II Astrobiology research as a testbed for evaluation of habitat support technology and therefore will serve as a basis for an ISRU system that can be used for Mars Exploration and settlement. The technology is directly applicable to advanced regenerative life support systems by providing major savings in resupply. The NASA/government market is estimated to be $10M to $50M over the next ten years.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Conversion of carbon oxides, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, to hydrocarbons, alcohols, and other value added compounds, using innovative catalytic reduction processes, will have important enabling commercial benefits. Significant near term commercial applications for small scale, integrated, autonomous reactors will enable at least four markets for in situ chemical processes, which otherwise would not be cost effective.
Hydrocarbon Reformer for Fuel Cells, Natural Gas Upgrading, Green House Gases Processing, Microchannel Reactor Applications
These markets include the following customers:
Off-grid Data Systems, High-Income/Consumption Households Seeking Secure Backup Power, Premium Power Customers, UPS Systems, Fuel Cell Vehicles


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X1.02-8478
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Excavation and Separation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Sample Acquisition for Materials in Planetary Exploration (SAMPLE)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Orbital Technologies Corp
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717-1961
(608)827-5000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Eric E. Rice
koffarnusl@orbitec.com
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717-1961
(608)827-5000

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ORBITEC proposes to analyze, design, and develop a device for autonomous lunar surface/subsurface sampling and processing applications. The Sample Acquisition for Materials in Planetary Exploration (SAMPLE) allows a sample to be quickly and completely encapsulated, minimizing vibrational effects and sample disruption (e.g., loss of volatiles). Subsequent analysis or processing can then be performed on the acquired sample from within the device, which is completely sealed from the surrounding environment. SAMPLE interfaces with a robotic arm that allows versatile sample selection at a chosen site. Sample disposal involves no additional hardware, operating in an analogous manner to acquisition. The SAMPLE is capable of housing various sensors, small instruments, and utilities, providing a processing "chamber" in which numerous solid analyses and experiments can be performed. Because of the sampling mechanism employed, the SAMPLE will provide NASA with a reliable means of acquiring planetary surface material and support of process/analysis hardware. SAMPLE could be designed to operate anywhere on the surface of the Moon, Mars or various asteroids. This would include operation in the cold traps that exist at the north and south poles of the Moon. Phase I will involve definition of system requirements, prototype design and testing, and preliminary space flight design.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
SAMPLE could be mounted on a rover along with a variety of other equipment to explore and characterize the resources that exist on the Moon, including the cold traps at the lunar poles. It is critical to characterize the type and form of any resources available within these lunar cold traps before collection and extraction equipment is designed, built and tested. SAMPLE would be an important tool to perform this characterization as well as serving as a small scale demonstration of several ISRU extraction technologies. SAMPLE could also be used for Mars, asteroid, and other planetary body exploration.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
There are several related terrestrial applications of the SAMPLE technology. One important application could include the remote sampling of chemically or radioactive contaminated soils on Earth. A modified SAMPLE unit could also be used to support remediation of contaminated soils by releasing the volatile components present.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X1.02-8480
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Excavation and Separation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-energy Planetary Excavator (LPE)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Orbital Technologies Corp
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717-1961
(608)827-5000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Robert J. Gustafson
gustafsonr@orbitec.com
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717-1961
(608)827-5000

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ORBITEC proposes to develop an innovative Low-energy Planetary Excavator (LPE) to excavate in situ regolith, ice-regolith mixes, and a variety of other geologic materials to support future activities on the Moon and Mars. The LPE utilizes an innovative cutterhead to efficiently excavate a wide range of different planetary surface materials. Current mechanical excavators mount a fixed array of rock cutting tools on a cutterhead that operates efficiently only in a narrow range of material conditions. The LPE would be able to accommodate the different materials that are encountered on planetary surfaces. The LPE will sense geologic changes and respond with changes to achieve the lowest cutting energy possible. The result is a flexible machine with reduced power requirements. A large LPE would be used to mine ice deposits and regolith for processing, and to excavate openings for habitats and shielding. A small LPE would be used for exploration. One LPE would be simpler and easier to maintain than a stable of excavators, each for a specific geology or application. Phase I will define mined-material properties, extra-terrestrial applications, system requirements, a prototype design, and support systems. Phase II will design, develop, test, and deliver a functional prototype LPE unit to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Excavations for ISRU are included in many NASA scenarios to reduce mission operations costs. The LPE would be a general-purpose machine with the ability to mine ice, regolith, and rock; it would also support construction activities. The LPE is easily scaled from very small to large. It is applicable to future manned/unmanned exploration missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. It could also be adapted for use in ultra-low gravity environments, such as asteroids. Efficient and reliable excavation of a wide variety of planetary surface materials will greatly enhance/enable exploration and bases from start-up outposts to advanced self-sustaining complexes.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The same qualities of the LPE that apply to space would also attract terrestrial users. Development of the LPE will improve terrestrial excavators. The terrestrial market is expanding rapidly as demand for urban infrastructure (foundation openings, transportation tunnels, utility passages, etc.) skyrockets. Urban construction settings restrict the use of explosives, to minimize damaging vibrations, making mechanical methods attractive. In addition, shallow tunnel construction is rapidly changing from cut-and-cover to wholly underground, because excavations disrupt city traffic. Coupled with increasing population, these factors enhance the market for innovatively flexible systems such as the LPE.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X1.03-7991
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Processing and Refining
PROPOSAL TITLE: Collection and Purification of Lunar Propellant Resources

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS, INC.
5445 Conestoga Court, #2A
Boulder, CO 80301-2724
(303)443-2262

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Steve Nieczkoski
snieczk@techapps.com
5445 Conestoga Court, #2A
Boulder, CO 80301-2724
(303)443-2262

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Technology Applications, Inc. (TAI) proposes to advance In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) capabilities by applying advanced cryogenic technology to perform collection and purification of volatile propellant materials extracted from moderate to high vacuum environments such as those found on the Martian and lunar surfaces. In this Phase I program, TAI will perform design and analysis of critical ISRU subsystems and develop innovations in thermal management to demonstrate the feasibility of effective volatile collection, separation, purification, liquefaction, and long-term storage capabilities for cryogenic fluids. Production of propellant from the lunar surface is a technically feasible approach to avoid the cost prohibitive task of launching sufficient amounts of propellant from earth to establish continual human habitation on the moon. When regolith resources are extracted and refined, there exists the potential for sustainable long-term human habitation on the moon and Mars. Thermal system design for an ISRU system will determine the propellant generation power requirements for complete human habitat system specifications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The cryogenic cooling technology has application to long lifetime and reliable cooling systems that are essential to many applications ranging from spaceborne multi-spectral imaging and detector systems to bulk cryogen storage systems. The ISRU concentration, refining, and storage technology is relevant to all future manned planetary exploration missions where indigenous resources must be utilized to support human habitation and return to planet Earth.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Distributed cryogenic cooling systems are needed for advanced communication systems to cool both high-temperature and low-temperature superconducting electronic elements. The combination of a cryogenic cooling and membrane separation systems would have particular application in the production and storage of liquid natural gas processing on earth. Such technology would economically enable a hydrogen infrastructure from renewable energy sources.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X1.03-8124
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Processing and Refining
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ceramic Heat Exchangers and Chemical Reactors with Micro-Scale Features for In-Situ Resource Processing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
International Mezzo Technologies, Inc.
LBTC, Room D-104, South Stadium Drive
Baton Rouge, LA 70803-0000
(225)334-6334

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Andrew B McCandless
mccandless@mezzotech,net
LBTC, D-108, South Stadium Drive
Baton Rouge, LA 70803-0000
(225)578-7241

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
It is proposed to develop compact and lightweight ceramic heat exchangers and chemical reactors suitable for high temperature processes. These devices will have micro-scale geometric features that would result in very high heat and mass transfer rates per unit volume and per unit frontal area. The process for fabrication of these devices is based on a novel micro-machining and joining technique that promises to deliver ceramics components that can survive temperatures in excess of 1000 oC, and moderate to high pressures. As ceramics are the natural host for a large number of catalysts, the proposed devices would allow fabrication of extremely compact chemical reactors capable of operating at high temperatures. These devices can be used to thermally couple exothermic and endothermic reactions. Furthermore, temperature-sensitive reactive streams can be coupled to heat transfer streams to achieve temperature-controlled chemical reactions at high catalytic conversion and selectivity. Examples would include integrated catalytic combustor and heat exchanger, coupled catalytic combustion and steam reforming, and coupled Sabatier and Reverse Water Gas Shift reactions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed high temperature ceramic micro-structured devices are suitable for a number of thermo-chemical energy conversion processes as well as Lunar and Mars in-situ resource extraction processes. A large number of these processes take place at high temperatures, well beyond the capabilities of metal-based micro-structured heat exchangers and chemical reactors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The high performance per unit volume and mass of these devices are also of significant importance to commercial activities in high temperature gas turbine regenerators, fuel cells, and catalytic chemical production processes.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X1.03-8560
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Processing and Refining
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microchannel Reactors for ISRU Applications Using Nanofabricated Catalysts

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Makel Engineering,Inc.
1585 Marauder Street
Chico, CA 95973-9064
(530)895-2770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Darby B. Makel
dmakel@makelengineering.com
1585 Marauder Street
Chico, CA 95973-9064
(530)895-2771

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) and USRA propose to develop microchannel reactors for In-Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU) using nanofabricated catalysts. The proposed technology seeks to develop and demonstrate an exoskeletal support concept using carbon nanotubes (CNT) as catalyst support within microchannel reactors. Affordable planning and execution of prolonged manned space missions depend upon the utilization of local resources and the waste products which are formed in manned spacecraft and surface bases. Successful ISRU will require component technologies which provide optimal size, weight, volume, and power efficiency. The use of advanced CNT supported catalysts within the microchannel reactor structure will enable the efficient chemical processing of in-situ resources. The reactors can be designed for the processes that generate the most benefit for each mission. For instance, propellants (methane) can be produced from carbon dioxide from the Mars atmosphere using the Sabatier reaction and ethylene can be produced from the partial oxidation of methane. Ethylene is a feedstock for systems to synthesize ethanol and polyethylene. Polyethylene can be used in the construction of habitats, tools, and replacement parts. Ethanol can be used as a nutrient for Astrobiology experiments, as well as a precursor for the production of nutrients (e.g. sugars) for human crew.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The development of highly efficient microchannel reactors will be applicable to multiple ISRU programs. Propellants can be produced from carbon dioxide (Mars atmosphere). Ethylene can be produced from methane. Methane reformation can produce hydrogen on board rovers to feed fuel cell power systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The most significant commercial application is the development of reformers for fuel cell systems. The uses range from stationary power generation, distributed power, to transportation applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X1.03-8561
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Processing and Refining
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Microchannel Reformer/Hydrogen Purifier for Fuel Cell Power Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Makel Engineering,Inc.
1585 Marauder Street
Chico, CA 95973-9064
(530)895-2770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Darby B Makel
dmakel@makelengineering.com
1585 Marauder Street
Chico, CA 95973-9064
(530)895-2771

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) and Colorado School of Mines (CSM) propose to develop an integrated hydrogen generator and purifier system for conversion of in-situ produced hydrocarbons to fuel-cell-grade hydrogen. NASA is currently developing several In Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU) Systems. One technology commonly found in most ISRU scenarios is the use of the Sabatier reaction and water electrolysis to produce methane and oxygen. Due to the various penalties of storing gaseous hydrogen on-board the rover, it is advantageous to carry methane instead of hydrogen and to have an on-board reformer to produce hydrogen on-demand for the fuel cell. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells hydrogen with very low carbon monoxide content (typically less than 10 ppm). The proposed system will combine microchannel microreformer technology for hydrogen production with palladium membranes technology for hydrogen purification and separation in an integrated hydrogen production system, resulting in optimized size and energy efficiency. This proposal will seek to establish the feasibility of using compact microchannel/membrane reactor systems to provide purified hydrogen for fuel cell power systems for applications such as robotic and crew transportation rovers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The technology developed for the proposed Reformer System will serve in multiple future exploration missions. The application is of direct use for any applications where mobile power is required, such as rovers and crew transport vehicles. For instance, in the earlier precursor robotic missions, robotic rovers may be needed for automated ISRU plants, to transport materials being processed, etc. In the later manned missions, the crew transportation vehicles may be use to aid extra-vehicular activities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Advanced high-density hydrogen storage and generation systems have far reaching commercial importance. Integration of such systems with fuel cells offer the promise of generating electricity and heat while offering several benefits relative to conventional generators including reduced noise, reduced emissions, high energy efficiency, and reduced maintenance. As a widespread hydrogen fuel distribution infrastructure does not meaningfully exist, the challenges posed by high-density hydrogen storage create commercial opportunities for innovative product solutions. Thus, a fuel processor with the capability to reliably generate high-purity hydrogen remains a necessary enabling component to realize practical commercial fuel cell systems.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X1.03-8966
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Processing and Refining
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Efficiency Solar Furnace Core

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Thoughtventions Unlimited
40 Nutmeg Lane
Glastonbury, CT 06033-2314
(860)657-9014

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Stephen C Bates
thought@tvu.com
40 Nutmeg Lane
Glastonbury, CT 06033-2314
(860)657-9014

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
It is proposed to develop a high efficiency solar furnace core that greatly lessens the heat losses from the furnace core, either greatly reducing the amount of solar radiation needed to reach a specified temperature, or greatly increasing the temperature it can achieve. Specific program goals include: 1) Specification of the techniques to be used for generating the appropriate vacuum in the furnace and the vacuum level that must be achieved to provide insulation from gas convection. 2) Improved heat and solar radiation shields, 3) Improved crucible technology, and 4) Very high temperature furnace technology (2500oC). Thanks to extensive furnace technology development work at TvU, the relevant technologies can be demonstrated within the limited resources of a Phase 1 program, allowing concentration on overall solar furnace designs. TvU will deliver a small prototype solar furnace to NASA at the end of Phase 2, together with a variety of furnace technologies, depending on NASA's present and future needs. Improved solar furnaces will lead to significant new extra-terrestrial materials processing capabilities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Improved solar furnace will enable broad capabilities for materials processing in Space, on the Moon and on Mars. Other potential NASA applications include improved heat containment for all types of furnaces and lower power furnaces for use in the power-limited environment of extraterrestrial materials processing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Commercial products that will result from this program include improved solar furnaces, low power furnaces, improved heat radiation shielding, and high temperature furnaces that require much less power.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X1.03-9527
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Processing and Refining
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Yield Process for Selectively Converting CO2 to Aromatics and Olefins

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Eltron Research Inc
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder, CO 80301-3241
(303)530-0263

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
James H. White
eltron@eltronresearch.com
4600 Nautilus Court South
Boulder, CO 80301-3241
(303)530-0263

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposed Phase I addresses the selective conversion of CO2 to hydrocarbons via integrated CO2-to-methanol, methanol-to-olefins, and olefins-to-aromatics processes. Existing pathways to olefins and aromatics via methane exhibit low per-pass conversion. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis can provide much higher conversion, but into a broad spectrum of products. In contrast, it is possible to achieve high conversion and selectivity to specific olefins and aromatics via the proposed methanol pathway, with minimal net hydrogen consumption. Interest stems from in situ resources utilization (ISRU) of planetary (e.g., Martian) resources to reduce mission weight and cost with enhanced safety. Olefins and aromatics are attractive target species because of their high hydrogen leverage as well as their potential utility as fuels and feedstocks for polymers or other chemicals. Phase I will consist of the following: 1) identify, prepare, and characterize the best potential catalysts for principal process stages; 2) test catalysts under representative conditions; 3) identify the best route for converting CO2 to olefins and aromatics; and 4) estimate potential performance of an integrated system. During Phase II each process stage will be optimized, the stages integrated, and a working breadboard system designed and fabricated.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The technology developed in this overall program, if successful, would find use in the NASA ISRU portfolio in exploration of Mars and other planetary targets. It would find particular use in the selective synthesis of fuels and polymer precursors and would help reduce net mission weight. The ability to synthesize ethylene (and/or propylene) on Mars would enable a host of polymers and chemicals to be produced there.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Gas-to-liquids processes are becoming of increasing importance in commercial sectors because of high petroleum prices (and eventually, dwindling supply) and the need for technologies for better utilizing natural gas resources. The catalysts and process developed in this overall program will find use in converting natural gas (including low quality natural gas) to readily transportable methanol and hydrocarbons and will, consequently, be of interest to natural gas suppliers and petroleum companies and refiners. Additionally, the technology being developed will find use in the sequestration of CO2 in polymers.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X1.03-9547
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Processing and Refining
PROPOSAL TITLE: Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Pioneer Astronautics
11111 W. 8th Ave., Unit A
Lakewood, CO 80215-5516
(303)980-0890

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Mark H Berggren
mberggren@pioneerastro.com
Pioneer Astronautics, 11111 W. 8th Ave. unit A
Lakewood, , CO 80215-5516
(303)980-0231

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is an innovative method that for the first time uses the strong reductant carbon monoxide to both reduce iron and to evenly deposit carbon. This enables high temperature carbothermal reduction of silicon oxide yielding five times as much oxygen recovery from planetary regolith compared to hydrogen-based reduction systems. COSRS is an in situ planetary resource utilization process that yields useful oxygen and metals by reducing the majority of metal oxides in undifferentiated lunar, asteroidal, and Martian surface materials. The COSRS initially heats the materials to temperatures where the iron-bound oxygen combines with carbon monoxide, a strong reducing agent (reductant). Simultaneously, the produced iron metal catalyzes the disproportionation of carbon monoxide to carbon and carbon dioxide. The temperature is then raised for carbothermal reduction of the silicates, producing carbon monoxide, which is recycled back to the first stage process, and silicon metal. The carbon dioxide created in the iron reduction/disproportionation step is processed with hydrogen in a Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) unit to make carbon monoxide and water. After electrolysis, the oxygen is stored while the CO is recycled to the reactor.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The COSRS is a potentially enabling technology for human Lunar exploration because it can produce the majority of the oxygen available in undifferentiated Lunar soil, or roughly five times the yield of hydrogen reduction technologies. This increased productivity eliminates the need to beneficiate the soil, thereby enabling automated lunar oxygen facilities that could produce return propellant prior to the arrival of the crew. This will greatly decrease the launch costs required to support the lunar base, and also enable long range exploration using ballistic hoppers employing Lunar oxygen. The COSRS will also work on asteroids, Mars, and Jupiter's moons.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The integrated COSRS/RWGS/Carbothermal reduction system has an application to the production of pure silicon metal for terrestrial manufacturing of photovoltaics and electronics components. The integrated COSRS/RWGS/Carbothermal reduction system also has future applications to the production of large quantities of oxygen, iron metal, and silicon metal from random lunar and Martian regolith for lunar and Martian bases, and could be used in the same way to allow useful metal production from very low grade ores on Earth. Furthermore, the closed COSRS/RWGS system would enable the terrestrial production of iron and other metals without generating carbon dioxide greenhouse gas.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X1.03-9548
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Situ Resource Processing and Refining
PROPOSAL TITLE: Mars Integrated Propellant Production System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Pioneer Astronautics
11111 W. 8th Ave., Unit A
Lakewood, CO 80215-5516
(303)980-0890

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Anthony Muscatello
tony.muscatello@pioneerastro.com
Pioneer Astronauitcs, 11111 W. 8th Ave, unit A
Lakewood, CO 80215-5516
(303)980-0759

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Integrated Mars In-Situ Propellant Production System (IMISPPS) is an end-to-end system that will produce rocket propellant on Mars from CO2 in the Martian atmosphere. The IMISPPS combines the RWGS and Sabatier reactions in a single reactor to produce a useful high-specific impulse fuel (methane plus carbon monoxide) and water, which is condensed and electrolyzed to produce oxygen and hydrogen. The hydrogen is recycled back to the Sabatier/RWGS reactor to react with Martian CO2 to produce more fuel, while the oxygen is cryogenically stored to provide oxidizer. Some of the carbon monoxide is removed by cryogenic separation to increase propellant specific impulse. Carbon dioxide acquisition to feed the fuel reactor is accomplished using a lightweight freezer. Use of the IMISPPS has the advantage of producing all the oxygen needed to burn the methane with only in a single catalytic reactor required. In the proposed work, we will build a brassboard core of the IMSIPPS and demonstrate its performance and reliability.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
IMISPPS provides a technology for producing methane/oxygen rocket propellant on Mars with the correct oxidizer to fuel ratio in a single reactor using the CO2 atmosphere of Mars as the primary raw material. The leverage of the hydrogen imported from Earth would be at least 20, greatly reducing the cost and difficulty of sample return and human missions to Mars. Operation of a single reactor would reduce the system weight and complexity compared to systems based on the Sabatier process and an oxygen production process. Further processing of the methane and CO to benzene would increase the leverage to 53.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
On Earth, the IMISPPS has applications in the area of carbon dioxide sequestration and processing to reduce the greenhouse effect. For example, cement kilns emit CO2 in high concentrations amenable to separation and processing. In conjunction with a renewable or nuclear power supply that generates hydrogen, the IMISPPS could be used to combine the hydrogen and CO2 to convert the hydrogen into a readily transportable form (methane) that easily fits into the existing energy infrastructure. The carbon monoxide could be combined with hydrogen using the Fischer-Tropsch process to produce valuable hydrocarbon products, such as alcohols, olefins and waxes.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X2.01-8782
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Photovoltaic Solar Power Generation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nanoparticle-Dendrimer Composite Ultralight Photovoltaics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
EIC Laboratories, Inc.
111 Downey Street
Norwood, MA 02062-2612
(781)769-9450

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
David Rauh
drauh@eiclabs.com
EIC Laboratories, 111 Downey Street
N9orwood, MA 02062-2612
(781)769-9450

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop flexible solid state polymer-based solar cells that have a power density >1000 W/kg and > 5 year life in the space environment. The specific approach that we will employ it to make intimate organic-inorganic nanocomposites of polymeric electron donors and low-percolating nanoparticle electron acceptors. The polymeric donors have a novel hyperbranched structure which ensure a three dimensional network with high isotropic charge mobility. The high aspect ratio nanoparticle acceptors have a high intrinsic mobility and low percolation threshold. Materials are modified chemically to form intimate interpenetrating networks. The cells are formed by laminating the composite between high and low work function contacts disposed on space-qualified flexible polymer substrates. Phase I entails demonstrating cells with >2% AM0 efficiency using this approach.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The costs of transporting high capacity space power systems from earth to a range of NASA project installations, such as a Martian or lunar base, is a critical issue for future space exploration that can be addressed with high power density photovoltaics.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Commercially, the approach holds the prospect for order of magnitude reduction in the cost of photovoltaics for terrestrial power generation. Thin flexible photovoltaics and also be integratred into building materials and windows for homes, office buildings and automobiles.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X2.01-9308
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Photovoltaic Solar Power Generation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Photovoltaic Wire

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Illuminex Corporation
627 Conestoga Blvd.
Lancaster, PA 17602-3821
(717)871-8971

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
John Steinbeck
john.steinbeck@illuminex.biz
627 Conestoga Blvd.
Lancaster, PA 17602-3821
(717)871-8971

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The device comprises an array of silicon nanowires about an aluminum core in a p-i-n junction structure. High conversion efficiency (> 20%) devices can be realized as a result of the high broadband absorption of the nanowire array structure arising from quantum dot-like effects using the periodicity of the nanowires in the array. This innovative device will make it possible to weave large two and three-dimensional photovoltaic panels that are light weight, can be stored in a small enclosure and have high power density in excess of 1000 W/kg. In addition, photovoltaic fabric power arrays can be directly integrated into many spacecraft subsystems such as space suits, instrumentation and solar propulsion systems. The low cost, high volume manufacturing processes used to build photovoltaic wire will allow the technology to be incorporated into a wide array of consumer applications in addition to high-end space systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed photovoltaic wire can be used to build solar panel fabrics for use in solar sail propulsion systems, large area, light weight solar panels and for integrated generation capacity in instrumentation and space suits.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Photovoltaic wire can be used to build low cost, large area solar panels for consumer electricity generation. Integration of the wire into fabrics can produce portable power systems in tents, temporary shelters and panels for vehicles such as refrigeration vehicles. Integration of the wire into plasic cases can provide power for protable electronics.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X2.02-7802
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nuclear Power Generation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wide Range Neutron Detector

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
PAYLOAD SYSTEMS INC.
247 Third Street
Cambridge, MA 02142-0000
(617)868-8086

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Javier deLuis
deluis@payload.com
247 Third Street
Cambridge, MA 02142-1129
(617)868-8086

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Current design concepts of nuclear reactors for space applications are well advanced in core configurations and architectural design. There is a need to determine how such systems will be monitored and instrumented. We propose to adapt a Wide Range Neutron Detector (WRND) system currently in use at nuclear research facilities for its operation in the space environment. This new system can then be utilized to monitor and control a space-based nuclear power reactor. The system is capable of measuring neutron fluxes in the whole reactor's operation range, from a neutron flux of 10E0 n/cm2/sec up to a flux of more than 10E10 n/cm2/sec. In this way, a single instrument chain can be used instead of having different instrumentation for each of the operation ranges of the reactor (start-up, ramping-up, and nominal power) This is a clear advantage for space applications where mass, size, and power consumption constraints are of premium importance. A WRND would allow for a reduction in the complexity of space-based nuclear instrumentation and control systems. A ground version of the proposed system is presently being installed in a research reactor in Australia.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
NASA has identified nuclear reactors as building blocks of future lunar and Mars robotic and manned missions. Although most of the nuclear powered applications are in the 10 or 15 timeframe ?when missions to Moon and Mars are likely to be operational- the design of space-based reactors is a process that must start early. Sensors such as WRMD are key enabling technologies for any space-based nuclear power system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Ground versions of the WRND concept exist and are being used in research reactors. Therefore, the market is established and defined. The proposed modifications and improvements to the WRND concept for space applications would translate into improved systems here on Earth that are smaller, more reliable, and potentially lower cost, than those presently deployed. In addition, WRMD could be used in existing ground-based reactors as they are refitted and updated as a means of improving safety and performance.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X2.02-9213
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nuclear Power Generation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight Radiator Fins for Space Nuclear Power

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Energy Science Laboratories, Inc.
6888 Nancy Ridge Drive
San Diego, CA 92121-2232
(858)552-2032

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Timothy R Knowles
tknowles@esli.com
6888 Nancy Ridge Drive
San Diego, CA 92121-2232
(858)552-2034

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase 1 project shall investigate concept radiator fins that incorporate novel carbon materials for improved performance of segmented high temperature space radiator systems based on heat pipes with attached radiator fins. The novel carbon materials apply to improvements in several critical features: thermal emissivity, in-plane conductivity, fin stiffness, fin/pipe thermal interface, and lightweight shielding against micrometeorites.
Phase 1 will obtain system requirements from a prime contractor for nuclear space power, and assess the potential benefits compared with current baseline materials. A small carbon radiator fin component will be fabricated and integrated with a relevant pipe to demonstrate the materials concepts.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Lightweight carbon radiator fins have primary application to future high temperature space nuclear power systems. Lightweight shielding for human and robotic mission is a potential spin-off of this development.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Lightweight carbon radiator fins can also save weight and increase performance of spacecraft operating at lower temperatures. High conductance vacuum interfacing (for vacuum materials processing) is a potential commercial spin-off of this development.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X2.03-7576
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Wireless Power Transmission
PROPOSAL TITLE: Silicon Germanium Alloy Photovoltaics for 1.06 Micron Wireless Power Transmission

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Structured Materials Industries Inc
201 Circle Drive North, Suite 102/103
Piscataway, NJ 08854-3723
(732)302-9274

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Brent H. Hoerman
bhoerman@structuredmaterials.com
201 Circle DR N, UNIT 102/103
Piscataway, NJ 08854-3723
(732)302-9274

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this Phase I SBIR effort, Structured Materials Industries, Inc. (SMI)will design, fabricate, and test more efficient photovoltaics for 1.06 micron wavelength wireless power transmission (WPT) systems. The need for such photovoltaics is well understood by SMI and builds upon our exiting WPT efforts, which have highlighted the requirement for efficient, cost-effective, and thin-able photovoltaics with a peak absorption matched to the output of available high power Nd:YAG lasers at 1.06 microns. The proposed work will address this need by developing SiGe photocells to help enable WPT implementation for both ground based and space based applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Wireless power transmission is of considerable interest to NASA. The potential exists to use ground based WPT systems to power satellites, as well as space based WPT systems to deliver power to vehicles for exploration. Wireless power transmission can provide auxiliary power for mission-specific tasks, or primary power when other sources (such as direct solar power) are not available. Currently there is a need for cost-effective, thin-able photovoltaics with a peak absorption matched to the output of available high power Nd:YAG lasers at 1.06 microns. The proposed work will address this need by developing SiGe photocells to help enable WPT implementation for both ground based and space based applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Many other potential applications exist for WPT systems in both military and commercial markets. The military is interested in powering unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and high altitude airships (HAA) for communications and surveillance. Commercial applications include powering unmanned vehicles and remote systems for communications, meteorology and natural resource management. There is also the possibility of beaming space based solar power back to earth. The development of infrared photocells based on SiGe materials will be of considerable value in developing and implementing WPT systems for these commercial applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X2.03-7987
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Wireless Power Transmission
PROPOSAL TITLE: Thin Film Flat Panel Off-Axis Solar Concentrator with Flux Distribution

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
United Applied Technologies, Inc.
11506 Gilleland Road
Huntsville, AL 35803-4327
(256)650-5120

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
LARRY BRADFORD
l.bradford@unitedappliedtech.com
11506 Gilleland Road
Huntsville, AL 35803-4327
(256)650-5120

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Relatively small concentric thin film FRESNEL lenses and fresnel-like Multiple Parabolic Reflecting Surface (MPRS) reflectors have been successfully produced from molds machined with diamond turning lathes, which are limited in size to less than 15 feet diameter. This size limitation prevents using this fabrication method for production of molds for operational size space concentrators and off-axis (non-concentric) patterns cannot be produced at all with lathes. UAT has been demonstrated that computer numerical control (CNC) milling machines that can readily machine complex geometries, including any radius of curvature, can be used to produce mold segments representing any portion of any size MPRS. These mold patterns can then be replicated on thin film sheets, which are then appropriately integrated to produce solar concentrators of the desired size. Multiple focal lengths/points, concentration ratios, and controlled flux distribution can be incorporated in a single reflector panel allowing substantial and previously unavailable Wireless Power Transfer System design flexibility.
The Phase I program will verify the thin film performance capabilities and scalability of the MPRS concept and the Phase II program will provide a full scale concentrator applicable to Wireless Power Transfer technology for testing and deployment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The deployable self-rigidizing MPRS solar concentrators are applicable to space solar thermal propulsion systems, solar photovoltaic, solar furnaces, and lunar bases.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
This concentrator concept may be used by commercial satellite operators to substantially enhance their design versatility. Terrestrial applications include both photovoltaic and solar thermal commercial and residential systems.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X2.03-9461
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Wireless Power Transmission
PROPOSAL TITLE: Highly Efficient Fiber Lasers for Wireless Power Transmission

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Physical Sciences Inc
20 New England Business Ctr
Andover, MA 01810-1077
(978)689-0003

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Glen A Rines
grines@qpeak.com
135 South Road
Bedford, MA 01730-2307
(781)275-9535

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop ytterbium (Yb) fiber lasers with an electrical-to-optical efficiency of nominally 64% by directly coupling 80%-efficient diode lasers with Yb fiber laser structures that are capable of 80% optical-to-optical power conversion. These would be single spatial mode lasers, which are diffraction-limited light sources capable of long-range propagation in a narrow beam. As such they would provide a key technology element for wireless power transmission systems that are based on photovoltaic receiver technologies. The high efficiency diode lasers that form a key part of the proposed light source are currently being developed with DARPA funding under the Super High Efficiency Diode Sources (SHEDS) program. Yb fiber lasers have received a great deal of development effort in the broader laser community and have produced both the highest efficiencies and the highest output powers seen to date from fiber lasers. The innovation provided by this project would be the development of a simple, robust and highly efficient means of coupling the specific SHEDS diode structures to Yb fiber lasers by using laser micromachining to form an integral mirror and Brewster input port on the Yb fiber.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Specific NASA applications for wireless power transmission include the following:

? Transmission of power from solar panels located in earth orbit down to earth for terrestrial consumption;
? Transmission of power from earth to satellites to allow a longer operational lifetime for orbiting vehicles;
? Transmission of power to dark regions of the moon to power exploration and possibly mining enterprises in such locations;
? Transmission of power from a space-based power station to other space-based vehicles in need of additional power.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Military applications include:

? Remotely powering small, unmanned aircraft used to guard a combat area or as an advance scout for moving convoys;
? Remotely powering high-altitude, long-endurance aircraft
? Supplying substantial amounts of power to troops and equipment located in a remote inaccessible area.

Commercial applications of this technology include:

? Wireless power transmission could be applied anywhere that it is impractical to run conventional land lines and the benefits of powering the remote location justify the cost of the installation.
? Unmanned non-military surveillance activities of a commercial nature could benefit from remotely powered aircraft.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X2.04-7565
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Propellant Depots
PROPOSAL TITLE: Expandable Cryogenic Tankage for On Orbit Depot Storage

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
SUPERCRITICAL THERMAL SYSTEMS, INC.
P.O. Box 2627
Longmont, CO 80502-2627
(970)535-0384

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Harold L. Gier
HalG@superthermal.com
P.O. Box 2627
Longmont, CO 80502-2627
(970)535-0384

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed expandable depot storage tanks would make it possible to have an on-orbit tank larger in volume than any existing or planned launch vehicles. The size of the tank would be diameter limited by the launch vehicle, but not limited in length. It would take several additional launches to fill the depot tank for use. Because of the light load on launch the inner tank support system could be much lighter and less conductive than that required for loaded tanks and thus have low thermal loads for the final tank configuration. The tank could be fully assembled before launch which would greatly reduce on-orbit problems. Materials can be selected to give optimal configurations with different cryogenic fluids. The entire tank could be configured to have a zero loss rate by the use of cryogenic reliquefier(s). Protection against micrometeorites and monatomic oxygen would be built into the outer surface of the tanks.


The inflatable storage tanks will have many additional military and commercial applications in space in the arena of storing large quantities of fluid for laser fuel, space tugs and long duration space flight. The primary use will be in cases where the required fluid volume is greater than can be achieved with a single launch vehicle.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The ultra-lightweight inflatable cryogenic storage tanks will have two primary customers, NASA and the Department of Defense. Propellant storage depots, orbit transfer vehicles, space-based lasers, and long duration missions are the applications identified with the ultra light cryogenic tankage. Large programs such as the International Space Station, the Mars missions, DARPA's Orbital Express and Strategic Defense Missions can utilize the improved launch logistic benefits and the reduced cost of these new concepts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
A commercialization of space could lead to a use of such tankage in the future. Industry giants such as Boeing, Lockheed-Martin, European Space Agency, Etc might find a need for long term storage for aspects of space production or tourism. The projection of such activities is beyond the capabilities of STS. Any technology developments during this program which can be patented will be patented by STS. These technologies will be kept active on the government programs on which they are beneficial and can be used. This will make them available to other potential users when the need arises.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X2.04-7847
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Propellant Depots
PROPOSAL TITLE: To Ensure the Integrity of the Cryogenic Propellant Depot Tank within the Expected Radiation and Space Debris Environment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
HYPERCOMP ENGINEERING, INC.
1080 North Main Suite #2
Brigham City, UT 84302-0505
(435)734-1166

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
James Patterson
jamesp@hypercompeng.com
1080 North Main Suite #2
Brigham City, UT 84302-0505
(435)734-1166

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We intend to develop the technology for lightweight composite structure suitable for both cryogenic fuel depot storage as well as human in-space habitat. These will incorporate improved impact technologies for micro-meteor/space debris protection and radiation capable composite technologies.

The application of filament wound composite pressure vessels to uses requiring pressurized storage at cryogenic temperatures has been undertaken at HyPerComp Engineering with promising results. Progress has been made in expanding the knowledge of how filament winding fibers and matrix systems (resins) react to loads and strain at extremely cold temperatures, such as would be encountered in in-space fuel storage depots. As with the cryogenic composite pressure vessel research, HyPerComp Engineering has been conducting research and has patented, jointly with NASA, a robust impact resistant composite pressure vessel technology. This technology shows great promise in its resistance to performance degradation from impacts, such as might be experienced in the space environment in the form of micrometeoroids and space debris. This "robust" technology has also demonstrated "non-catastrophic failure-mode" capabilities which could potentially reduce mission losses and tankage losses due to both space debris and other incidental impacts.

We intend to develop a baseline composite material capable of both cryogenic and radiation applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications for the technologies we propose researching and developing would be light weight composite structures that could be used for reliable and safe cryogenic propellant (i.e. fuel depots) storage, radiation resistant/shielding human habitat structures, and robust structures and tankage capable of withstanding micrometeroid and space debris impacts.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Potential commercial applications of the proposed technology would include the commercial satellite industry where they may have hardware in space (i.e. Low Earth Orbit) that is subject to impact and radiation space environmental hazards as well as requiring cryogenic fuel storage for their platforms.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X2.04-8537
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Propellant Depots
PROPOSAL TITLE: Carbon/Liquid Crystal Polymer Prepreg for Cryogenic and High-Temp Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
KAZAK COMPOSITES INCORPORATED
32 Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801-2122
(781)932-5667

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Pavel Bystricky
pbystricky@kazakcomposites.com
32 Cummings Park
Woburn, MA 01801-2122
(781)932-5667

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
KaZaK Composites proposes to develop a pultrusion process to produce carbon fiber / liquid crystal polymer (LCP) prepreg, a first for this category of materials and a critical development for its inclusion in new high performance composite materials. Until now, commercially available LCPs were not suitable for RTM or RFI carbon fiber composite processing. LKX1215 is a novel thermosetting LCP with excellent mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties, in particular low moisture pickup and low outgassing. Its relatively low melt viscosity and ability to cross-link at temperatures above 310oC make it a prime candidate resin for processing into carbon fiber prepreg. Preliminary work by KaZaK on LKX1215 suggests this material is well suited to continuous carbon fiber reinforcement. The prepreg material developed by KaZaK under the proposed program will be characterized in terms of physical, microstructural, and mechanical properties. Development of techniques for prepreg processing into cured composite laminates and characterization of the mechanical properties of the resulting composite laminates will also be an important part of the proposed program. At the conclusion of Phase I, KaZaK will have developed and demonstrated a previously unavailable process for making carbon fiber composite material for a wide range of cryogenic and high-temperature applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The LCP targeted here was developed by NASA for carbon fiber composite based liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen cryogenic fuel tanks for next generation reusable launch vehicles (in which tanks account for up to 70% of the dry weight). Carbon fiber / LCP composites should also be suitable for many space-based applications where high dimensional stability and excellent thermo-mechanical properties are required. This material's low outgassing may solve previously insurmountable barriers to use of composites for applications involving many spacecraft systems (e.g. reducing fouling of sensitive optics or providing the required dimensional stability for X-ray optics through reduced moisture emission).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed composites will be attractive for hybrid fuel vehicles (body panels, fuel tanks, fuel cell membranes) and in microelectronics where low CTE is required (chip housing, flex circuits). The material's low outgassing properties and chemical resistance make it a good candidate for use in clean rooms, food processing, and drug manufacturing facilities, i.e. difficult environments for conventional composites and stainless steel. LCP prepreg can advance the application of composites in the oil production industry, where conventional composites fail to survive. The exceptional thermal and high strength to weight properties make this material an excellent candidate for metal replacement applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X2.04-9772
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Propellant Depots
PROPOSAL TITLE: Zero Boil Off System for Cryogen Storage

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Atlas Scientific
1367 Camino Robles Way
San Jose, CA 95120-4925
(408)507-0906

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
James Maddocks
Maddocks@cae.wisc.edu
1415 Engineering Drive, Rm. 1339-A
Madison, WI 53706-1607
(608)265-4246

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This work proposes to develop a zero boil off (ZBO) dewar using a two-stage pulse-tube cooler together with two innovative, continuous-flow cooling loops and an actively cooled shield. While a number of cryogenic refrigeration systems may be considered for such applications, none offers the same potential for low vibration, high reliability, and high efficiency as the pulse tube. The continuous-flow cooling loops are made possible by the presence of rectifying interfaces that convert the oscillating flow of the pulse-tube cryocooler into a steady flow of cold refrigerant gas that can readily be distributed throughout the volume of the dewar or over the surface of a shield, without need for a separate circulating pump.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed dewar is well suited to many future NASA missions involving the transportation or in-situ liquefaction of cryogens. For example, the manned Mars missions will require the capability to store seed hydrogen, as well as, liquid oxygen and liquid methane for substantial periods of time. To accomplish this, a small lightweight cryocooler mounted on the storage vessel that is capable of sub-cooling the liquid, intercepting parasitic heat leaks, and re-liquefying vapor will be required. Terrestrial applications include, cryogenic propellant preservation for Space Shuttle power systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
There are numerous terrestrial applications for zero boil off technology, including liquid preservation in MRI magnets and cellular telephone base stations.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X2.04-9897
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Cryogenic Propellant Depots
PROPOSAL TITLE: In-Space Cryogenic VOST Connect/Disconnect

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Big Horn Valve Inc
248 W Works Street
Sheridan, WY 82801-4213
(307)672-5443

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Zachary Gray
zg@wyomingsilicon.com
248 W Works Street
Sheridan, WY 82801-4213
(307)672-5443

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A novel cryogenic coupling will be designed and modeled. Intended for in-space use at cryogenic propellant depots, the coupling is based on patented Venturi-Offset Technology (VOST) and will provide small fluid and heat leakage at high flows with a low pressure drop. Entirely mechanical, insertion opens the passage, removal closes the passage. Mating force and alignment requirements are small. With only eight major parts, reliability is high and mass is low. Redundant seals, integrated flow measurements, and robotic control are possible.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
In-space cryogenic connect/disconnect.
Safety disconnects.
Earth-based gantry quick-disconnects.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
In-flight refueling, transfer of toxic/hazardous materials, thermally efficient transfer of LNG.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X2.05-8011
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Management for Space Utilities
PROPOSAL TITLE: SILICON-CARBIDE (SIC) MULTICHIP POWER MODULES (MCPMS) FOR POWER BUILDING BLOCK APPLICATIONS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
ARKANSAS POWER ELECTRONICS INTERNATIONAL, INC.
700 W Research Blvd
Fayetteville, AR 72701-7174
(479)443-5759

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Alexander Lostetter
alostet@apei.net
700 W Research Blvd
Fayetteville, AR 72701-7174
(479)799-6578

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project seeks to prove the feasibility of developing high power density modular power electronic building blocks based upon high temperature silicon carbide (SiC) multichip power module (MCPM) technologies. The modular approach will allow for auto-configurable stackable modules to be built up in series and/or parallel configurations (through a "plug and play" fashion) in order to increase overall system power handling capabilities. The MCPM building blocks will utilize a decentralized control and communications structure, with a communications network established between the core silicon-on-insulator (SOI) controllers of the MCPMs, but with no single controller in command of the system. The decentralized control scheme will allow for the construction of highly flexible power systems which could perform a wide variety of power electronics applications, including power conversion, motor drive, and power distribution functions. In addition, the development of the MCPMs will be based upon high-temperature SiC power electronics technologies, thus driving the building block designs towards very miniaturized, high power density, high efficiency systems. Due to the high switching frequency capabilities of the SiC power switches, filter and magnetics components will also be reduced in size, thus further miniaturizing the MCPM building blocks. The reduction in size, weight, and volume will create significant savings in space launch costs, while the modular building block designs will increase flexibility, reduce engineering costs and time, improve reliability and fault tolerance, and allow for the implementation of auto-reconfiguration in the case of phase-leg or module failures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
NASA applications that will benefit from high-temperature SiC modularized power electronic blocks include satellites, spacecraft, aerospace vehicles, rovers, and landers to name a few. The proposed modules will offer flexibility, reparability, and modularity to power distribution systems including solar arrays, energy storage devices, and nuclear power cores. Any NASA power system that would see an improvement by increasing power density, reducing weight and size, and increasing fault tolerability could potentially benefit from the proposed technologies. The power system engineers will have the flexibility to adapt these modules to practically any power electronic application, thus significantly reducing the engineering and design costs while simultaneously improving reliability.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Modular flexibility makes the proposed technology attractive for a wide variety of power electronics applications, but more importantly, the potential of a single basic building block to perform the majority of power electronics functions would revolutionize the power electronics industry. Very high volume manufacturing would significantly reduce system-wide costs, while auto-configurable "plug and play" systems would reduce power engineering and design costs. Baldor Motors, one of the world's leading manufacturers of electric motors and drives, has shown great interest in the potential of this technology for the commercial market-place, and has provided a support letter.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X2.05-8671
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Management for Space Utilities
PROPOSAL TITLE: Decentralized Nonlinear Controller Based SiC Parallel DC-DC Converter

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
SemiSouth Laboratories, Inc
201 Research Blvd.
Starkville, MS 39759-7704
(662)324-7607

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Jeffrey B. Casady
jeff.casady@semisouth.com
201 Research Blvd.
Starkville, MS 39759-7704
(662)324-7607

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of a Decentralized Control based SiC Parallel DC-DC Converter Unit (DDCU) with targeted application for NASA's International Space Station Program and Satellite Power Systems. The proposed DDCU has three key features: a) "true" redundancy for parallel DC-DC converter based on a novel concept developed at the University of Illinois at Chicago, b) a novel nonlinear hybrid controller that achieves enhanced robustness and wider stability margin and yet achieves interleaving to reduce output current ripple, and c) SiC based power stage yielding higher breakdown voltage, temperature-sustenance, and radiation-hardness capabilities for the DDCU leading also to higher power density as compared with Si based power stage.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
? Parallel DDCU power controller for International Space Station application (see Figure 1 illustration).
? Fault tolerant satellite power system
? Any other DC or AC power management and distribution (PMAD) system of NASA that requires modularity, redundancy and fault-tolerance at a reduced cost

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
? Voltage-regulated modules (VRMs)
? Telecommunication server power supplies
? UPS
? Motor drives


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X2.05-9703
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Management for Space Utilities
PROPOSAL TITLE: Modular Power System Configured with Standard Product Hybrid DC-DC Converters

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
VPT Inc
P.O. Box 253
Blacksburg, VA 24063-0253
(540)552-5000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Dan Sable
sable@vpt-inc.com
P.O. Box 253
Blacksburg, VA 24063-0253
(540)552-5000

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
VPT proposes an innovative concept whereby complex, multiple-output, DC-DC converter systems can be configured through use of only 2 standard product hybrid DC-DC Converter modules. The key module attributes that make this feasible are: programmable output, parallel current-sharing capability, synchronization capability, dual (plus and minus) output voltage, 500V input-output-case isolation, external shutdown, total dose and single event effects radiation hardening, and ability to be element evaluated, screened, and qualified to MIL PRF 38534 Class K (space flight) standards. Once these attributes are satisfied, it is shown that highly complex systems can be designed and delivered with a minimum of nonrecurring engineering. This includes 28V or 100V input systems, low voltage and higher voltage outputs, and highly varying output power. The system allows output series operation for increased output voltage, as well as input series operation to accommodate increased input voltages. This is all accomplished without the need of a centralized controller. This confines most of the common failure modes to graceful degradation as opposed to catastrophic shut down. In Phase I, it is demonstrated that a complex, multiple output system, 100Vin, 1KW system is configured with multiple 100W, 28V input modules.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The modular power system concept proposed offers to significantly reduce cost and schedule for a wide variety of NASA power converter applications such as lunar mission, Solar Dynamics Observatory, Jupiter Icy Moon Orbiter (JIMO), and James Webb Space Telescope (JWST).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The concept is also applicable to a wide range of commercial and government spacecraft, most notably the GPS satellite system.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X2.06-7680
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Materials and Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Si-O-C Aerogels for TPS of Reentry Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
ASPEN AEROGELS, INC.
30 Forbes Road, Building B
Northborough, MA 01532-2501
(508)691-1111

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Dmitry Fomitchev
dfomitchev@aerogel.com
30 Forbes Road, Building B
Northborough, MA 01532-2105
(508)481-5058

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objectives of this proposal are to identify and develop breakthrough technologies that have potential to provide increased scientific return at lower cost, and to enable missions and capabilities beyond current horizons. Advanced thermal materials are needed as thermal protection system (TPS) materials for reentry. Aspen Aerogels Inc. proposes a particularly innovative lightweight aerogel material !V silicon oxycarbide aerogel that will advance the state-of-the-art for thermal protection. The material will have maximal operational temperature in air on the order of 1200 ?aC, will have low thermal conductivity at high temperatures and low density. Thermal stability of the material will be tested at conditions simulating the conditions of Earth reentry.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The material developed during this Phase I effort will have a variety of applications in the aerospace industry, and within NASA specifically. Aerogels are the most efficient thermal insulation known, and NASA has several applications that would benefit from the low density and thermal conductivity of aerogels. Among these are replacements for the flexible ceramic blankets, and low-temperature ceramic tiles on the Space Shuttle, as well as replacements for fibrous insulation within the metallic TPS (ARMOR concept). Composites developed on this program will be utilized in the heatshield designs for the spacecrafts undergoing aerocapture or aerobraking maneuvers

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The thermally insulating composites developed during this program will have numerous military and commercial applications. They could offer a replacement for the insulating tile array used in the exhaust washed regions of advanced military aircrafts. The product will have a commercial impact in areas such as: airliner fuselages, thermal insulation for ovens, insulation for hot exhaust ducts, automotive firewall insulation, appliance insulation, and boilers and incinerators.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X2.06-7753
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Materials and Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight Ultrahigh Temperature CMC-Encased C/C Structure for Reentry and Hypersonic Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Ultramet
12173 Montague St
Pacoima, CA 91331-2210
(818)899-0236

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Gautham Ramachandran
gautham.ramachandran@ultramet.com
Ultramet
Pacoima, CA 91331-2210
(818)899-0236

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The reentry spacecraft and hypersonic cruisers of the future will require advanced lightweight thermal protection systems that can provide the dual functionality of thermal protection and structural capability. In the proposed project, Ultramet will fabricate a lightweight, reusable, highly efficient, multifunctional, structurally robust thermal protection system consisting of a high thermal conductivity, porous carbon/carbon body encased in a high temperature capable (up to 4500oF) ceramic matrix composite skin. The proposed materials will not only be able to withstand the aggressive environments that are encountered during reentry or that are common to hypersonic vehicles, but they will also have the potential for structural capability when integrated efficiently with the main body of the aircraft. Through use of a cost-effective variant of Ultramet's innovative melt infiltration processing, the complexity and time required to fabricate the proposed thermal protection system elements to net shape will be reduced.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Completion of this project will provide a fundamental feasibility demonstration of the ability of the proposed thermal protection system structure to withstand aggressive thermal environments and the cost-effectiveness of the proposed processing technique in fabricating net-shape structural components. Overall project success will allow development of an innovative thermal protection system concept in which the system is able to withstand required thermal and shock loads while contributing load-bearing capability. The applications of such a system would be limitless to future reusable spacecraft such as the Space Operations Vehicle, air-breathing hypersonic cruisers, and rocket and aircraft propulsion components. The materials system developed during this project could also be effectively applied to leading edge structures for these applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
In general, the concept will be applicable to a wide range of military and commercial applications that require highly refractory materials with effective control of thermal mass.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X2.06-8261
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Materials and Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Non-Toxic, Non-flammable, Low FP Heat Exchanger Fluids

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Mainstream Engineering Corporation
200 Yellow Pl
Rockledge, FL 32955-5327
(321)631-3550

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Dwight D Back
ddb@mainstream-engr.com
200 Yellow Place
Rockledge, FL 32955-5327
(321)631-3550

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposed research addresses NASA 2004-1 SBIR Topic B3.01, "Environmental Control of Spacecraft Cabin Atmosphere." The objective of this proposed effort is to demonstrate the freeze/thaw properties and fault tolerance of a water pump loop using an environmentally-friendly, non-toxic, drop-in replacement heat exchange fluid. These fluid formulations are comprised of novel, non-flammable, non-explosive, non-toxic, non-corrosive compounds which will not expand upon freezing and therefore diminish the chances that a heat exchanger will rupture. The fluid formulations also have a much lower freezing point than water which can broaden the temperature operating range of the heat exchanger. The objective of using a drop-in replacement is also very cost effective since little to no change in hardware would be required. This proposal specifically addresses the following need cited in the solicitation description under subheading Environmental Control and Thermal Systems: "Alternative heat transfer fluids that are non-toxic, non-flammable, and have a low freezing temperature."

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications include heat transfer fluids for heating and cooling systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications also include heat transfer fluids for heating and cooling systems. Heat transfer fluids are used in numerous commercial processes and electronics cooling.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X2.06-8637
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Materials and Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Radiation Shielding Using Thermally Insulating Spheres

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Tec-Masters Inc
1500 Perimeter Pkwy Suite 320
Huntsville, AL 35806-3520
(256)830-4000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Richard D Horton
rhorton@tecmasters.com
1500 Perimeter Parkway, Suite 215
Huntsville, AL 35806-3520
(256)721-6686

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The design of future habitation structures and exploration vehicles will require a higher level of crew protection from dangerous solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) than is currently provided for operations in low Earth orbit (LEO). The incorporation of radiation shielding technology into sub-system elements will be crucial to the success of future designs. One area where radiation shielding may be incorporated is in thermal insulation materials. The design of habitation structures and exploration vehicles will require extensive thermal protection. Combining the roles of radiation shielding and thermal insulation may be possible by using millimeter sized spheres in place of multi-layer insulation (MLI). By manufacturing the spheres from materials known to provide radiation shielding, the complexity of a vehicle or habitation structure can be reduced. An additional benefit of using spheres as insulation is the ability to operate in a weak vacuum such as the Mars atmosphere. Thus, a sphere insulation design could also be used in the ultra-low pressure gas environment of Mars. This project will involve the research and evaluation of materials most suitable for radiation shielding and thermal performance evaluation testing of multiple sample sizes in both vacuum and low pressure gas environments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The development of this innovation is intended for use in the design of lunar habitation structures. However, the successful development of this technology may lead to uses in other exploration systems developed within NASA. For example, the development of a crew exploration vehicle will benefit from the dual functionality of thermal insulation that provides radiation shielding. Additionally, the construction of a next generation spacesuit will require innovative design solutions as crewmembers performing EVA on the lunar and Mars surfaces will be subjected to extreme thermal and radiation environments

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Although the concept proposed here was conceived as a solution for NASA related issues, it could prove useful in the private sector. Sensitive electronics aboard communications and research satellites have shown vulnerability to SPE's. The addition of radiation shielding combined with thermal insulation will increase the reliability and longevity of satellites while maintaining mass limitations. Additionally, airline crews that are operating at high altitudes are exposed to potentially harmful levels of cosmic radiation. Incorporating even the smallest amount of radiation shielding materials in the aircraft insulation may significantly reduce the cumulative exposure that is experienced over long term operations.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X2.06-9476
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Materials and Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Thermal Protection Systems (ATPS), Aerospace Grade Carbon Bonded Carbon Fiber Material

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Fiber Materials Inc
5 Morin St
Biddeford, ME 04005-4497
(207)282-5911

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Keith R Meiler
kmeiler@fibermaterialsinc.com
5 Morin St
Biddeford, ME 04005-4497
(207)282-5911

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Carbon bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulating material is the basis for several highly successful NASA developed thermal protection systems (TPS). Among the innovative TPS are Genesis, PICA (phenolic impregnated carbonaceous ablator) currently employed on the Stardust Mission and TUFROC (Toughened Uni-piece Fibrous Reinforced Oxidation-resistant Composite). NASA-Ames has a patent pending concerning TUFROC and the technology is planned for transfer to Boeing for fabrication of the X-37 leading edge.
Carbon bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) utilized in the above mentioned TPS is attractive because of its low cost and density, superior thermal performance and compatibility with other components. However, the current CBCF manufacturing processes do not produce materials engineered to the necessary control required of these emerging and highly innovative TPS designs. This program will develop and demonstrate advanced processes and manufacturing approaches to consistently fabricate CBCF insulating material to desired specifications. The benefits derived include significantly improved flexibility for the TPS design engineer as well as more cost efficient CBCF derived TPS fabrication. It will also enable greater availability to this class of superior insulating materials.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Carbon bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) is an effective constituent material selected for manufacture of several advanced TPS systems. The Stardust (PICA) and Genesis (LMMS Genesis Concept) discovery missions have incorporated CBCF into their respective earth entry TPS. TUFROC TPS under development by NASA-Ames, in addition to current transitioning to Boeing X-37 leading edge, has also been down-selected by a preliminary conceptual design for an aerocapture mission at Titan. TUFROC also requires a qualified CBCF starting material. NASA is investing in advanced technologies to empower the Vision for Space Exploration. TUFROC TPS development is a promising step in that direction.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Fiber Materials, Inc manufactures a commercial CBCF material termed FiberForm. It is typically sold as high temperature (5000oF capability) furnace insulation. This non-NASA commercial application ensures CBCF production as the demand for an aerospace grade CBCF product is considered a small component of annual production. Experience gained during the course of this SBIR will foster an improved commercial product, increasing the material's competitiveness in the marketplace and long term viability.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X2.07-8646
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Environmental Effects
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Transparent Metal Oxide / Polyimide Antistatic Coatings

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
AGILTRON CORPORATION
220 Ballardvale St., Suite D
Wilmington, MA 01887-1050
(978)694-1006

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Jack Salerno
jsalerno@agiltron.com
220 Ballardvale Street, Ste D
Wilmington, MA 01887-1050
(978)694-1006

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA requires clear antistatic coatings that can withstand exposure to the rigors of the space environment. Agiltron proposes a coating consisting of inorganic conducting particles and space environment resistant polymer that shares the best features of inorganics and organics currently available. Such a coating could potentially be processed by common polymeric routes yet have the optical/electrical performance advantages of inorganic materials. The electric resistance of the coating can be easily adjusted by changing the composition and concentration of the inorganic conducting particles for a resistance required for antistatic applications (106-1010 ohm/sq). This new material system would overcome traditional drawbacks, such as the light scattering due to the aggregation of the inorganic particles, providing the high transparency and desired conductivity for many applications. Elimination of light scattering is achieved by dispersing transparent conducting particles into an optically matched polymer matrix. Moreover, the transparent and conducting particles are designed to chemically bond to the engineered polymer composite for excellent stability and reliability that are required in space environment applications. The process of applying this type of transparent antistatic film is as simple as applying paint, which would allow the application of these coatings to flexible and rigid materials suggesting potential even in very cost-sensitive applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Static build-up is particularly problematic in space vacuum environments. Friction driven static and charge from free ions have no available discharge path in the absence of an atmosphere. Resulting electrostatic forces can interfere with proper mechanical functioning and sudden high-voltage discharge can damage critical electronic components. The proposed technology can render otherwise insulating structural materials sufficiently conductive to dissipate charge without otherwise altering properties carefully selected for the space application. Equally important, the proposed materials are stable in the presence of UV radiation and atomic oxygen which are particular problems in various space environments. Particular applications include electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection, electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding, antistatic packaging and rendering insulating materials suitable for electrostatic painting and powder coating. The proposed technology can also be applied as UV protective coating or transparent electrodes on electro-optical components.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
In addition to critical applications in oil/gas and electronic applications, antistatic materials and coatings are widely employed by uniform apparel manufactures, targeting the petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, precision machinery, household appliances, foods, and other industries where antistatic performance is of prime importance in controlling dust generation. Coating face shields, plastic eyeglass lenses and displays can keep them clean by preventing static adhesion of dust. Conducting films made from the proposed technology with different electric resistances can be used in many military and civil applications such as flexible displays, robust EMI shields, robust circuitry components for navigational systems, weapons systems, engine components, electrodes in optoelectronic devices, smart windows, IR reflecting layers in oven windows and heatable layers as defrosting windows. Combining the flexibility and low cost of organic processes with the performance of inorganic conductors can have significant impact in many of these applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X3.01-7964
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extravehicular Activity Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: DWNT/Hydrogenated Fullerene Reinforced Polyethylene for Radiation Shielding Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
MER Corp
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706-9237
(520)574-1980

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Dr. Raouf O. Loutfy
rloutfy@mercorp.com
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706-9237
(520)574-1980

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Manned space exploration requires radiation protection, particularly since the impact of radiation on the health and safety of humans on extended missions is not known. The best material candidates are those with high hydrogen contents and low molecular weight, and thus polymers are excellent choices. However, their thermal stability and mechanical properties need to be improved. MER proposes to achieve this using a combination of DWNT with hydrogenated fullerenes, where the latter can be deposited inside the prior, achieving the so-called "peapod" materials. Developed composites will be characterized for mechanical performance and radiation hardness as a screening tool. Selected composites of varying thickness and composition will be chosen for more comprehensive testing in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Radiation shielding is necessary for all spacecraft, particularly for long duration space missions. It is also required for space stations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Carbon nanotube reinforced polymers have already found non-military applications in the UV protection of polymers, and are commonly applied as coatings or paints.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X3.01-8100
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extravehicular Activity Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Advanced Rapid Cycling CO2 and H2O Control System for PLSS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 West 52nd Ave
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033-1916
(303)422-7819

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Gokhan O. Alptekin
galptekin@tda.com
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033-1916
(303)940-2349

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA's planned future missions set stringent demands on the design of the Portable Life Support Systems (PLSS) used to cool the astronaut and provide them with air. Dramatic reductions in weight, decreased reliance on supplies and greater flexibility on the types of missions are all needed. The CO2 and humidity control unit in the existing PLSS design is relatively large, since it has to remove 8 hours worth of CO2. If the sorbent regeneration can be carried out during the extravehicular activity (EVA) with a relatively high regeneration frequency, the size and weight of the sorbent canister can be significantly reduced.

TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) proposes to develop a compact, regenerable sorbent-based system to control CO2 and humidity in the space suit ventilation loop. The sorbent can be regenerated using space vacuum during the EVA, eliminating many of the duration-limiting elements in the life support system.

In the Phase I project, TDA will develop a suitable sorbent and carry out a preliminary design and engineering assessment of the system to determine whether the concept merits further research and development.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The main benefit of our research to NASA is its ability to provide a lightweight, compact, and relatively simple CO2 and humidity control system for the Portable Life Support System. Reducing the weight and volume of the space suit is of critical importance to NASA. If the system progresses to flight hardware, we will partner with established NASA contractors who supply hardware to expedite the adoption of our system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The sorbents developed in the project is also applicable to a wide variety of industrial processes, which requires CO2 removal at moderate temperatures (i.e., CO2 cleanup from refinery gas stream). These sorbents can also be used in sorbent-enhanced water-gas-shift processes in hydrogen manufacturing.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X3.01-8519
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extravehicular Activity Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lower Profile, Lighter Weight Space Suit Bearings

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Air-Lock, Inc.
Wampus Lane
Milford, CT 06460-4859
(203)878-4691

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Michael McCarthy
mccarthm@airlockinc.com
Wampus Lane
Milford, CT 06460-4859
(203)878-4691

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Air-Lock will deliver a final report based on the follwoing:
1. Historical summary of bearing design evolution throughout the life of the EMU Program
2. Material research to identify lightweight materials best suited for each beairng.
3. Redesign of current EMU bearings to lower bearing profile and mass.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Lightweight bearings can be applied to numerous pressure suits (Air-Force, NASA Crew Escape Suit, MK-III)

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Potential exists to place bearings into pressurized suits (rescue suits, fire fighters, Air-Force)


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X3.01-9709
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extravehicular Activity Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Membrane Interferometric Carbon Dioxide Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
PHYSICAL OPTICS CORPORATION
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821
(310)320-3088

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Sergey Sandomirsky
sutama@poc.com
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821
(310)320-3088

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To address the NASA need for extravehicular mobility units (EMUs) with enhanced mobility, dexterity, lifetime, maintainability, and reliability for the International Space Station and for future missions to the Moon and Mars, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Membrane Interferometric Carbon Dioxide Sensor (MICADS). This sensor integrates a fiber optic interferometer, sensitive to displacements of a small fraction of a wavelength, and a semipermeable membrane to selectively detect, identify, and quantify gases at concentrations at the parts per million (ppm) level. The MICADS will measure carbon dioxide level by means of a selectively permeable membrane, which induces small displacements in a diaphragm that can be measured by the interferometer. POC's light, compact, and reliable MICADS sensor will monitor and control the air processing to remove carbon dioxide from EMUs. It will not consume oxygen, and will produce only minimal heat. In Phase I, POC will develop and demonstrate the performance of the proof-of-concept MICADS. In Phase II, a prototype will be developed and submitted to NASA for testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
In addition to use in space suits, NASA can use MICADS as an in-place environmental monitor and carbon dioxide controller in the International Space Station and other long-term installations. As an efficient means of monitoring air quality, MICADS will enhance NASA's exploration and colonization efforts. This technology can also be licensed to foreign users such as the European Space Agency. Modified versions of MICADS, with other membranes, can replace NASA's present laboratory instrumentation for measuring trace gases. Instruments that could be replaced or supplemented include gas chromatographs, gas chromatograph/mass spectrometers, nondispersive infrared spectrometers, and chemiluminescence sensors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The most immediate application of MICADS technology will be in medical instrumentation for capnometry, which is extremely important in acute care units and has huge market potential. With other membranes, similar sensors can detect natural gas leaks and CO both in households and industrial facilities. Other markets include mine safety, chemical processing plants, and smog monitoring. Automotive applications with high growth potential in the near term include cabin air quality monitoring and truck engine management/emissions control.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X3.02-8599
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Habitats, Habitability, and Human Factors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Electrical Power and Heat from Crew Waste Using an Integrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Fixed-Bed Gasifier

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
ITN Energy Systems, Inc.
8130 Shaffer Parkway
Littleton, CO 80127-4107
(303)285-5111

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Paul Thoen
pthoen@itnes.com
8130 Shaffer Parkway
Littleton, CO 80127-4107
(303)285-5195

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ITN Energy Systems, Inc., along with the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), proposes to develop a highly efficient power generation system capable of converting habitat crew waste from NASA space habitats into electricity and heat. The system will consist of ITN's novel, low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, integrated with a revolutionary, highly efficient gasifier developed by EERC. The waste to energy converter will be specifically designed and engineered to efficiently convert onsite habitat crew waste into electricity and heat. The tight thermal integration of an SOFC to the gasifier will enable the operation of a sub-stoichiometric air gasifier at an elevated temperature (1000oC). At this temperature, the high levels of moisture inherent to habitat crew waste will function as an essential carbon gasifying medium, reducing the equivalence ratio at which the gasifier can operate with complete carbon conversion. By utilizing the moisture content of the food waste and the high temperature heat from the SOFC, the gasifier will operate with the addition of little or no air, generating producer gas that has not been heavily diluted with nitrogen. This high quality producer gas is an optimal fuel for a solid oxide fuel cell.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The development of a device that is capable of converting waste into electricity and heat could have numerous applications for NASA. The device could be utilized to convert crew habitat waste into heat and electricity for the crew, while at the same time eliminate the need for storing, hauling and disposing of the waste. This waste to energy device could be used on spaceships and space stations.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The U.S. military could use the device at forward deployed bases to convert waste into heat the electricity, with high efficiency and virtually no emissions or noise. The electricity can be used to power lights or for communications, while the excess heat can be used for space heating or cooking. The proposed approach would lead to dramatic reductions in the transportation logistics associated with sending resources to and removing waste from forward-deployed bases. In addition, a device that converts waste and trash into electricity could be used at single and multi-family dwellings as well as hospitals, schools and government buildings.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X4.01-8749
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Assembly and Construction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Birefringent Microlens Array for Ultra High Resolution HMDs

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Dimension Technologies Inc
315 Mt Read Blvd
Rochester, NY 14611-1982
(585)436-3530

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Jesse B Eichenlaub
jbe@dti3d.com
315 Mt Read Blvd
Rochester, NY 14611-1982
(585)436-3530

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will be used to analyze, design, model, and test a birefringent microlens array for use in a new type of ultra high resolution virtual reality display. DTI has demonstrated a technology that uses a rapidly scanned miniature LCD to produce images possessing much more resolution than the LCD itself. It accomplishes this by illuminating different subregions of each pixel during each scan, producing an image made up of the subregions instead of the pixels themselves. At present, custom made microdisplays with lens arrays embedded in the front glass are needed to focus light into the tiny pixel subregions. This Phase I program will assess the feasibility of a novel type of lens array that can be mounted outside the microdisplay glass and still focus light into the tiny pixel subregions. Such an element could be added to existing microdisplays after the microdisplays were manufactured, thus eliminating the need for custom microdisplays and allowing several off the shelf models to employ DTI's ultra high resolution technique at much lower cost. Products made with these displays hold the promise of new benchmarks in image fidelity and immersion in VR and tele-operated systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Displays resulting from this technology, capable of producing near vision limited resolution across a very wide field of view, could be combined with today's multi thousand line resolution cameras to produce, for the fist time, true visual immersion and resulting increases in speed and efficiency for the operators of remotely controlled robots and vehicles. Such displays could also accept input from computers to create extremely immersive virtual environments. These capabilities would be extremely useful in many inspection, construction, exploration, and simulation/training activities performed by NASA, both in space and on planetary surfaces

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The availability of head mounted displays with resolutions and fields of view that match that of emerging multi thousand line cameras would be a boon to almost any remote control robotic or vehicle driving application. Combined with robotic technology spinoffs from programs like Robonaut, these displays could extend the benefits of high fidelity tele-operated systems to emergency departments, construction companies, mining operations, and warehousing. Such displays would also find broad application in simulation and training activities. Ultra high resolution head mounted displays would make simulation more practical for many commercial applications,. such as private aviation, medicine, driving schools, and entertainment.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X4.01-9020
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Assembly and Construction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Photonic Robots

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation
650 Vaqueros Avenue
Sunnyvale, CA 94085-3525
(408)328-8648

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Behzad Moslehi
bm@ifos.com
650 Vaqueros Avenue
Sunnyvale, CA 94085-3525
(408)328-8648

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To operate complicated tools and perform intricate repairs requires a manipulator of great precision and excellent coordination. An instrument such as the human hand is a perfect example; it is an organ for the reception of and reaction to tactile stimuli, a perception that guides the repertoire of manual functions. However, the integration of an analogous sensing suite into a robotic platform poses a major technological challenge. The "smart skin" solution IFOS proposes is 2-D sensor based on the integration of high-sensitivity embedded Fiber Bragg grating (FBG), a custom engineered composite material - Nano Particle Material (NPM) ? and data interpretation and on-board decision-making. This sensor will support multi-point strain sensing to control the force exerted by robot end-effectors or manipulators on an object, required by such operations as assembly, surface-machining and cutting. Our goal is design and control of an anthropomorphic manipulation prototype based on high-resolution artificial taction. Optical sensors promise particular advantages for a robot that can achieve high-fidelity force control and that can operate safely in contact with astronauts. FBG sensors are robust, highly accurate, and immune to electromagnetic interference. A network of such sensors can be integrated directly into the structure or skin of an anthropomorphic robot.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Space exploration will greatly benefit from robotic sensing technologies. This project will assist NASA in its goal to achieve humanoid robots designed to have the dexterity of a space-suited astronaut capable of operating tools and performing extra-vehicular repairs on a manned spacecraft that were originally designed for human operation. Robots will furthermore displace humans in high risk areas, such as long space travels, hazardous explorations, and research in human-unfriendly areas. Robotic sensing will enable human-like work to be performed in space for long periods of time without risk of human fatigue and miscalculations that would jeopardize mission effectiveness and results.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Multiple commercial applications exist for the robots that this project will assist. Our particular interest is robots for performing tasks in environments that are dangerous or inaccessible for humans, e.g., in the handling of nuclear or bio-hazardous materials.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X4.03-8276
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Inspection and Diagnostics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Distributed Impact Detection System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Invocon, Inc.
19221 I-45 South, Suite 530
Conroe, TX 77385-8746
(281)292-9903

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Mike Walcer
walcer@invocon.com
19221 IH 45 South; Suite 530
Conroe, TX 77385-8746
(281)292-9903

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Automated impact detection and characterization on manned spacecraft has been an elusive goal due to the transitory nature of the detectable high-frequency signals. The proposed approach for this effort is to use large numbers of self-powered, miniaturized, "stick on" piezoelectric sensory nodes that are synchronized within a radio frequency network. Each node will continuously monitor an accelerometer or acoustic emission sensor element for an impact event, such as the foam impact that caused the Columbia tragedy or an MMOD impact. When a programmable threshold is exceeded, a low-latency signal acquisition circuit will capture the event as a digital waveform for post-processing and impact characterization. In addition, autonomous collaboration and synchronization between nodes of the network will provide for accurate location determination through amplitude and time-of-arrival analysis. The innovative signal conditioning circuit design is capable of operation in the micro-watt range on average while constantly maintaining the capability to process and acquire very high-frequency acoustic signals. Such performance can provide operating lifetimes of 20+ years on a single AA battery, or unlimited operation from scavenged power sources such as solar or thermal gradients.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
This system could benefit many current and future NASA space flight and exploration programs, including the Shuttle, ISS, and Project Constellation programs, or a Moon or Mars habitat, where the risk of MMOD impacts causing critical damage to vehicles or life support systems exists. In addition to MMOD impacts, the basic design of the proposed system could be used for detection of leaks from pressurized vehicles and habitats through the produced airborne and surface-borne ultrasonic energy. The system would also enable the detection of crack propagation in structures through Acoustic Emission techniques while requiring minimal vehicle resources.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Potential Non-NASA applications include asset monitoring during shipment or transportation through the continuous monitoring and recording of shock events for both commercial and military equipment. Such a device could be placed in a shipping container and provide a history of any shock or high-g accelerations experienced including a timestamp and potentially location via GPS. Currently available commercial systems have very limited battery life and only provide an indication that an acceleration threshold has been exceeded with no way to characterize the event through signal analysis techniques.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X4.03-8790
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Inspection and Diagnostics
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multifunctional Integrated Optic Sensor for Detection of Cracks and Corrosion

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Los Gatos Research
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041-1518
(650)965-7772

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
An-Dien Nguyen
a.d.nguyen@lgrinc.com
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View, CA 94041-1518
(650)965-3459

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Los Gatos Research proposes to develop a new nondestructive inspection sensor system, capable of simultaneously measuring strain-based load and detecting crack, corrosion, and disbonding in inaccessible areas of aerospace structures. Our novel sensor technology offers a number of advantages including compactness, lightweight, low power consumption, and high sensitivity. We achieve this by fabricating Bragg gratings on stress-wave-sensitive polymer planar waveguides, which is capable of detecting both surface and below surface cracks and stress in aerospace structures. In Phase I, using a guided wave method we will demonstrate the polymer gratings' capability to measure strain and stress waves indicating the presence and severity of damages caused by cracks, disbonding, or corrosion in a thin metal structure, when the structure is probed by a conventional ultrasonic wave generation device. In Phase II, an integrated optic Bragg grating-based load monitoring and guided wave sensor prototype and a crack detection algorithm will be developed to provide structural health monitoring and nondestructive evaluation for spacecraft composite systems and components.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Optical waveguide technology provides significant advantages for advanced aerospace platforms because they are lightweight, immune to electromagnetic wave interference, and do not produce short circuits or ground loops. Therefore the development of integrated optic sensors has the potential to increase reliability, enable lower cost, and facilitate more effective health monitoring and nondestructive evaluation of NASA's advanced aircraft and spacecraft components and systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed integrated optic sensors may be applied to a wide range of applications including non-destructive evaluation of structures and components in various industries including commercial aerospace, civil infrastructure, and automotive, and telecommunction.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X4.03-9959
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Inspection and Diagnostics
PROPOSAL TITLE: On-orbit health monitoring and repair assessment of thermal protection systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
EXTREME DIAGNOSTICS, INC.
2525 Arapahoe Avenue / Bldg. E4 #262
Boulder, CO 80302-6746
(303)530-1248

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Dr. Robert B. Owen
rowen@extremediagnostics.com
2525 Arapahoe Avenue / Bldg. E4 #262
Boulder, CO 80302-6746
(303)530-1248

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR project delivers On-orbit health MoNItoring and repair assessment of THERMal protection systems (OMNI_THERM). OMNI_THERM features impedance-based structural health monitoring (SHM) and uses miniaturized autonomous sensor/actuators to diagnose damage and verify repair efficacy.

Implications of the innovation
Thermal protection systems are crucial for crew safety. New techniques of on-orbit monitoring and assessment of thermal protection structures are needed for space exploration. An autonomous impedance-based SHM system is one of the few viable solutions; however, this technique has not been applied to thermal protection systems.

Technical objectives
OMNI_THERM deploys autonomous, wireless, self-powered sensor/actuators that harvest energy from vibration and thermal gradients. Each sensor/actuator is a complete SHM system and reports independently; this computationally distributed framework minimizes single points-of-failure. We have built a prototype, performed SHM on launch support structures, and demonstrated repair assessment.

Research description
Phase I demonstrates OMNI_THERM SHM on reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) and other model structures. Phase II includes miniaturization and expands OMNI_THERM capabilities to additional thermal materials, hybrid structures, and advanced composites.

Anticipated results
Phase I establishes feasibility by detecting cracks, gouges, and stress-induced defects in RCC and other model structures and verifying repairs. Phase II delivers an OMNI_THERM system tailored to on-orbit SHM and repair assessment.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The Exploration Systems Enterprise will develop and use increasing sophisticated hardware and systems. Sustainable and flexible space exploration requires reliable structural assessment on-orbit and in-flight to guide hardware maintenance and servicing and verify repair efficacy for complex structures. Thermal protection systems directly support crew safety and are among the most crucial structural elements. These complex structures and materials must withstand severe stresses and hostile aero-thermo-chemical environments. They are also vulnerable to micrometeor damage and must be continuously monitored and repeatedly reassessed. Lightweight, compact, and reliable SHM technology is needed to autonomously inspect and diagnosis advanced thermal protection systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Commercial applications include Homeland Security structural analysis to mitigate threats (preparedness) and assess damage (response), smart structures, and SHM of nuclear plants, aircraft, dams, and bridges. SHM is an emerging industry driven by an aging infrastructure, malicious humans, and the introduction of advanced materials. Government customers include the Federal Highway Administration and the Departments of Defense, Transportation, and Energy. Non-government customers include oil and gas companies, and other crucial-structure custodians. Westinghouse Electric Company (Nuclear Services Division) is our commercialization partner. WEC sees OMNI_THERM applications in nuclear power plants, and provides engineering and marketing support at no cost.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X4.04-8132
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Servicing, Maintenance, and Repair
PROPOSAL TITLE: Non-Pyrotechnic Latch and Release System for Aerospace and Other Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
American Remote Vision Company
3561 Alan Drive
Titusville, FL 32780-0000
(321)383-4896

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Stuart Gleman
arvcsg@cfl.rr.com
3561 Alan Drive
Titusville, FL 32780-0000
(321)383-4896

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
American Remote Vision Company (ARVC) will research and develop a novel new type of non-pyrotechnic latch and release system for use in servicing umbilical applications (as well as an enormous range of other aerospace and commercial applications). This device (whose starting point is the ancient "chinese fingercuff") will be a robust, reliable, reusable latch; scalable over many orders of magnitude in size and load; capable of gripping or releasing in milliseconds; and useful in lunar regolith environment. The concept has already been proved at the 1,000 pound level. We will develop the theory of operation in grab, hold, and release modes (and maybe failure modes). We will build prototypes and test them to verify the math models.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
This non-pyro latch and release mechanism has an almost universal application in all of aerospace. It can certainly replace explosive fasteners. (In some applications it can replace fasteners.) It can be used for workholders and collets in industrial applications. It can be used for robotic grippers and grapplers. It will certainly be an important part of any future umbilical design, because you have to hold the umbilical carrier plates together and release them reliably.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
This cyclable reliable, and reusable latch has almost universal application in ordinary industry and in weapons. In manufacturing it can replace many workholders and collets. In defense, it can hold missiles and bombs to their launch platforms. It can be made an integral part of many quick-disconnect systems.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X4.04-9607
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Servicing, Maintenance, and Repair
PROPOSAL TITLE: Veritex(TM) Patches for Structural Repair and Re-use

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Cornerstone Research Group Inc
2750 Indian Ripple Road
Dayton, OH 45440-3325
(937)320-1877

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Ben A Dietsch
dietschba@crgrp.net
2792 Indian Ripple Rd.
Dayton, OH 45440-3325
(937)320-1877

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG) proposes to develop a bonded composite patch repair and re-use system based on CRG's VeritexTM materials. VeritexTM is a composite material consisting of common reinforcement fibers such as e-glass or carbon and one of CRG's shape memory polymers. VeritexTM is a fully-cured, stiff thermoset composite at most system operating temperatures, yet it can be made to be flexible by heating it above an activation temperature. This feature enables the use of VeritexTM as a composite patch system that is shape-adaptive and can be used for repair of many different types of structural members and/or for joining of structural members to assemble new systems. The development of a simplified patch repair and re-use system will enable effective and efficient structural material repair and system assembly that can be performed by humans as well as robots. This technology will require less material and energy resources than the current state-of-the-art for terrestrial bonded composite patch repair making it a desirable solution for current and future self-sufficient space systems. This repair and re-use technology could find immediate implementation on current NASA platforms such as the International Space Station and future implementation on platforms such as the lunar excursion vehicle.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
This project's technologies directly address requirements for servicing, maintenance, and repair for space-based structural components. This project's technologies offer an effective solution for a wide variety of structural repair and assembly situations with the additional benefit of being lightweight and low-volume. This technology will require less material and energy resources than the current state-of-the-art for terrestrial bonded composite patch repair making it a desirable solution for current and future self-sufficient space systems. This repair and re-use technology could find immediate implementation on NASA platforms such as the International Space Station and the lunar excursion vehicle.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
This project's technologies developed for NASA systems would directly apply to systems operated by other government and commercial enterprises. Government systems that would derive the same benefits would include but not be limited to aircraft structures, marine structures, shelter structures, and many other structural systems operated by all agencies of the Department of Defense. This technology's attributes for streamlined repair should yield a high potential for private sector commercialization for repair systems for many types of space-based and terrestrial structural systems.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X4.04-9708
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Servicing, Maintenance, and Repair
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nano-Phase Powder Based Exothermic Braze Repair Technology For RCC Materials

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Materials Resources International
811 West 5th Street Unit 2
Lansdale, PA 19446-2283
(215)631-7111

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Ronald W Smith
rsmith@materialsresources.com
811 West 5th Street Unit 2
Lansdale, PA 19446-2283
(215)631-7111

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
MRi is proposing, with its partner, Exotherm Corp (Camden, NJ) to demonstrate the feasibility of using exothermic brazing to join RCC (or C:SiC) composites to itself and/or to metal structures as an in orbit repair technique. The proposed Phase I work would be aimed at developing powder based brazing performs that would contain elements and compounds in powder particles that have been formed to have nano-phase dispersions of reactant compounds. These powder based performs would be placed in joints that upon ignition by spark or laser would self-propagate, releasing sufficient heat to braze reinforced carbon:carbon (RCC) composite materials to RCC or to refractory metals such as tantalum or niobium. In the proposed effort MRi and Exotherm will produce nano-phase particles of two candidate precursor materials (Ti-Si-C-based and WO3-Al-Zr-SiO2), demonstrate their exothermic properties, make RCC/RCC and RCC/(Nb or)Ta joints, characterize the joints and run lap shear strength

The goal is to advance innovative, cost effective and reliable joining processes that would enable the in-flight repair of space shuttle or other reentry vehicles structures where RCC is being used. Although RCC structure repair is the specific application that is targeted, exothermic brazing technology would offer opportunity in the assembly of structures in space and on interplanetary missions, where high-energy heat sources would be difficult or impossible to use for in-flight joining, assembly and/or repair.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Exo-braze technology, if successful, has direct application in the repair of the Space Shuttle RCC thermal protection system (TPS) components. In addition the technology has much broader application both in in-space and remote planetary assembly of infrastructures. Exo-braze technology is also well suited for dissimilar materials joining and may find application in the original "terrestrial" assembly of large ceramic / ceramic-composite / metallic joints since the entire assemblies would not have to be heated. It is likely that such joining technology would be very useful in future TPS structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Exo-braze technology would find specific application in the joining of dissimilar materials, especially composite and ceramic composites. These materials are increasing in interest and application in aerospace, defense (such in armor or thermal protection systems for missiles) and industrial plants where the refractory and/or inertness of ceramics are required. Exothermic brazing would permit large structures of such materials to be joined without having to heat up large structures, causing CTE mismatch failures. There would also be applications in undersea joining and other remote joining where welding cannot be accomplished either due to the geometry and/or the materials, or in applications where heating a large structure that could not be welded would not be permitted.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X5.01-8176
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mobile Surface Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight Gearbox Technology

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Starsys Research Corp
4909 Nautilus Court North
Boulder, CO 80301-3691
(303)583-1400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Jim Sprunck
sprunck@starsys.com
4909 Nautilus Ct. N.
Boulder, CO 80301-3691
(303)583-1400

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
To date, the majority of the gearboxes used on the rovers have been based on very conventional materials, process and designs. This has primarily been a result of the fast paced schedules associated with rover development. With little time for recovery, these programs are extremely risk adverse and the idea of developing new technology on the program is absolutely impractical. As there is no rover planned for the 2007 there is a longer than normal dwell between rover programs. The hope is to capitalize on this time to advance the technology used on the common gearboxes employed on the rover. This will allow new technology to be introduced into the gearbox designs.
The plan for reducing the gearbox mass relies on a three pronged approach. First, design innovations above and beyond AGMA standards will be evaluated for incorporation into the basic planetary gearbox design. Second, advanced materials and processes will be evaluated for use in gears and planet bearings. And lastly, the cost implications of the advanced technology will be compiled to insure the correct balance is maintained between weight reduction and cost expense.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Lightweight gearbox technology has direct commercial applicability to all NASA spaceflight missions due to the cost/pound ratio of current launch capabilities. This issue is amplified when applied to deep space/interplanetary missions (probes, landers, and rovers) where the propulsion mass fraction is increased.

Starsys, the primary supplier of gearboxes for the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission, could have realized a mass savings in excess of 5 lbm per MER. If the proposed gearbox technology were sufficiently mature for that mission. This would have allowed for improved/increased science payloads (the primary objective of the mission) within the same rover mass budget.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Lightweight gearbox technology will be immediately applicable to all spaceflight applications (DoD, DoE, ESA, JAXA, Commercial, etc.), because of the current cost per each pound of mass launched. Starsys has a lengthy, successful track record of this type of commercialization.

This technology, once proven, can also be applied to mobile terrestrial devices such as aircraft, missiles, naval, sub-sea, and automobiles, where mass reductions are directly associated with increased performance and improved fuel efficiency.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X5.01-8195
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mobile Surface Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rapid Robot Design Validation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
ENERGID TECHNOLOGIES
124 Mount Auburn St, Ste. 200 North
Cambridge, MA 02138-5787
(888)547-4100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
James English
jde@energid.com
124 Mount Auburn St, Ste. 200 North
Cambridge, MA 02138-5787
(888)547-4100

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robotic designs. The software will support push-button validation through existing commercial design software, such as SolidWorks. After validation is invoked through the design-tool GUI, the robot design will transfer to separate networked software for analysis. An interface will be provided for communicating with many types of commercial analysis software, and Energid will provide its own analysis software through the common interface. This will allow interactive placement of any number of end effectors on any number of mobile or fixed-base mechanisms, each with any number of kinematic links and branches. Energid's validation software will provide dynamic simulation, including articulated-body and impact dynamics. The software will allow link descriptions, end-effector descriptions, control algorithms, and the environment to be arbitrarily exchangeable as modules. The Extensible Markup Language (XML) will be used for configuration, data transfer, and exchange.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The design validation tool will have application to all of NASA's robotic missions, including orbital missions, lunar missions, Mars missions, asteroid reconnaissance, and Galilean satellite landers. For all future robotic missions, robotic devices and vehicles will progress through a design cycle. The proposed validation tool will broadly reduce cost and improve schedule in these efforts. After Phase II, the validation software will be ready for use, and Energid will partner with larger NASA contractors to commercialize it through contracts that both apply the software directly to the design cycle and leverage the toolkit for manipulator control and human interface development.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Energid will offer the software to industries needing sophisticated design and validation tools. There has been a recent increase in the use of exploratory robots in a wide array of application domains, such as homeland security, disaster relief (search and rescue), archeological explorations, mine detection, and other applications. Also, Energid will extend the software components developed under this effort into a commercial software toolkit that can be licensed. Customers will purchase the toolkit as software libraries and header files. By linking these libraries into their code, developers will have full access to all the capability provided by the toolkit.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X5.01-8382
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mobile Surface Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flexible and Safe Control of Mobile Surface Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
IA Tech, Inc.
10501 Kinnard Avenue
Los Angeles, CA 90024-6017
(310)474-3568

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Kam S Tso
tso@ia-tech.com
10501 Kinnard Avenue
Los Angeles, CA 90024-6017
(310)474-3568

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The primary innovation of this work is a novel Petri net based approach for safe and flexible control of highly capable mobile surface systems, such as long-duration science rovers, crew surface systems, multi-robot and human-robot teams. The traditional approach of time-based sequence of commands will not be adequate for commanding and coordinating those surface systems because it does not support concurrent tasks and team coordination. Those surface systems will best be supported by a state-based control architecture that explicitly models the states and their interactions. Petri net is a mature and flexible formalism for representing such a state-based control architecture. This research will develop novel Petri net based techniques to enable 1) explicit modeling and control of concurrent tasks, team coordination, and mode switching, and 2) dynamic reconfiguration of a Petri net during its execution to support onboard planning and human/robot interactions. The result of the proposed effort will be a Petri net based executive that can be integrated into a robot planning and control system for flexible and safe control of mobile surface systems. In addition, a graphical tool will also be developed to enable operators to visualize, edit, and analyze the Petri nets.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
This research will result in an end-to-end system for visualizing, editing, analyzing, and executing robot task plans based on the Petri net formalism. The system will facilitate task planning and ensure robust and safe control of surface mobile systems. It supports concurrent tasks, team coordination, and dynamic plan updates which will be needed by future NASA mobile surface systems, such as highly capable science rovers, crew surface systems, multi-robot and human-robot teams.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The resulting Petri net based system can be used by the military for controlling weapon systems, and unmanned aerial or ground vehicles. Potential commercial applications include manufacturing systems design, communication network design, and office automation. In addition, there is a vast market in programmable logic controllers (PLCs), as researchers have showed that Petri net is the best technology for designing those PLCs. The proposed Petri net based executive, in conjunction with the Petri net editor, will provide a ready-to-use Petri net solution for PLCs, from design, control, to maintenance.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X5.02-9853
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Virtual Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Simulation-Based Lunar Telerobotics Design, Acquisition and Training Platform for Virtual Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
DigitalSpace Corporation
343 Soquel Avenue, Suite 70
Santa Cruz, CA 95062-2305
(831)338-9400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Bruce Damer
damer@digitalspace.com
343 Soquel Avenue, Suite 70
Santa Cruz, CA 95062-2305
(831)338-9400

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase I proposal will develop a virtual test fixture performing a high caliber 3D dynamic reproduction of an prototype lunar bucket wheel excavator prototype developed at the Colorado School of Mines. This virtual test fixture will support an experimental telerobotics interface through a visual virtual environment built by DigitalSpace and a haptic force feedback interface integrated by DigitalSpace from Stanford University's Spring system. From NASA's Ames Research Center we will employ the Brahms agent technology and SimStation Procedures Module CAD representation and interaction also developed at ARC in collaboration with NASA JSC and Raytheon.

Testing of this telerobotics interface will refine its accuracy vis a vis the physical excavator and its behavior and provide a platform able to evolve to higher Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) to support NASA's new exploration vision of a human return to the moon within twenty years.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
NASA applications enabled by a virtual environment multi-modal telerobotics simulator include:
1. Teleoperated surface operations on the Moon, Mars for exploration, site preparation and In-Situ Resource Utilization (shielding, materials, fuel and water extraction).
2. Teleoperated servicing for ISS, orbiting scientific observatories (Hubble) and long duration Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV).
3. Teleoperated robotics for IVA (such as ISS/PSA)
4. Teleoperation for enhanced utility and safety for launch facilities.
5. Telerobotics training for all classes of remote manipulator systems.
6. Design and prototyping of other types of vehicles through the use of simulation-based design and acquisition.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Any remotely controlled vehicle in mining, constructions, hazardous waste handling, military operations and other commercial applications requires high fidelity virtual
environments for development of viable interaction scenarios, training of operators and day to day production. The needs for teleoperations in the terrestrial mining, construction and manufacturing industries alone could create a multi-billion dollar annual business. Additional commercial applications include:
1. Online games in the "robot wars" genre
2. Defense design, training and operations applications for teleoperated vehicles
3. Industrial design, training and operations applications
4. Emergency first responder hazardous area robotics


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.01-7813
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Orbital Technologies Corp
Space Center, 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717-1961
(608)827-5000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Ronald R Teeter
teeterr@orbitec.com
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison, WI 53717-1961
(608)827-5000

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) proposes to develop a unique Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) to achieve a highly-reliable, low-cost and extremely versatile propulsion technology. The benefits of AVHRE result from the combination of ORBITEC's patented vortex injection technique; high-regression rate, paraffin solid fuels; and a new fuel formulation innovation to control the solid fuel regression characteristics and provide improved structural integrity of the grain. A vortex injector generates a coaxial vortex pair, driving high solid-fuel regression rates and improved combustion efficiency. In addition, paraffin also regresses very rapidly, further enhancing the systems flexibility. The rapid regression rates and many design degrees of freedom offered by AVHRE offers the potential for: (1) increased propellant mass fractions; (2) the ability to tailor and optimize a hybrid propulsion system for a specific application; (3) increased ISP efficiency; (4) a reduction or elimination of residual fuel; (5) improved grain structural integrity and increased melting temperature; (6) reduced need for thermal insulation. Phase I will demonstrate the feasibility and merit of AVHRE through design, analysis, laboratory testing, and hot firings of up to 1,000 lbf thrust.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The AVHRE is designed to address key operational challenges of traditional hybrid rocket engine systems. If successful, this could catapult hybrid rocket systems into a highly competitive position for many Earth-to-orbit propulsion applications, where their inherent safety, simplicity, and low-cost could be competitively harnessed. AVHRE is expected to have application to reusable and expendable launch vehicles, sounding rockets, and upper stage propulsion systems. This technology is closely related to ORBITEC's vortex combustion cold-wall (VCCW) chamber technology for liquid bi-propellant applications. The next generation launch vehicles can benefit from these technologies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
AVHRE is expected to have application to reusable and expendable launch vehicles, sounding rockets, and upper stage propulsion systems. This technology is closely related to ORBITEC's vortex combustion cold-wall (VCCW) chamber technology for liquid bi-propellant applications, and has the potential to significantly improve liquid rocket lifetime, reusability, and thrust-to-weight ratio. Potential military applications include: kinetic energy boost-phase interceptors, high-speed and/or high altitude target drones, and cruise missile propulsion. A new market is also emerging to provide suborbital launch vehicles for space tourists as well as the entertainment market for amusement rides and rocket car demonstrations at air shows.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.01-8118
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Triaxial Swirler Liquid Injector Development

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
SIERRA ENGINEERING INC.
603 E. Robinson Suite 7
Carson City, NV 89701-4046
(775)885-8483

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Daniel A Greisen
dag@sierraengineering.com
603 E. Robinson Street, Suite 7
Carson City, NV 89701-4046
(916)363-2996

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Sierra Engineering Inc. (Sierra) believes that the subject triaxial liquid propellant swirl injector has the potential to meet many of NASA's Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) propulsion systems goals. The triaxial swirl injector is ideally suited to a wide range of liquid oxidizers and fuels, including hydrogen and a variety of hydrocarbons. It holds the potential of excellent high-frequency combustion stability characteristics, low injector production cost, and deep throttling capabilities similar to a pintle injector. Additionally, this injector offers the potential for excellent thermal compatibility and outstanding propellant atomization characteristics. The concept is well suited for both main chamber and preburner applications. This Phase I SBIR focuses on developing prototype mechanical designs and the supporting analysis necessary to justify fabrication and testing during a follow-on Phase II effort.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The triaxial swirl injector is applicable to booster, upper-stage, decent, ascent and in-space engine designs. The stability and cost characteristics of the triaxial swirl injector also make it very attractive as a preburner injector for both fuel-rich and ox-rich staged combustion systems. Staged-combustion systems are essential for high-performance earth-to-orbit propulsion systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Sierra has been developing film-cooled engines for Microcosm and Northrop Grumman projects. These projects would benefit from improved injector reliability accompanied by reduced manufacturing cost. The USAF and MDA are also interested in low cost injector concepts that can accommodate a wide range of fuels.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.01-9632
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Burn Rate Hybrid Fuel for Improved Grain Design

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Aerodyne Research, Inc.
45 Manning Rd
Billerica, MA 01821-3976
(978)663-9500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
David Stickler
dstickler@aerodyne.com
45 Manning Rd
Billerica, MA 01821-3976
(978)663-9500

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A novel type of fuel providing high burning rate for hybrid rocket applications is proposed. This fuel maintains a hydrodynamically rough surface to radically enhance convective heat transfer rate, and hence the fuel burn rate. This is achieved by incorporating a particulate fuel material dispersed within a continuum phase polymer matrix. The dispersed fuel material is chosen to transition from solid to gas much more readily than the polymer matrix, and with a particle size scale sufficiently large that the resulting surface voids provide a hydrodynamically rough surface. Combustion of this fuel system thus creates local pockets in the polymer surface, where the particulate fuel is exposed, and maintains the rough surface structure as the dispersed particles are continually exposed. Secondary effects include decreased phase change enthalpy of the mixture, relative to a conventional polymer fuel, and the potential for increased specific impulse by inclusion of high energy compounds as the dispersed phase. This high burn rate fuel will enable increased propellant mass fraction in hybrid rockets, by decreasing the number of ports required to achieve the desired net fuel combustion rate. It also simplifies the technology and retains the relatively high strength and good storage stability of polymeric fuels.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Specific NASA applications include next generation launch vehicles for low cost access to space, and safe propulsion systems for use with manned missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Commercial ventures are currently developing and utilizing hybrid propulsion for low cost launch applications, and for sub-orbital manned flights. A simpler, higher performance hybrid rocket technology offers major benefits in these systems.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.01-9825
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Non-intrusive Vibration Monitoring System for Turbopumps

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
AI Signal Research, Inc.
3411 Triana Blvd. SW
Huntsville, AL 35805-4641
(256)551-0008

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Jen-Yi Jong
jjong@aisignal.com
3411 Triana Boulevard SW
Huntsville, AL 35805-4641
(256)551-0008

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
AI Signal Research, Inc. proposes to develop a Non-Intrusive Vibration Measurement System (NI-VMS) for turbopumps which will provide effective on-board/off-board fault detection diagnostic capabilities without relying on any intrusive installation of once per revolution (1/Rev) tachometer key phasor measurement. Many vibration signature analysis techniques use a key phasor signal to identify and detect critical vibration characteristics and fault signatures. However, in many operational environments (e.g., SSME HPOTP), the tachometer measurement is not available usually due to its intrusive installation requirement or safety consideration. For this situation, many powerful diagnostic analyses cannot be performed. With our system, we over come this problem by utilizing a novel signal analysis technique called Pseudo Key Phasor (PKP) to reconstruct an equivalent 1/Rev PKP signal directly from a non-intrusive vibration measurement. The resulting PKP signal enables the use of effective signature analysis to enhance diagnostic capabilities. The applicable innovation is attributed to to effectively achieve non-intrusive health monitoring and diagnosis without intrusive tachometer installation. This technology will enhance incipient fault detection capability, reducing catastrophic engine failure risks and improve reliability of NASA's advanced propulsion systems. Phase I objectives are to demonstrate the feasibility and relative benefits of NI-VMS non-intrusive monitoring capabilities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
A low-cost non-intrusive engine vibration monitoring system has excellent application potential for NASA commercial applications. NASA and other Federal Agency transport aircraft are usually not instrumented with a 1/rev tachometer. Implementing an effective non-intrusive health monitoring system in the Government aircraft will be beneficial by reducing the risks of catastrophic hardware losses and down time.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
A low-cost non-intrusive engine vibration monitoring system has strong Non-NASA commercial application. The commercial transportation and power generation industries will benefit from its availability as will the manufacturing sector where production lines frequently rely on critical, active machinery. In particular, many commercial aircraft engines are not instrumented with a 1/rev tachometer. Implementing an effective non-intrusive health monitoring system in these commercial transport aircraft fleets will reduce the risks of catastrophic hardware losses and down time.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.01-9889
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: SMART TAPE FOR STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF ROCKET ENGINES

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
ACELLENT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
155 C-3 Moffett Park Drive
Sunnyvale, CA 94089-1323
(408)745-1188

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Peter X. Qing
xqing@acellent.com
155 C3 Moffett Park Dr.
Sunnyvale, CA 94089-1331
(408)745-1188

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Acellent Technologies, Inc. proposes to develop a SMART TAPE system that can be used to perform rapid non-destructive evaluation in real time and provide long-term monitoring of pressure vessels in liquid rocket engines. Based on Acellent's existing SMART Layer technology, this innovative system combines a sensor network, dedicated signal processing and data analysis software to allow for real-time in-situ monitoring and long term tracking of structural integrity of pressure vessels (such as ducts, manifolds and combustion chambers) in rocket engines. Specifically, the proposed structural health monitoring system will have the following unique features:
? Ability to detect cracks and corrosion
? Prevent imminent and catastrophic failures in rocket engines
? Survive harsh environments and missions
? Inspect inaccessible areas without disassembly
The proposed innovation is important since it will address the need for safe as well as reliable advanced space exploration vehicle/propulsion systems as part of the human and robotic technology (HR&T) objectives of NASA's Space Exploration Initiative. As part of the latter objective, approaches to verify and validate the proposed structural health monitoring system with an integrated propulsion and vehicle real-time health management system simulator will be defined and evaluated.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
This technology can be applied to numerous NASA applications such as rapid in-situ inspection of Earth-to-Orbit LH2/LOX and LOX/Hydrocarbon engines. This is important in meeting the needs of the human and robotic technology (HR&T) objectives of NASA's Space Exploration Initiative. The Structural Health Monitoring System for rocket engines can interface and integrate with an integrated propulsion and vehicle health management system. This technology addresses is the need for an easy rapid inspection tool for engines used in space vehicles that has the advantage of being completely integrated with the structure monitoring it from cradle to grave.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Other potential users of the proposed technology include a wide range of industries such as:

? Chemical piping
? Pressured vessels and pipes
? Oil drilling platforms and drill risers
? Nuclear power plant containment vessels
? Post-tensioned concrete structures
? Composite wraps for bridge reinforcement

The key to achieving a wide range of applications is the development as discussed above. Once developed, the system will be available in a complete package including the SMART TAPE, the portable diagnostic unit, and diagnostic software. The turnkey feature of the system will make it easy and ready to apply for any end-user.



PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.02-8085
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vehicle Airframe Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Composites of Ti-Al Intermetallic Compounds With a Ductile Ti Matrix

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
MER Corp
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706-9237
(520)574-1980

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
James Withers
jcwithers@mercorp.com
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706-9237
(520)574-1980

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Many properties of intermetallic compounds (IMC's) would make them strong candidates for vehicle structures, tankage, secondary structures, and appendages for NASA exploration systems. This includes excellent specific strength, creep, and oxidation resistance. However, the lack of ductility in these IMC's generally does not allow these materials to meet the design requirements for those vehicle structures. On the other hand, base alloys themselves, such as Ti-6Al-4V or Inconel, have sufficient ductility, but do not have the other desired attributes. Using a novel fabrication technique (plasma transferred arc solid free form fabrication, or PTA SFFF), MER will develop composite materials of IMC's with a strong, ductile base metal. These composite materials will have a combination of overall properties that cannot be obtained today in an IMC structure. The PTA SFFF process has the capability to scale up these composites to the large shapes required for vehicle structures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
These composites will be useful for any NASA vehicle airframe structures that require a combination of light weight and high strength and ductility with good high temperature properties, including strength retention, creep resistance, and oxidation resistance. This includes vehicle structures, tankage, and secondary structures and appendages.


POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
These composite materials will fill a need for a variety of commercial components that require light weight and good high temperature properties. For example, replacement of superalloys for applications in the 500-8000C range with these composites would provide a dramatic reduction in weight. Specific examples include temperature resistant components of turbine engines, and commercial reusable launch vehicles and satellite launches.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.02-8880
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vehicle Airframe Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Optimal Composite Materials using NASA Resins or POSS Nanoparticle Modifications for Low Cost Fabrication of Large Composite Aerospace Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Accudyne Systems, Inc.
134 Sandy Drive
Newark, DE 19713-1147
(302)369-5390

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Mark Gruber
mgruber@accudyne.com
134 Sandy Drive
Newark, DE 19713-1147
(302)369-5390

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Reduced mass composite materials are crucial to the success of aerospace systems, but their adoption is inhibited because they require autoclave consolidation, a process that is prohibitively expensive for large aerospace structure. To remedy this, NASA-LaRC has been developing cost-effective high-performance thermoplastic composite processing equipment that enables out-of-autoclave tape placement. In particular, NASA is working with Accudyne Systems to install a heated in situ deposition placement head to fit on NASA-LaRC's placement machine.

This SBIR is to create the optimal composite material feedstock to go hand-in-hand with the thermoplastic process equipment so as to create desirable mechanical and physical properties in a part with out-of-autoclave in-situ placement. Accudyne Systems will define the matrix resin and fabricate thermoplastic tape to create the ideal in situ processible material. The first approach will be to proveout a fully amorphous composite based upon NASA 8515. This avoids the undesirable kinetics of a semi-crystalline thermoplastic like PEEK. The second approach will be to use POSS nanoparticles in semi-crystalline PEEK to accelerate crystallinity to the short time scale of the in situ process.

The best options will be commercialized to allow NASA and aerospace primes to fabricate low-cost large composite structure for air and space transport.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The Exploration Systems Enterprise requires reduced mass materials to enable new options for future Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) Transportation and Lunar and Earth Neighborhood missions in the 2010 timeframe. Primary vehicle structures use these materials for low mass to transcend the former route of expendable vehicle structures with unacceptably high life cycle costs to reusable launch vehicles that depend on large structure fabrication. Thus, an affordable fabrication process that uses effectively designed materials is key to achieving low cost launches.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
There is nothing that could be done that would lower the cost of composites more than to eliminate the autoclave. That vision requires this new composite material, optimized for in situ processing. The major applications are large aerospace composites such as launch vehicles, launch vehicle tanks, satellites, wing and fuselage skins for commercial and military transport aircraft, fighter aircraft structure, helicopters, and submarine structure. Accudyne Systems will develop an optimal tape placeable material for the thermoplastic in situ consolidation process so that major aerospace prime contractors can fabricate large composite structures without the need for an autoclave.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.02-9341
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vehicle Airframe Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Temperature Structures With Inherent Protection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
MER Corp
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706-9237
(520)574-1980

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
James Withers
jcwithers@mercorp.com
7960 S. Kolb Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85706-9237
(520)574-1980

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The hot structures for current space vehicles require an atmospheric entry thermal protection system. Reusable hot structures that can function without requiring any atmospheric entry thermal protection system for space vehicle would constitute a paradigm. A high temperature stable fiber reinforcement and a ceramic material that exhibits atmospheric entry thermal stability can be combined into a composite which possess the mechanical properties to serve as a reusable hot structure that can function without any atmospheric entry thermal protection system. This unique and new ceramic matrix composite (CMC) will be developed and characterized to demonstrate it can meet the requirements of a reusable hot structure for space vehicles which can operate without any atmospheric entry thermal protection system and optimized samples will be delivered for more detailed testing at NASA

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The application for a very high temperature CMC which can operate without a protective coating system include all types of space vehicles, aerospace systems, defense systems, gas turbines for aircraft and land base, chemical and slurry process system, molten metal transfer and general high temperature commercial applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Virtually every aerospace system, missile system, defense systems, hot gas turbine engines, land base turbines and high temperature commercial systems operating above the use temperature of superalloys, and even then, some replacements because of the low density of 3.2g/cc will have application of this SiC/sialon composite that doe not require a thermal protection system.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.02-9366
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vehicle Airframe Structures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Permeability Polyimide Insulation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Resodyn Technologies, LLC
1901 South Franklin Street
Butte, MT 59701-0000
(406)723-2222

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Scott Coguill
scoguill@resodyn.com
1901 South Franklin Street
Butte, MT 59701-0000
(406)723-2222

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Resodyn Technologies proposes a new technology that enables the application of polyimide based cryogenic insulation with low hydrogen permeability. This effort supports the Vision for U.S. Space Exploration policy and the Exploration Systems Enterprise. This technology will benefit designers of cryogenic fuel tanks envisioned for new Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) Transportation vehicles. Specifically the need exists to reduce the loss of hydrogen through the walls of the proposed carbon/polymer composite cryogenic fuel tanks in order to achieve zero boiloff long-term storage capability. Resodyn Corporation's proposed use of its Thermal Spray Technology will enable the processing of engineered materials, high performance polymers, and high temperature foams that have not been possible to date. One example investigated will be a combination of polyimide micro-balloons in a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) matrix. Also contained in this foam would be a dispersion of reflective glass microspheres. This combination of materials provides insulation, a hydrogen barrier and a thermal radiation barrier. Foam samples will be fabricated and evaluated for physical and mechanical properties including density, compressive and shear strength, permeability, and insulative qualities. This new foam is referred to as Multi-functional Cryogenic Insulation (MCI).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Three primary categories of NASA applications exist. One is for thermal insulation of cryogenic tanks, where closed cell foams are necessary for cryogenic applications. Another is for acoustic and thermal insulation where open-cell foams are desired. A third is for ablative foams, where denser foams can be used, either open- or closed-cell, which are used for protection of heat sensitive skins for aerodynamic heating or fire protection. Primary attributes of the polyimide materials include, fire retardant, broad range of temperature applications (cryogen to high temperature), lack of off-gas and high mechanical strength.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The largest potential commercial use for the MCI material is in the cryogenic fuel tanks for hydrogen driven automobiles. Numerous hydrogen storage scenarios have been investigated for automotive use but the low pressure liquid hydrogen tank has the best potential. This application will need a cryogenic insulation with low hydrogen permeability. Military applications including the Hypersonic Cruise Vehicle (HCV) for the FALCON program will require the type of MCI materials developed in this project. The HCV will be equipped with composite fuel tanks requiring a cryogenic insulation with low hydrogen permeability.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.03-7727
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Atmospheric Maneuver and Precision Landing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fusion of Inertial Navigation and Imagery Data

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Odyssey Space Research
2525 Bay Area Blvd., Suite 460
Houston, TX 77058-1572
(281)488-7953

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
David Hammen
dhammen@odysseysr.com
2525 Bay Area Blvd. Suite 460
Houston, TX 77058-1572
(281)488-7953

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovations of the Fusion of Inertial Navigation and Imagery Data are the application of the concept to the dynamic entry-interface through near-landing phases, the autonomy and (near) real-time requirements of the system, and the focus on satisfying the stringent requirements for reliability and verification for spaceflight. This innovation will allow spacecraft to navigate autonomously, precisely and safely from entry-interface to near-landing.

The plan is to develop automated techniques suitable for onboard software that incorporate recognized objects from imagery data into the vehicle's navigated solution. We will use image processing techniques to compare the imagery with expected views, pattern recognition techniques to identify known objects in the comparison, mechanisms for locating known objects using the navigated state, and filtering techniques to update the navigated state with the errors between the observed and expected results. To qualify as flight software, the proposed solution will be reliable and verifiable, and will satisfy limitations of the onboard equipment. No existing techniques solve all of these problems. Current techniques for incorporating imagery data into navigated solutions use sensors that have significantly shorter ranges, rely on registration markers placed on the target, use ground-based computational equipment, or require human intervention to arrive at a solution.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Improved entry navigation will enhance mission success for robotic and human spaceflight missions to the Moon and to Mars. It is imperative that the success rate be improved significantly before NASA embarks on human missions to Mars. The same technology will also benefit Earth imaging missions, which can enhance navigation by incorporating the science data into the navigation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Commercial spaceflight is coming. Using imagery to improve vehicle navigation provides a low-cost, low infrastructure solution that fits the needs for commercial missions to the Moon and beyond.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.03-7770
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Atmospheric Maneuver and Precision Landing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Color Depth Mapping Imaging Sensor System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Nanohmics, Inc.
6201 East Oltorf, Suite 400
Austin, TX 78741-7511
(512)389-9990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Andrew Milder
amilder@nanohmics.com
6201 East Oltorf, Suite 400
Austin, TX 78741-7511
(512)389-9990

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Autonomous and semi-autonomous robotic systems require information about their surroundings in order to navigate properly. A video camera machine vision system can supply position information of external objects, but no range information. Ideally, a system that, in one package, provides 3-dimensional relative information about external objects is needed. To this end, Nanohmics will develop a lightweight, compact, low-power, low-cost modular sensor system that produces a color depth map of the surroundings. By combining a color optical camera, a multi-element range finding or LiDAR system, and digital processing electronics, a single low-cost sensor system can be designed to provide relative position and anti-collision information. For additional reliability, the design will not involve any moving parts. By making this sensor system modular, and with a simple-to-use serial interface, it could be used in many varying robotics applications including, but not limited to, autonomous planetary surface rovers and semi-autonomous free-flying space station inspection robots.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Autonomous and semi-autonomous robotic systems navigational sensors.
Modular unit for wide-spread rapid platform development.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Machine vision systems for industrial robotics.
Vehicle accident avoidance sensor systems


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.03-7903
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Atmospheric Maneuver and Precision Landing
PROPOSAL TITLE: LandingNav: Terrain Guided Automated Precision Landing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
StarVision Technologies, Inc.
1700 Research Parkway Suite 170
College Station, TX 77845-2304
(979)458-1445

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
James Ochoa
jochoa@starvisiontech.com
1700 Research Parkway Suite 170
College Station, TX 77845-2304
(979)458-1445

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The purpose of the proposed effort is to provide a novel and innovative precision landing sensor (LandingNav) for Mars. LandingNav supports space exploration by significantly enhancing real-time landmark recognition and navigation capabilities, thus substantially improving the Mars landing accuracy. The LandingNav system integrates two novel technologies. The first is a unique feature detection method based on edge detection and the Hough transform coupled with motion stereo and stereo correlation. The second is a novel multi-resolution learning algorithm for highly efficient terrain mapping. Together these innovations enable high-fidelity system-level landmark navigation solutions for the precision landing problem. This technology has a broad operational range and can be used for high-altitude navigation as well as terminal navigation (i.e., landing hazards avoidance). This proposal focuses on demonstrating, through analysis, simulation, and design, the applicability and feasibility of this particular terrain navigation technology for space exploration. Successful completion of the proposed Phase I effort will permit a Phase II effort to produce a functional prototype to demonstrate the increased landing precision and feature detection performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The LandingNav system may be used for autonomous redeployment of a sensor network for large scale environmental monitoring, as well as command and control in emergency situations. Mobility in sensor network can be used to maintain and repair connectivity between the network nodes, redeploying the sensors, or if static sensors are used, a reduced number of mobile sensors can be used as emergency unit to re-establish connectivity when a static node fails.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Commercial applications for the proposed system might be very wide and include applicability to problems of robotics, machine vision and autonomous navigation of UAV.

The SVU could be readily applied with little or no modifications for solving Simultaneous Location And Mapping (SLAM) problems. The MNU can be used for mapping and reconnaissance problems.

For military applications such technology might be applied to tactical reconnaissance on the battlefield and adapted to target a different set of objects on the terrain, such as trucks, tanks or buildings.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.03-8421
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Atmospheric Maneuver and Precision Landing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Optical Landing Hazard Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Visidyne, Inc
10 Corporate Pl South Bedford St
Burlington, MA 01826-5168
(781)273-2820

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Mr. Christian Trowbridge
chris@visidyne.com
10 Corporate Pl South Bedford St
Burlington, MA 01826-5168
(781)273-2820

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Visidyne proposes to investigate an active optical 3D imaging LADAR as the sensor for an automated Landing Hazard Avoidance system for spacecraft landing on the Moon or Mars. Specifically, the LADAR utilizes low cost and electrically efficient laser diode illumination and a unique focal plane array detector concept that may be implemented in CCD or CMOS technology to provide high resolution, wide-field images of terrain relief at high frame rates. High slopes, boulders or other obstructions at the landing site present a significant risk to the safe arrival of robotic supply craft or crewed vehicles. This sensor will provide range images for extraction of topographical information required for the landing guidance system to manage vehicle descent to avoid dangerous locations within the landing zone. Approach rate to the surface (range rate) will also be supplied to the landing guidance system. Phase I will demonstrate the capabilities of the system through modeling and analysis and result in a design for a prototype sensor that may be realized under a Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Rapid and precise 3-Dimensional imaging has far reaching applications within NASA. In addition to the proposed Landing Hazard Avoidance sensor, potential NASA uses include: automated rendezvous and docking such as International Space Station re-supply or Mars Sample Return missions; Hubble Space Telescope repair mission; and other future planetary rendezvous scenarios. It will also enhance the safety of other proximity operations in space by providing high-speed inputs for collision avoidance and close approach inspection maneuvers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The DoD has interests much in common to those of NASA, but also include homing sensors for smart munitions and interceptors, terrain following (Air Force) and recognition of camouflaged or otherwise concealed targets (DARPA).
Obstacle avoidance systems (primarily to detect wires in the flight path) for helicopters and light aircraft are a potentially large commercial market. At short range and appropriately small range accuracy the techniques could provide enhanced machine vision for assembly and inspection.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.03-9444
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Atmospheric Maneuver and Precision Landing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Spacecraft Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) based on polybenzoxazole (PBO) with unique UV, Atomic-O and Solar Wind Protective Coatings

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Ashwin-Ushas Corp Inc
206 Ticonderoga Blvd
Freehold, NJ 07728-3028
(732)462-1270

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Prasanna Chandrasekhar
chandra.p@ashwin-ushas.com
206 Ticonderoga Blvd
Freehold, NJ 07728-3028
(732)462-1270

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Poly(benzoxazole) (PBO) is a new polymeric material extremely promising for external spacecraft structural applications, including, e.g., debris and micrometeoroid shields and crew suits. One of its drawbacks is its reduced resistance to the far-UV and atomic-O. If a well-adhering, protective coating for PBO fibers and sheets could be found, a plethora of space applications would be opened up. In ongoing work with very thin, flexible, Variable Emittance panels for spacecraft thermal control applications, this firm has developed new unique, proprietary, very thin (< 0.4 micron), very light weight coatings which are applied on the top conducting polymer (CP) layer of these devices (the layer which faces the space environment). These coatings provide protection against UV/VUV, atomic-O, Solar Wind and electrostatic discharge in space, and have very high flexibility and very good adhesion. In further work, these coatings were deposited on PBO, and shown to have excellent adhesion and impart good UV protection. The present work seeks to further develop this technology by testing and refining a large number of these coatings on a variety of PBO substrate types. Extensive mechanical, UV and space vacuum testing, and at least one atomic-O and one Solar Wind test, are planned.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
All external spacecraft and crew system structures where Kevlar-type, highly durable, high thermal stability, flame-proof polymers could be used, including micrometeoroid and debris shields and personnel space suits.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Besides space applications, space-proof PBO can be used in aircraft systems, and in law enforcement. Additionally, if successfully demonstrated for PBO, the UV/VUV/atomic-O-protective technology can be applied to a variety of polymeric and non-polymeric (including metallized) spacecraft surfaces.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.04-8429
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vehicle Subsystems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Application of Advanced Electromagnetic Arrays to High Efficiency, High Bandwidth, Redundant Linear Actuators

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Kinetic Art and Technology Corporation
9540 Hwy. 150, P.O. Box 250
Greenville, IN 47124-0250
(812)923-7474

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Craig Rutherford
craig@katech.com
9540 Hwy. 150, P.O. Box 250
Greenville, IN 47124-0250
(865)300-6394

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed SBIR effort will employ a systems approach to develop motor/controller/screw element systems adequate for demanding launch thrust vector control and control surface actuator applications. This approach will utilize high bandwidth, high efficiency, redundant motor systems coupled with appropriately paired motor controls. The actuator system will consist of a high efficiency permanent magnet motor with a high number of current channels for system redundancy, an H-bridge based controller with a high number of parallel current channels and sufficient current capability to enable high system response, and conventional screw-based linear actuator elements. The linear actuation elements will be designed with corrosion resistance, increased resistance to nut jamming, and inherent features preventing incorrect installation of the device. These innovations are necessary to overcome the inherent limitations of today's actuator systems, which were developed based on the limitations of traditional motors, power electronics, and available actuator hardware. Phase I of this project will focus on the design requirements, key features, and suggested solutions for thrust vector control actuator systems. The Phase II portion of the project will deliver a working prototype actuator.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Development of this technology will result in a number of both linear and rotary electro-mechanical actuator opportunities in a broad area of applications. NASA Commercial Applications include:
1) Air and spacecraft thrust vector linear actuators,
2) Air and spacecraft control surface linear actuators,
3) Air and spacecraft door and hatch opening linear actuators,
4) High-bandwidth rotary servo-motors (with linear elements removed)for numerous control and robotic applications

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Non-NASA military and civilian applications include:
1) Civilian and military aircraft thrust vector linear actuators,
2) Civilian and military aircraft control surface linear actuators,
3) Civilian and miliatary door and hatch opening linear actuators,
4) Civilian and military high-bandwidth rotary servo-motors (with linear elements removed)
4) High-bandwidth rotary servo-motors (with linear elements removed)for numerous industrial and military control and robotic applications


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.04-9644
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Vehicle Subsystems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Product Water Removal and Management (APWR) Fuel Cell System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Infinity Fuel Cell and Hydrogen, LLC
68 Bridge Street, Suite 114
Suffield, CT 06078-2126
(860)668-1845

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
William Smith
wsmith@infinityfuel.com
68 Bridge Street, Suite 114
Suffield, CT 06078-2126
(860)668-1845

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovation is a passive, self-regulating, gravity-independent Advanced Product Water Removal and management (APWR) system for incorporation into Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) primary fuel cell power plants. Passive water removal is incorporated into each cell of the power plant stack. Only pressure differential is required to manage within the cell and to remove and discharge liquid product water from the power plant. The APWR system eliminates the gas circulator, centrifugal separator, heat exchanger (condenser) and controls that comprise the water management system in the conventional aqueous electrolyte fuel cell power plants now in service It also can simplify the reactant supply system by elimination of fuel and oxidant humidifiers. No rotating or active components or gas circulation are required in the APWR system. APWR is based on PEM technology proven in industrial and automotive applications but not applied to space power plants.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The APWR cell has application to a various future NASA mission including the Advanced Lauch System, lunar base fixed power, the Crew Exploration Vehicle, as well as future Mars and planetary missions where a simple, common power module is required.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The APWR cell also has application to Non- NASA aerospace missions such as the High Altitude Airship, as well as commercial backup power and power quality systems for grid and data security.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.05-7729
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Propulsion (Chemical/Thermal)
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Energy, low temperature gelled bi-propellant formulation for long-duration in-space propulsion

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
CFD Research Corp
215 Wynn Dr.
Huntsville, AL 35805-1926
(256)726-4800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Roberto Di Salvo
jls@cfdrc.com
215 Wynn Dr.
Huntsville, AL 35805-1926
(256)726-4858

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Development of a candidate bi-propellant system consisting of a gelled hydrocarbon fuel coupled with a highly energetic gelled oxidizer suitable for outer planetary missions is proposed. Theoretical calculations suggest that this innovative combination can meet NASA's propulsion requirements for low power consumption (i.e. minimal use of heaters) while providing a vacuum specific impulse of ~ 360 seconds. Gelling the propellant provides the advantage of higher volumetric efficiency and suspending energetic fine particulates (e.g. boron, carbon, or aluminum) increases the energetic yield. Furthermore, gels do not spread if spilled and have greatly reduced vapor pressure making their handling far less hazardous, compared to current spacecraft fueling procedures that employ highly toxic liquid hypergols.

The Phase I program objectives will include the 1) formulation of gel propellant fuel samples, 2) measurement of their rheological properties as a function of temperature, 3) simulation of a gel-fueled thruster propellant flow network using NASA's GFSSP code, and 4) high-fidelity simulations of the gel propellant tank expulsion process at outer planet equilibrium temperatures. The Phase II will include further properties assessments, high-fidelity simulations of the bi-propellant combustion process followed by experimental gel thruster test and evaluation. This innovation will improve the safety, operability reliability, and performance of in-space propulsion systems and extend the existing technology base for human and robotic exploration missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed low-storage temperature bipropellant MON-30/GLP combination provides NASA the capability to engage in planetary missions with reduced power budgets devoted to propellant warmingand offers singificant improvement in safety operations with high performance. This will enable missions to the outer planets on the more reduced budgets available today and still allow NASA scientists to collect vast amounts of data. This propellant technology will also be applicable for upper stage orbital maneuvering.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
CFDRC's expertise in propulsion controls, controllable bi-propellant engines and working relationships with Northrop Grumman, Boeing, Aerojet, and Alliant TechSystems assures rapid Phase III transition of the Phase I and II results. Many of these companies are interested in high-performance, low temperature bi-propellants for various military applications and commercial application such as: airbag inflators for automobiles, emergency escape systems for aircraft, underwater propulsion, demolition of unwanted structures such as buildings, bridges, towers, etc., and high-performance upper stage and Divert and Attitude Control System (DACS) applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.05-7906
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Propulsion (Chemical/Thermal)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Niobium-based Intermetallics for Affordable In-Space Propulsion Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
TITECH INTERNATIONAL, INC.
4000 West Valley Boulevard
Pomona, CA 91769-3060
(909)595-7455

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Edward Chen
ti_castings@msn.com
4000 West Valley Boulevard
Pomona, CA 91769-3060
(909)595-7455

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase I effort proposes an innovative class of refractory metal intermetallic composites as alternatives to high temperature metallic materials presently used and/or considered for in-space propulsion components. In addition to a superior high temperature performance potential, these niobium-based intermetallics could offer significant cost savings over conventional refractory alloys, provided they can be affordably manufactured into near-net shapes. An advanced reactive metal casting technology is applied to produce the most sophisticated Nb-based intermetallic composite component shape ever attempted. Innovative shape processing techniques are needed for Nb-based intermetallics, since they are critical to manufacturing cost-effectiveness.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Potential NASA commercial applications include in-space propulsion components and aeroengine and rocket propulsion components (particularly as replacements for nickel-based superalloys and refractory alloys in high temperature applications).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA commercial applications include replacement candidates for nickel-based superalloys and refractory alloys in high temperature and corrosion-resistant applications. Essentially, any application and/or industry that needs the superior strength-to-density of Nb-based intermetallics within relative affordability while possessing high temperature and corrosion-resistant physical properties superior to nickel-based superalloys could use this technology.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.05-7992
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Propulsion (Chemical/Thermal)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nanostructured catalyst for In-Situ Production of methanol for ISRU Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Materials Modification Inc
2721-D Merrilee Drive
Fairfax, VA 22031-3723
(703)560-1371

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
T Sudarshan
sudarshan@matmod.com
2721-D Merrilee Drive
Fairfax, VA 22031-3723
(703)560-1371

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
One of the most significant challenges in exploration of extraterrestrial planets such as Mars is the availability of efficient and reliable sources of fuel and energy that can be generated from resources available in situ. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) of Martian materials to produce power can result in a reduction of mass requirements for exploration missions, a reduction in mission risk and cost, and expanded human presence in extraterrestrial planets. Methanol-based fuel cells are promising energy sources since methanol can be generated carbon dioxide that is found in Mars. Although there are already catalysts that can produce methanol from carbon dioxide, the efficiency of the synthesis has to be improved manifolds for the catalyst to be of use in Mars. There is therefore a need to improve existing catalysts. In this Phase I effort, Materials Modification Inc. proposes to utilize the principles of nanotechnology to prepare a novel nanoshell-type catalyst that is expected to exhibit higher efficiency of conversion compared to existing catalytic systems for the synthesis of methanol from carbon dioxide. Phase II will involve optimization of the nanoshell synthesis process, rigorous testing and commercializing the product/technology in collaboration with industrial partners and NASA for use in ISRU applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Methanol production for ISRU applications

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Industrial methanol production and fuel source for the next generation of fuel cells to be used in automobiles, phones, and other devices that need portable power.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.05-8152
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Propulsion (Chemical/Thermal)
PROPOSAL TITLE: SOLID STATE MEMS THRUSTERS USING ELECTRICALLY CONTROLLED EXTINGUISHABLE SOLID PROPELLANT

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
ET Materials,LLC
3239 Monier Circle ,Suite #4
Rancho Cordova, CA 95742-6833
(916)631-6310

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Charles GRIX
etmaterials@sbcglobal.net
3239 Monier Circle ,Suite #4
Rancho Cordova, CA 95742-6833
(916)631-6310

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ET Materials, LLC developed the first ever electrically controlled extinguishable solid propellant (ECESP). The original propellant developed under Air Force SBIR contracts became know as ASPEN. The start/stop capabilities were first demonstrated in end burning configurations that operated by feeding the propellant against stationary electrodes. Continuing research by ET Materials led to a new family of ECESP propellants prepared as solution solid propellants. These propellants provided higher performance than the ASPEN, but are more electrically conductive. This feature was not as desirable as first thought because the electrode gap has to be much narrower to cause the propellant to ignite at the surface, which makes it more difficult to scale for larger motors. The high conductance of the propellant makes it ideal for a MEMS application as the propellant can be cast in thin layers. Since the propellant will only sustain combustion when electrical power is supplied stacked layers of the propellant could be ignited separately without causing ignition of neighboring layer. This provides more versatility than similar MEMS designs utilizing conventional solid propellants. In the Phase I study "micro cluster thrusters" will be fabricated and tested under vacuum conditions to establish the power and controller requirements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
NASA would be able to implement this technology for any of their missions utilizing small spacecraft for forming satellite or spacecraft constellations. The small size and simplicity would allow their use in the extended boons of an atypical spacecraft. The technology, also, is very attractive for larger satellites requiring refueling such as DARPA's Orbital Express Program.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The electrode design proposed in this program is very compatible with standard semiconductor (layered) manufacturing. Thus, microactuators operating from on demand gas generation could lead to a new class of pneumatically powered nano-robotic devices.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.05-8229
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Propulsion (Chemical/Thermal)
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Propellant Mass Gauge

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Advanced Technologies Group, Inc.
641 SE Central Parkway
Stuart, FL 34994-0000
(772)283-0253

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
John Justak
jjustak@advancedtg.com
641 SE Central Parkway
Stuart, FL 34994-0000
(772)283-0253

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced Technologies Group, Inc. proposes the development of a Liquid-Oxygen Mass Gauge, (LMG) for In-Space cryogenic storage capable of continuous monitoring of liquid quantities to better than 1% accuracy. The proposed sensor builds on previous liquid hydrogen sensor development successes and patents. It can be utilized to measure cryogenic propellants, and sub-critical cryogenic fluids in use on a wide range of space applications and in ground applications to monitor fluids ranging from liquid oxygen to MMH and N2O4. The LMG can also indicate the presence of contaminants such as nitrogen used to purge the system. The current methods use either wire resistance measurements, capacitance or point sensors, combined with pressure and temperature measurements. The LMG will be lighter, require less energy to operate, and provide less heat leak than existing technologies. Current techniques will not function correctly in boiling or stratified liquid cryogens or in reduced gravity. During phase I, Proof-of Concept experiments will be performed with liquid oxygen. Commercial applications in the home health care industry have been identified.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Within the past few years, many technical reviews have indicated the need for advances in zero-g level sensor techniques. The absorption meter design lends itself well to a potentially low cost design. The tank could easily be made from any of the currently used metallic alloys used for the manufacture of cryogenic storage, and depending on the specific wavelength of light used for the optical attenuation measurement, inexpensive solid state electronics could make up the balance of the instrument . Test stands across the country constantly have troubles determining the levels of cryogen remaining in the tank.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Advanced Technologies Group has recently been investigating a liquid oxygen sensor for home health care, in the area of oxygen therapy. Currently, several home health liquid oxygen tanks utilize differential pressure measurements to determine liquid oxygen level remaining in the tank. This method is expensive, less accurate, and it biggest detriment to the system is the amount of heat leak introduces through the extra tubing. Existing market is over 30,000 units per year total.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.05-8235
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Propulsion (Chemical/Thermal)
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Cryogenic Flow Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Advanced Technologies Group, Inc.
641 SE Central Parkway
Stuart, FL 34994-0000
(772)283-0253

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
John Justak
jjustak@advancedtg.com
641 SE Central Parkway
Stuart, FL 34994-0000
(772)283-0253

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced Technologies Group, Inc. proposes the development of a Cryogenic Flow Sensor (CFS) for determining mass flow of cryogens in spacecraft propellant management. Current point sensor technology is incapable of determining high pressure, high flow rate cryogenic fluid quality and mass flow rate, and has proven to be inaccurate in attempting to rapidly measure cryogen depletion. If there is an abrupt change in fluid quality, turbo-machinery can over-speed causing catastrophic failure. The CFS will provide a means to avoid these failures as well as providing fluid quality data for a wide range of flow systems. Experimental hardware was able to detect the onset of two-phase flow and the presence of debris in the flow of water. The innovation clearly shows that it can discern between entrained gas bubbles and unwanted debris. The sensor has the potential to determine size and quantity of the contaminant. In addition, a non-intrusive method for determining the Mass-Flow?Rate of the fluid propellant has been designed, and is the focus of this phase I effort. A cryogenic sensor with these capabilities is very desirable to the cryogenic fluids management community, as well as other fluid management systems, and has many commercial applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The more technically challenging application of producing a cryogenic fluid quality sensor, has been requested by both NASA SSC and NASA MSFC. SSC has requested the sensor for monitoring test stand propellant quality. MSFC is interested in the ability to monitor In-Space cryogenic fluids handling and In-space cryogen propellant lines.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The commercial product that will be developed out of this phase III program, is a non-intrusive debris and two-phase mass flow sensor. At the present time there is no commercially available sensor capable of providing a non-intrusive means of measuring fluid quality. The Cryogenic Flow Sensor developed in this program has tremendous competitive advantage. Not only will it be capable of highly reliable measurement of fluid quality, but it will also be cost effective and easily installed in existing facilities.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.05-9407
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Propulsion (Chemical/Thermal)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Advanced Monopropellant CMC Thruster / Thermal Stand-Off Assembly

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Fiber Materials Inc
5 Morin St
Biddeford, ME 04005-4497
(207)282-5911

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Ralph A Langensiepen
rlangensiepen@fibermaterialsinc.com
5 Morin St
Biddeford, ME 04005-4497
(207)282-5911

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
High performance non-toxic monopropellants offer significant benefits relative to the current state-of-the-art. The benefits of these advanced monopropellants (AMP) include improved safety, a 50% reduction in density, and a 20% improvement in specific impulse (ISP). AMP propulsion represents a significant challenge for thruster components and assemblies due to the higher temperatures and the chemical constituents of the exhaust. This proposed program, with the support of Aerojet Redmond, will develop, design and fabricate an integrated ceramic matrix composite (CMC) thruster assembly comprised of the thermal stand-off (TSO), combustion chamber, and nozzle. The TSO will mitigate heat soak-back to the propellant valve utilizing an insulating CMC operating with a combustion environment greater than 2000oC. A phased design plan will be used for developing the integrated thruster assembly and results confirmed by test firing under representative conditions. A TSO prototype will be fabricated and the thermomechanical and thermochemical properties tested and analyzed during the Phase I program. The Phase II will utilize the TSO, materials development and conceptual design from the Phase I to develop an integrated CMC TSO - combustion chamber and nozzle assembly. A successful program will provide technology benefits resulting from improved performance, reduced cost and improved manufacturability.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Manned space missions will benefit from the higher performance and reduced toxicity afforded by advanced monopropellant (AMP) systems. Future Mars and Lunar landing craft will also require effective AMP solutions for attitude control systems (ACS). Docking manuevers will be enhanced with higher performance ACS.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Commercial launch vehicles and satellites will benefit from the higher performance and reduced toxicity of AMP thrusters in ACS and delta V applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.06-8471
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Propulsion (Electric/Magnetic)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lithium Propellant Purification and Filtration System For LFA and MPD Thrusters

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Starfire Industries LLC
60 Hazelwood Drive
Champaign, IL 61820-7460
(708)955-6691

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Robert A. Stubbers
rstubbers@starfireindustries.com
60 Hazelwood Drive
Champaign, IL 61820-7460
(217)390-2784

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Lithium has been proposed as an attractive metal propellant for advanced nuclear-electric propulsion missions in the outer solar system. While it is low molecular weight for high Isp and had high conductivity for MPD acceleration, it is also corrosive to most metals, leeches elements from alloys, destroys dielectric insulators and is heavily prone to contamination. Porous metal electrodes, valves and plumbing can become clogged by lithium oxide, nitride and carbide formation and deposits. Impurities in liquid lithium also enhance metal flaking and tankage erosion.

The design of a lithium purification and filtration system using highly porous gettering materials, hot/cold trap filters, gas desorption, and liquid metal pumping is proposed in this Phase I research effort. The goal is to eliminate clogging and contamination effects for long-duration space missions >5 years where buildup can be a show-stopper. Exerimental testing and validation of material configurations will lead to a prototype lithium purification and flitration system in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The propsed filtration and purification system support critical component development for long-duration lithium-based propulsion systems or advanced nuclear reactor designs with lithium as the primary coolant. This technology could be applicable to other liquid metal propellants as well, such as sodium or bismuth. This technology is ideal for deep space propulsion and advanced electric missions to outer solar system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
There are commerical applications in the semiconductor plasma EUV light generation, medical and industrial purification. In addition, there is large interest in the nuclear fusion industry for plasma-facing material protection and impurity removal. There is the potential for near-term product capability within all three markets.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.06-9634
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Propulsion (Electric/Magnetic)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Optimized Magnetic Nozzles for MPD Thrusters

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Tethers Unlimited
11807 North Creek Parkway South, Suite B-102
Bothell, WA 98011-9803
(425)744-0400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Robert Hoyt
hoyt@tethers.com
11807 North Creek Parkway South, Suite B-102
Bothell, WA 98011-9803
(425)744-0400

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters can provide the high-specific impulse, high-power propulsion required to enable ambitious human and robotic exploration missions to the Moon, Mars, and outer planets. Whereas the thrust and power densities of Hall and Ion thrusters are limited by space charge effects, MPD thrusters can process very high power levels while providing high specific impulse thrust. MPD thrusters, however, have traditionally been plagued by poor thrust efficiencies. These inefficiencies are due primarily to power lost into the anode caused by the Hall effect. TUI proposes to apply innovative techniques for using applied magnetic nozzles to eliminate these anode power losses and dramatically improve the performance of MPD thrusters. In the proposed Phase I effort, TUI will develop magnetic nozzle designs optimized to maximize the thrust efficiency of MPD thruster systems, minimizing anode fall power losses and maximizing the efficiency of plasma detachment from the magnetic nozzle. In the Phase II effort, we will build and test prototypes of these magnetic nozzles, and obtain definitive measurements of their enhancement of MPD thruster efficiencies.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The magnetic nozzle technology will improve the efficiency of MPD thrusters, enabling them to generate the high-Isp, high-thrust, high-efficiency propulsion required to enable NASA's exploration programs to perform ambitious, large-delta-V missions using nuclear electric or solar electric propulsion. MPD thrusters with the magnetic nozzle technology will provide large cost savings relative to current chemical propulsion technologies. Because they can process far greater power densities than Hall or Ion thrusters, MPD thrusters can achieve the high thrust densities and high thrust-to-mass propulsion necessary for Manned Mars missions, fast Mars cargo delivery, and missions to the outer system such as the Europa probe and the Pluto mission.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The magnetic nozzle technology developed in this SBIR effort will enable MPD thrusters to achieve the thrust efficiencies necessary for commercial applications such as solar-electric propulsion for orbit raising of commercial satellites. Terrestrial spin-off applications will include materials processing applications such as ablation or etching, surface annealing and hardening, and efficient power switching technologies. The proposed PI has already demonstrated success in commercializing a materials processing application of magnetically nozzled MPD thruster technology.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.07-9550
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Propulsion (Nuclear)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Alternate Propellant Thermal Rocket

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Pioneer Astronautics
11111 W. 8th Ave., Unit A
Lakewood, CO 80215-5516
(303)980-0890

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Robert Zubrin
zubrin@aol.com
11111 W. 8th Ave., Unit A
Lakewood, CO 80215-5516
(303)980-0890

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Alternate Propellant Thermal Rocket (APTR) is a novel concept for propulsion of space exploration or orbit transfer vehicles. APTR propulsion is provided by utilizing a nuclear thermal reactor or solar thermal engine to heat a space storable propellant, preferably consisting of a volatile indigenous to the destination world, to form a high thrust rocket exhaust. Candidate propellants whose performance, materials compatibility, and ease of acquisition make them worthy of examination for APTR propulsion of exploration vehicles include carbon dioxide, water, methane, and methanol. An APTR utilizing indigenous CO2 propellant potentially offers high payoff to a robotic or manned Mars mission, both by sharply reducing the initial mission mass required in low Earth orbit, and by providing Mars exploration with unlimited mobility and global access. Additionally, an APTR could give nearly unlimited mobility to asteroid or outer solar system probes, while one using methane or nitrogen propellant could enable a Titan sample return mission. The APTR can also be used as the propulsion system for a high performance space storable orbit transfer system moving payloads from LEO to GEO or other orbits of commercial interest. In this case, leading candidate propellants include methane, ammonia, and methanol.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
APTRs have important commercial applications for satellites. A reusable orbit transfer vehicle using a space storable APTR system with comparable performance to the 450 s available from the cryogenic H2/O2 Centaur would represent a major cost saving to commercial satellite delivery. Small APTR engines powered by electrical heaters could be used for stationkeeping and RCS propulsion for satellites. APTR propellants are much cheaper, safer, and easier to integrate than toxic hydrazine, and could offer twice hydrazine's specific impulse. For a given RCS propellant allocation, this could double a satellite's useful life, resulting in a major saving to the satellite industry.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The commercial potential of APTR technology goes way beyond the APTR thruster market itself. The use of water or CO2 as propellant in a high temperature thermal rocket requires the development of high temperature oxidation-resistant coatings. The development of such ultra-high temperature protective coatings for APTRs would also create a technology that could play a vital role in the development of numerous types of high performance chemical rockets, and more than that, find abundant use in a wide range of high-temperature oxidizing-environment industrial applications on Earth as well. The markets for commercial applications of such material technology are vast.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.07-9561
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In-Space Propulsion (Nuclear)
PROPOSAL TITLE: Demonstration of Fission Product Retention in a Novel NTR Fuel

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
HBAR TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
1275 Roosevelt Road, Suite 103
West Chicago, IL 60185-4833
(630)231-7077

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Gerald P Jackson
gjackson@hbartech.com
1275 Roosevelt Road, Suite 103
West Chicago, IL 60185-4833
(630)231-7077

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Several studies over the past few decades have recognized the need for advanced propulsion to explore the solar system. As early as the 1960s, Werner Von Braun and others recognized the need for a nuclear rocket for sending humans to Mars. The great distances, the intense radiation levels, and the physiological response to zero-gravity all supported the concept of using a nuclear rocket to decrease mission time. These same needs have been recognized in later studies, especially in the Space Exploration Initiative in 1989. One of the key questions that has arisen in later studies, however, is the need to utilize a nuclear fuel form that does not emit fission products into the exhaust stream. Unlike the Rover/NERVA programs in the 1960s, the rocket exhaust in a current day nuclear rocket should contain no radioactivity. We will investigate a series of coated fuel forms that will inhibit fission products and actinides from diffusing out into the surrounding coolant. A demonstration experiment will be designed that will allow fuels containing uranium-238 to be fissioned, heated to very high temperatures, and assessed for emission of any products.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
This project will result in the ability of NASA to develop a nuclear thermal rocket. Such a rocket will revolutionize space flight in the solar system. The nuclear rocket is applicable to Moon base construction, missions to Mars, and fast missions to the outer planets. If a nuclear fuel can be developed that does not expel radioactivity, the nuclear rocket can be used from Low Earth Orbit outward with no need for any type of "shuttle" vehicle to high orbit. Development of a nuclear rocket with clean exhaust will enable the human race to expand into the solar system safely.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The commercial potential of this project is extremely high. The ability to inhibit the diffusion of atoms at very high temperatures by coating the fuel with a series of appropriately chosen metals layers will be applicable to several markets where high temperature gases are contained by metallic structures. In addition, the migration of fission products through media at low temperatures may also be addressed. The results of this project could impact the fabrication of turbine blades, long term storage of nuclear waste, and high temperature energy conversion systems as examples.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.08-7817
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Launch Infrastructure and Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Aerogel Insulation to Support Cryogenic Technologies

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
ASPEN AEROGELS, INC.
30 Forbes Road, Building B
Northborough, MA 01532-2501
(508)691-1111

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Shannon White
swhite@aerogel.com
30 Forbes Road, Building B
Northborough, MA 01532-2501
(508)691-1111

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA strives to make space travel safer, faster, and cheaper, expanding our horizons for a new generation of space exploration and colonization. This cannot be accomplished solely through improvements in the launch vehicle; the launch site and ground control systems must be equally enhanced. The next generation cryogenic propellant storage and distribution system must integrate an efficient overall structure and layout of the launch site. Many of the components in propellant distribution systems can be complex and require an insulation that can be formed to these irregular shapes. Aspen Aerogels bead technology can provide NASA with a solution. Aerogel beads are configurable to virtually any shape and offer a lightweight viable insulation solution with substantial improvements over conventional insulations such as superior thermal performance at moderate vacuum levels. As an improvement over silica aerogel, Aspen proposes the use of higher strength and more resilient organically modified aerogel beads to insulate cryogenic pipeline applications. During the proposed effort we will investigate two types of materials for the generation of clamshell type insulation with far superior thermal insulation properties; aerogel beads held together with a binder, and novel self-adhesional aerogel beads, both encapsulated in evacuated vacuum panels.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Aerogel bead materials with superior mechanical resilience have numerous possibilities for use in advanced cryogenic space transportation technologies, as well as other high performance insulation needs. The material has been proposed for insulating cryogenic pipeline for applications in space transportation and insulation of miles-long cryogen transfer lines. NASA can also use the resilient bead composite insulation in various applications, from space launch vehicle propellant tanks, Space Shuttle upgrades, interplanetary propulsion and life support equipment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Applications for Aspen's aerogel bead composites are not restricted to NASA's field of interest. Aspen's hybrid aerogel beads can offer thermal management solutions for handling or transportation of cryogens, supporting cryogenic equipment manufacturers and suppliers. Cryomedical / cryobiological equipment and other industries where reliable low-temperature regulation is critical will benefit from development of this product. Provided low enough costs, the aerogel beads can become a commodity used in refrigerators and household freezers. Self-adhesional beads might also be processed into fire-resistant super insulation boards for residential thermal insulation applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.09-8414
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Transportation Test Requirements and Instrumentation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Propellant Conditioning Using Improved Pulse Tube Cryocooler

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
SIERRA LOBO, INC.
426 Croghan Street
Fremont, OH 43420-2448
(419)499-9653

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Alexander J. Yeckley
ayeckley@sierralobo.com
11401 Hoover Rd.
Milan, OH 44846-9711
(419)499-9653

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Application of the proposed technology (an affordable, large-scale, high-efficiency, low-temperature pulse tube cryocooler system), serves two NASA needs: an improved cryogenic propellant conditioning method and an economical technique to maintain the lowest possible liquid propellant feed temperature. These needs exist at a variety of NASA facilities, yet little progress has been made beyond laboratory development. One barrier to acceptance is the cost of manufacturing large scale pulse tubes. Sierra Lobo, Inc. has found that through previous research involving conventional manufacturing techniques, two particular components common to all pulse tube cryocoolers contribute to approximately 50% of the cost. In view of the February 24, 2004, Executive Order encouraging innovation in manufacturing related research and development via the SBIR program, the primary objective of Phase I of this research is to study and develop improvements to the existing pulse tube manufacturing process. If successful, the resulting technology advancement would benefit a variety of current and future NASA programs managed by the Exploration Systems Office and the Science Mission Office, especially those involving long-term cryogenic storage systems. An even greater benefit is expected for the commercial application of pulse tube cryocoolers in facilitating the advancement of distributed high-temperature superconducting power systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The primary potential NASA application for large-scale pulse tube technology is the conditioning of propellants at rocket engine test facilities. The engines tested at these facilities are typically designed for normal boiling-point temperature propellants. At some test facilities however, propellants are temporarily stored at very high pressures. This can cause the temperature of the propellants provided to the engine at the test stands to be higher than the temperature of the propellants provided to the engine during actual launch operations. Minimizing or eliminating this temperature difference establishes a greater degree of confidence in the engine test results.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
A key opportunity for large scale pulse tube cryocooler technology is use with high temperature superconductivity (HTS) devices such as motors, generators, transformers, and cables. Such widely-distributed systems will require active cryogenic systems that are more efficient, reliable, and have lower capital costs than current off-the-self cryogenic systems. In addition, the physical size, maintainability and operation must not constrain the expected benefits of high temperature superconductivity power equipment. Large-scale pulse tube cryocoolers are an essential technology that will enable cryogenic systems to meet the stringent requirements of HTS devices.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.09-9119
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Transportation Test Requirements and Instrumentation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Simulations of Unsteady Effects and Dynamic Responses in Complex Valve Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Combustion Research and Flow Technology,
6210 Kellers Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947-1020
(215)766-1520

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Vineet Ahuja
vineet@craft-tech.com
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville, PA 18947-1020
(215)766-1520

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CFD based analyses are playing an increasingly important role in supporting experimental testing of rocket propulsion systems. The focus of this proposal is towards identifying and characterizing flow induced instabilities in the experimental test facility. Computational simulations will be carried out with advanced turbulence modeling extensions to the hybrid unstructured framework that has been previously shown to accurately and efficiently predict steady flowfields in complex valve configurations used at SSC. The computational framework will be comprehensive to include instabilities ranging from turbulent pressure fluctuations due to vortex shedding in bends and elbows of the piping system to large scale fluctuations due to collapse of vapor cavities in flow control elements such as venturis. Furthermore, the development in this proposal will include prediction of system response such as amplification and attenuation of dominant instability modes from coupling between components. In Phase II of the proposal development will focus on fluid structure interaction, structural vibrations and resonance. This will greatly enhance the current CFD technology utilized for performance analyses of valve and feed based systems and improve the ability to exert flow control, gauge system response, regulate pressure and suppress instabilities in rocket propulsion test facilities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed Phase I effort followed by subsequent Phase II will result in a commercial CFD tool that will address some of NASA's needs towards developing a capability for reliability and advanced analysis in support of ground testing of rocket propulsion systems. A detailed analysis of valve response and flow modulation will also be possible and an estimation of test facility response flow instabilities can be predicted. Furthermore, the estimation of unsteady pressure loads will provide valuable information from a structural standpoint, thereby improving the life cycle of the propulsion system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Commercial applications for the predictive CFD tools being developed are very broad and span a whole host of industries including valve and pump manufacturers, power generation, oil and gas, and petrochemical and refining. The CFD tool will play a significant role in identifying hazardous operating conditions and designing control systems for dynamic disturbance mitigation especially since flow instability and structural resonance can touch off relief valves, damage pipe hangers and destroy vacuum seals. The developed software can also cater to transient analyses of heart valve closure and associated problems with cavitation.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X6.09-9927
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Transportation Test Requirements and Instrumentation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Broadband Wireless Data Acquisition and Control Device

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
MOBITRUM CORPORATION
8070 Georgia Avenue, Suite 213
Silver Spring, MD 20910-4934
(301)585-4040

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Ray Wang
rwang@mobitrum.com
8070 Georgia Avenue, Suite 213
Silver Spring, MD 20910-4934
(301)585-4040

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Mobitrum is proposing to develop a broadband wireless device for real-time data acquisition and monitoring applicable to the field instrumentation and control systems associated with ground testing facilities. This effort is targeted for data management and intelligent sensor fusion across local and mobile computational platforms for real-time graphical representation and methods for collaborative distribution, efficient storage, and archival. This effort will include (1) Design of the wireless device to maximize the capability of the rocket engine ground testing and safety assurance that include: power consumption, reliability, performance, data rate, throughput, signal coverage, security, configurability, portability, and cost; (2) Design of the wireless device architecture including network topologies, user's query language, data representations and formats, communication modules, low-level device driver, fault tolerance, portability, and performance; and (3) Specify smart agents for rules, procedures, software algorithms, and techniques for designing a high-speed wireless portal system. Smart agents will increase the capability of the data acquisition and health monitoring from remote access and increases the safety. This proposed enabling technology will provide NASA a cost-effective and high-speed tool for collaborative data management and distribution, sensing and monitoring, and other situational awareness such as testing infrastructure and facilities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Mobitrum's proposed broadband wireless device, which will enable the NASA Space Transportation Test facility to be more effective in data input, manipulation, and distribution activities as well as design and engineering collaboration. NASA will benefit from the following proposed technologies: (1) Field communications device for spatial data input, manipulation and distribution; (2) Sensor, measurement, and field verification applications; (3) Condition-aware applications; (4) Location-aware applications; (5) Biometric identification applications; (6) Data collaboration and distribution applications; and (7) Wireless instrumentation for robotic manipulation and positioning for audio and visual capture, and real-time multimedia representation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The opportunity for the high-speed wireless technology lays in future wireless networks and communications. The proposed technology can provide enhanced wireless data acquisition and control in a variety of applications such as the following: (1) Utility ? remote meter reading; (2) Defense ? data communication links for test ranges and launch facility; (3) Building automation systems ? real-time monitoring and control of security and surveillance systems, alarms, HVAC, etc., (4) Manufacturing and distribution ? industrial automation using RFID; and (5) Health care ? wireless monitoring equipment.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X7.01-8309
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radio Frequency (RF) Telecommunications Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fault Tolerant Digital Signal Processing (DSP)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Invertix Corporation
7010 Little River Turnpike, Suite 300
Annandale, VA 22003-3241
(703)813-2131

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Graham D Stead
gstead@invertix.com
7010 Little River Turnpike, Suite 300
Annandale, VA 22003-3241
(703)813-2185

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This document proposes that a network routing protocol, such as the popular Internet Protocol (IP), can be combined with high speed switching fabrics to create a hardware independent routing environment for software radio. The flexible routing provided by such a network layer would allow signal streams to be dynamically routed (and re-routed) between computational elements. This would allow software radio designers to build flexible, fault tolerant signal processing chains for many applications and hardware implementations. This is innovative because conventional IP implementations cannot meet the performance requirements (throughput, jitter, latency) of software radio data streams. The innovation of this research stems from the unique combination of software radio development requirements, advances in network and transport layer designs to support high-speed switching fabrics, and the inherent capabilities provided by IP.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The flexible routing provided by such a network layer enables new functionality in software radios, especially with regard to fault tolerance. The most efficient designs directly link components using high-speed buffers or buses. These designs do not provide the ability to dynamically reconfigure signal processing functions in response to hard failures or new external communications requirements. On the other hand, general-purpose network and transport layers do not meet the high speed I/O requirements of signal processing systems. This unique approach, if successful, would eventually provide an IP-based architecture that allows software radio designers to build reconfigurable signal processing chains.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The Phase I effort, if successful, will demonstrate the feasibility of combining high-speed IP streams with switching fabric to support software radio applications. This would give software radio designers the ability to build flexible, fault tolerant signal processing chains for many applications and hardware implementations. Currently, such solutions must be engineered on a system-by-system basis, which is extremely labor and cost intensive. In general, this work could increase the degree to which software radio designs can be reused, development cycles can be shortened, and costs can be reduced.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X7.01-9687
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radio Frequency (RF) Telecommunications Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fault Tolerant, Radiation hard DSP

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Space Micro Inc.
12872 Glen Circle Road
Poway, CA 92064-2029
(858)487-9295

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
David R. Czajkowski
dcz@spacemicro.com
12872 Glen Circle Road
Poway, CA 92064-2029
(858)309-7001

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Commercial digital signal processors (DSP) are problematic for satellite computers due to damaging space radiation effects, particularly single event upsets (SEU) and functional interrupts (SEFI). Space Micro has developed innovations for mitigating SEU and SEFI errors, enabling the use of very high-speed commercial DSPs with improved SEU tolerances (>1E-4 unrecoverable errors/day). Time-Triple Modular Redundancy (TTMR) is a method of applying traditional triple modular redundancy on a single processor, exploiting the VLIW class of parallel processors. SEFI is solved by a Hardened Core circuit, external to the microprocessor, which monitors the "health" of the processor, and when SEFI occurs, forces the processor to return to performance through a series of escalating events (interrupts, reset, etc).
In Phase I we apply these technologies to COTS DSPs and also will extend the TTMR and Hardened Core architecture to reconfigurable FPGA arrays, with dramatically improved SEU/SEFI rates for Xilinx FPGAs.
In Phase II we will provide SEU & SEFI hardened DSP plus FPGA product, with performance of 8,000 MIPS fixed point and 1.8 GFLOPS floating point (derated approximately 50% for improved SEU performance) while consuming less than 2 watts power, combined with an array of Xilinx reconfigurable FPGAs, providing approximately 7500 MFLOPS per FPGA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Virtually all NASA space programs have a demand for rad hard or tolerant computers and processors. Leveraging commercial microelectronics and packaging processes will enable increased electrical performance at dramatically lower costs. Applications range from space shuttle, space station, earth sensing missions e.g. (EOS), and deep space missions. NASA programs/missions that will benefit include Mars surveyor missions, solar system exploration e.g. (Titan, Europa, comet nucleus return, JIMO, New Discovery and Living with a Star (LWS). Products evolving from this SBIR will enable affordable, survivable computing and processing on future programs such as Dawn, Aquarius, Kepler, Ocean Vector Winds, and space interferometry.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Radiation hardened or tolerant computers are key components for any commercial system in a radiation environment. These applications include commercial space platforms, both LEO and GEO. Telecommunication satellites, such as Intelsat and earth sensing applications e.g. (NOAA) require computers for both platform and payloads. Terrestial commercial applications include nuclear power plants (near core) and research accelerators e.g. (Fermi Labs). Military applications for rad hard lower cost miniature computing include strategic missiles (Trident and AF upgrades), as well as many tactical weapon programs such as MDA THAAD with nuclear survival levels.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X7.02-7723
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Intelligent Onboard Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Onboard Space Autonomy Through Integration of Health Management and Control Reconfiguration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Scientific Systems Co Inc
500 West Cummings Park Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801-6580
(781)933-5355

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Eliot S.-M. Li
eliot@ssci.com
500 West Cummings Park Suite 3950
Woburn, MA 01801-6580
(781)933-5355

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this SBIR project we propose to integrate spacecraft control and vehicle health functions to improve the robustness and productivity of space operations. The main advantages of the proposed approach is that it allows the spacecraft to utilize failed control components with degraded performance to the maximum extent, and to conduct health status test with minimum or no impact on the mission, all in an autonomous manner. The proposed approach is innovative because traditional approaches typically abandon the failed component completely after the first sign of malfunctioning. Putting all the burden on the remaining components wear them down faster and shorten their useful life. Through the integration of accurate health monitoring and control reconfiguration algorithms in a hierarchical architecture, the proposed approach adjust the command signal to the failed component according to its degree of degradation, with the shortfall distributed among the remaining undamaged control components. This results in balanced utilization of all the available resources at all time, and increase the mission life of the spacecraft. During Phase II, the developed algorithms will be integrated into an Autonomous Spacecraft REconfigurable Control System (ASRECS) prototype for NASA testing and evaluation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The health monitoring and control reconfiguration algorithms developed in this Phase I effort for spacecraft control will be beneficial to a wide class space missions. Other control applications subject to model uncertainties due to component failures or system variations can also benefit from the proposed technology. Current and future NASA space missions that can benefit from the proposed technology include Triana, MAXIM, and Kepler. The capability to continue the mission under failure, as well as the cost saving and increased reliability of attitude determination and control system components, will be very attractive from the mission level perspective.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The control reconfiguration design for aircraft and UAV has been developed based on the idea of analytic redundancy control concept by leveraging off the remaining control surfaces to produce equivalent force and torque in the direction of the lost ones. However, control methodology that allows the aircraft to ``limp'' home under the underactuated control situation has not been closely addressed. The autonomous underactuated control concept developed herein can potentially be applied to aircraft flight control systems as the backup mode that would significantly increase its safety and reliability beyond its current level.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X7.02-8598
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Intelligent Onboard Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Procedure Verification and Validation Toolset

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
TIETRONIX SOFTWARE, INC.
1002 Gemini Ave, Suite 126
Houston, TX 77058-2794
(281)461-9300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Michel Izygon
mizygon@tietronix.com
1002 Gemini Ave, Suite 126
Houston, TX 77058-2794
(281)461-9300

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed research is aimed at investigating a procedure verification and validation toolset, which will allow the engineers who are responsible for developing the on-board procedures to validate early, continuously, collaboratively and in real-time. Currently these engineers are limited to the use of big simulators such as the Space Station Training Facility (SSTF) for the ISS, which is costly to run and requires a scheduling of the facility a long time in advance. The targeted tool would fill the gap between the very limited validation done at their desktop (mainly peer review of the procedure) and the simulator run (where the procedures are tested in the very expensive training environment).
This project has a number of innovative aspects, which will make the work of procedure developers easier and more consistent. Benefits realized from using a desktop based procedure validation toolset include the increase in safety, reduction of training costs, and improvement in procedure delivery time through early detection and resolution of errors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Use of procedures is pervasive to all NASA organizations, and programs, whether they support on-orbit or ground-based operations, for crew use or as automated procedures, for payloads, sub-systems or for entire spacecrafts. In the coming years, Space Shuttle, International Space Station, and the CEV will continue to depend heavily on complex procedures. Providing these programs with an advanced procedure V&V toolset on the desktop will provide a significant support for shortening the procedure development life cycle. A desktop validation tool has the potential to significantly reduce the number of SSTF runs and the number of procedure defects found during SSTF sessions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The envisioned toolset can be applied to any complex system requiring an operational procedure as it also needs ways to be validated. Desktop based tool support for such system is currently missing. A tool that can be customized to different systems will be useful within DoD organizations using heavy equipment operating procedures, such as airplanes, tanks, transport equipment, or logistics support equipment. In the commercial arena, operational procedures are also being used in a broad range of areas, such as airplane checklist, power plant, refineries, and chemical plants operations. This type of technology can be adapted to these different domains and provide benefits similar to those provided to NASA.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X7.02-9143
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Intelligent Onboard Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: In Situ Training of Robonaut for In-Space Assembly, Maintenance and Servicing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
American Android Corp.
301 N. Harrison St., Suite 242
Princeton, NJ 08540-3512
(609)924-4490

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
David Handelman
dhandelman@americanandroid.com
301 N. Harrison St., Suite 242
Princeton, NJ 08540-3512
(609)924-4490

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of the proposed FieldTrainer control system is to enable astronauts to teach Robonaut on-orbit how to perform new complex tasks using EVA tools. Employing a show-and-tell approach to robot training, the control system acquires rule-based task plans through verbal dialog between robot and astronaut, and acquires neural network-based skills incrementally though verbal, visual, and manual inputs. The project builds upon previous research that demonstrates the viability of verbally constructing non-trivial task descriptions. In Phase I, a simulator for a Robonaut-based Hubble rescue mission is developed. Baseline tool manipulation behaviors are created using an existing behavior development system. Verbal construction of high-level rule-based behaviors is demonstrated. Refinement of motion sequences through verbal training of neural networks is studied whereby perturbations are added to nominal rule-based task execution. The training methodology is also evaluated for its potential use in education. FieldTrainer technology is expected to give Robonaut an unending ability to learn and flightcrews the ability to customize Robonaut's behavior for routine tasks and unexpected situations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The ability to customize robot behavior in the field in an intuitive manner will prove useful in many NASA human-robot systems intended for collaboration and exploration. FieldTrainer technology will give Robonaut the ability to acquire sensorimotor skills online through operator training. It can also be used to give operators of robotic rovers and field assistants the ability to make in situ changes to mission-critical locomotion and manipulation behaviors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Commercial applications for FieldTrainer technology include educational systems and assistive devices for the disabled. By combining an interesting robot with easy behavior modification, educational systems can be created that are both engaging and instructional. Educational tools targeted toward middle and high school students can be used to promote learning about robotics and programming. Tools for younger students can be used to reinforce verbal, memory, and problem-solving skills through child/robot teamwork. Robotic assistive devices that use FieldTrainer technology will enable users to customize device behavior based on personal preference, giving disabled individuals greater control over their lives.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X7.02-9175
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Intelligent Onboard Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Seamless Mode Switching for Shared Control of Semiautonomous Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2785
(301)294-5200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Donald Myers
dmyers@i-a-i.com
15400 Calhoun Drive, Suite 400
Rockville, MD 20855-2785
(301)294-5235

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Whether it be a crew station, the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS), an unmanned ground rover (UGV) or air vehicle (UAV), or teams thereof, the controllers for such systems will be complex, multilevel, usually distributed, systems. When a human user desires to switch between automatic and manual control, the transition must occur at all levels of the controller. There exist no well-developed strategies for managing such transitions and no proven methods for guaranteeing overall stability in the classical control-theoretic sense, or even safety and reliability in the general sense. These type of issues will span virtually every shared-control application in future NASA exploration systems. Intelligent Automation, Inc. proposes to use a two-level, distributed robot controller with multimodal user interface (UI) and demonstrate a technique to seamlessly transition between teleoperation and autonomous operation. The technique is based on using Hidden Markov Models to identify the current active state at each level of the controller. The demonstration platform was developed for a previous NASA project for JSC to develop automatic programming methods for astronaut assistants.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
As NASA extends its reach, it will be necessary to use unmanned vehicles to facilitate autonomous exploration and to support telepresence for human personnel. Since at such great distance, human interaction will be limited, these vehicles must learn both on their own and from the limited interaction when human assistance is possible. Learning from human demonstration can be used to automatically "program" robots for space missions during the earth-based training periods when humans are also learning how to use the robots. Beyond robots, as the functions of all mission subsystems become increasingly complex, forms of adaptive learning will be necessary.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
These technologies will be applicable to commercial avionics systems, unmaneed ground systems, and control and decision-making systems. The technology developed will provide greater integration at the system level, more affordable configurations, more efficient and supportable control architectures, and the ability to operate air vehicles safely and effectively in an inter-netted environment. All commercial aircraft manufacturers, suppliers, and airline could also benefit from this technology.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X7.02-9336
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Intelligent Onboard Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Intelligent Multimodal Signal Adaptation System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Micro Analysis & Design, Inc.
4949 Pearl East Circle, Suite 300
Boulder, CO 80301-2577
(303)442-6947

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Julie Bzostek
jbzostek@maad.com
4949 Pearl East Circle, Suite 300
Boulder, CO 80301-2577
(303)442-6947

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Micro Analysis and Design (MA&D) is pleased to submit this proposal to design an Intelligent Multimodal Signal Adaptation System. This system will dynamically adapt a display to the optimal modality based upon an operator's workload. As cockpits become more complicated, there is more data to be monitored by pilots in the normal operation of an aircraft. Some of this burden has been lightened with automated systems, but the operator still has to be aware of which automated systems are operating at any given time, and their current mode. Signals are presented to the pilots when these systems start, end, or are in effect, but these signals are often lost in the overwhelming amount of data the operators must attend. A system that could present signals with the highest probability of being noticed by operators would help achieve the goal of ensuring that the right information is delivered at the optimal time and modality so that operators can act on the information. Assuring that pilots are aware of the various states of the aircraft systems would lead, in turn, to greater situation awareness and safety.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
We believe that a tool that can dynamically adapt to the current state of a cockpit system will help to improve safety through increased situation awareness (SA). This could be implemented on any newly built manned spacecraft, as well as retrofit into existing crew systems. This tool could also be a benefit to monitoring stations, or any system where a human has to attend to many sources of data at once. Because this tool is examining a basic level of human-computer interaction and SA, it could be applied to any closed loop system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
We believe that a tool that can dynamically adapt to the current state of cockpit system will help to improve safety through increased situation awareness (SA). This tool could easily be built into any new crew station, but could also be added to existing systems. Any commercial airline could benefit from such a tool as passenger safety is a priority. Such a tool could also benefit any commercial transportation mode, and eventually make its way into other arenas. Because this tool is examining a basic level of human-computer interaction and SA, it could be applied to any closed loop system.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X7.02-9348
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Intelligent Onboard Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: The Cognitive Onboard Operator Assistant Architecture

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd. Suite 360
San Mateo, CA 94404-1560
(650)931-2726

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Dr. Emilio Remolina
remolina@stottlerhenke.com
951 Mariner's Island Blvd., Ste. 360
San Mateo, CA 94404-1560
(650)931-2700

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose a cognitively inspired architecture for deploying an automated intelligent onboard operator assistant. This assistant facilitates the onboard control while finding a compromise between increasing the operator's awareness of the system tasks and decreasing the operator's workload. The core of this assistant is an adaptive algorithm (AA) that determines the appropriate level of automation (LOA) for the current mission phase depending on factors such as the operator's workload and situation awareness, mission phase requirements and state, as well as human-automation interactions and supervisory control issues.

The goal of our proposed agent-based architecture is to facilitate the creation and evaluation of AA algorithms. In order to easily define AA strategies, the architecture provides facilities to explicitly represent, reason with, and update the state of the different knowledge structures needed by the AA. We will develop a testbed to evaluate different AAs regarding the operator's situation awareness in a multi-agent dynamic scenario. To promote experimenter control and rapid evaluations, a graphical behavior language will be used to define the behavior of entities in a simulator-based experimental scenario. Phase I will focus on the definition of the testbed and in creating a system prototype. Phase II will focus on making the architecture robust and testing it in a high fidelity simulator.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
NASA applications include the development of intelligent user interfaces for the management of mission operations including problem resolution in the spacecraft, payload operations, and control interfaces for operator-multiagent teams and cooperative teams.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The product will provide unique tools for the design, development and evaluation of control and supervisory interfaces in commercial environments like air control systems, UVs management and industrial production lines.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X7.03-9393
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Mission Training Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Adaptive Distributed Environment for Procedure Training

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
951 Mariner's Island Blvd. Suite 360
San Mateo, CA 94404-1560
(650)931-2726

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Dr. Eric A. Domeshek
domeshek@stottlerhenke.com
280 Broadway, 1st Floor
Arlington, MA 02474-5311
(781)643-1444

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
With its constantly evolving portfolio of highly technical systems requiring human construction maintenance and operation, NASA has an extreme form of a common yet challenging training problem: how to ensure that personnel are qualified on the (often changing) procedures required to work on or with these systems. Simulation-based training that enables learning while doing is a proven approach, but dependence on hardware-based simulators and the requirement for human instructors to develop and supervise training scenarios raise costs and limit flexibility in delivering training and retraining. We propose to build a distributable intelligent tutoring system (ITS) exploiting a unified representation of human and robotic mission activities that can be used to (1) trace student activity to assess, prompt, and correct their actions, (2) simulate robotic activity, (3) control training scenario generation/selection, (4) cover both general and specific cases, (5) allow for varying degrees of detail in human and robotic activity, (6) support extended scenarios involving multiple procedures, and (7) track detailed re-training requirements resulting from changes in procedures. The innovative merger of general procedure descriptions with specific scenario scripts will facilitate more efficient authoring of consistent broad-coverage automated simulation-based training while retaining the ability to author specific scenarios when needed.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Projected future missions will require controllers and astronauts to interact with more capable (semi) automated and robotic systems. Current training practices, tied as they are to scripted scenarios and human instructors, are too costly, inflexible, and inefficient in the face of escalating training needs: more systems, greater complexity, and evolving procedures. The next rounds of lunar exploration will likely involve robotic vehicles with greater potential for autonomy, and controllers will need to learn to supervise these systems in varied ways depending on factors such as immediate mission, environmental setting and expected hazards, latest operational procedures and system health limitations, etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The modern world is full of organizations that must construct, maintain, and operate highly complex technical systems, and which in consequence must be able to train their workforce to follow prescribed procedures. Training and retraining are a constant burden as workers move between jobs, and as procedures change to reflect changes in the system, mission, context, operating regimen, or regulations. Industries with heavy reliance on production, distribution, transportation, and information processing systems are all examples of potential consumers of the technology to be developed here.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X7.04-7686
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human Surface Systems Electronics and Communications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Data Acquisition in Noisy Environments

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Tanner Research Inc
2650 E. Foothill Blvd
Pasadena, CA 91107-3439
(626)792-3000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Kevin Dinniene
kevin@tanner.com
2650 E. Foothill Blvd
Pasadena, CA 91107-3439
(626)792-3000

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The ability to capture and record the low-level signals in the noisy environments typical of manned and unmanned space exploration missions will prove an invaluable tool in the monitoring of spacecraft health and the operation of spacecraft instrumentation. The technology now exists to create a miniaturized, low-power integrated data acquisition system capable of capturing these signals and making them available to spacecraft operators through on-board control and communications resources. Using our extensive experience and expertise in miniaturized embedded data acquisition systems, Tanner Research propose to develop a new class of data acquisition devices capable of capturing and recording spacecraft health and status information throughout the spacecraft's mission. The system will be capable of acquiring information at various rates and qualities, based on direct user input (controls) and system status. Prototype hardware will be delivered at the end of Phase I and a evaluation versions of production-quality prototypes will provided at the end of the follow-on Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The data acquisition system proposed by Tanner Research will satisfy the requirements for spacecraft and surface exploration systems in which a variety of on-board sensors (strain gauges, position sensors, etc.) must be interfaced to an on-board mission computer. The data acquisition system will filter and condition sensor outputs, digitize the outputs and communicate with other platform computing resources. A particular focus is that of low-level signals in high noise environments where size, weight and power are at a premium. Applications include determining the health and status of a robotic arm on a Mars rover or other sample return mission.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA applications for the proposed data acquisition system include terrestrial UAVs, UGVs, and other robotic or autonomous systems which must operate in harsh (high noise or high-radiation) environments. Robots that are used to explore (nuclear reactor) accident sites are one potential example. As the cost of the system is reduced through increasing volume, additional applications in the aerospace, automotive and industrial markets are envisioned.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X7.04-7902
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human Surface Systems Electronics and Communications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Space-SDR: An FPGA-based Software Defined Radio

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
StarVision Technologies, Inc.
1700 Research Parkway Suite 170
College Station, TX 77845-2304
(979)458-1445

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Michael Jacox
mjacox@starvisiontech.com
1700 Research Parkway Suite 170
College Station, TX 77845-2304
(979)458-1445

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The purpose of the proposed effort is to provide a novel and innovative reconfigurable software defined radio (SDR) development system that supports the design and implementation of SDRs for human Moon/planetary surface exploration and deep space missions. This type of revolutionary technology provides significant assistance to the SDR designer, enabling the development of a wide class of radio systems and supports customization at any level within the radio architecture. The proposed development system is ideally suited for design and implementation of ultra simplified and efficient forms of SDR. The focus of this proposal is to demonstrate the applicability and feasibility of this particular SDR development technology to space exploration through analysis, design, and implementation.

Successful completion of the proposed Phase I technology effort will culminate in a demonstration of interoperability with at least one NASA communications system. In addition, it will permit a Phase II effort to produce hardware and software that can be used to demonstrate the performance and impact of the proposed technology in some on-going NASA project, through demonstrating interoperability with at least two NASA communications systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Reconfigurable software defined radios have a wide applicability to NASA systems. This is especially apparent with the development of high-capacity FPGA devices that can tolerate the radiation environments of space. Specific applications of interest include:
- embedded wireless communication systems for low data rate (e.g., sensor measurements) as well as high bandwidth systems (e.g., EVA suit cameras).
- dedicated space-to-space communication links, especially in support of Lunar and planetary missions

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Software Defined Radio is rapidly growing in popularity and, consequentially, new application domains regularly emerge for SDR in the commercial and government marketplace. Of particular interest to StarVision Technologies is the integration of the foundational Space-SDR technologies into its line of small form factor HDTV cameras. Other areas of immediate interest and benefit to the Space-SDR team include wireless sensors, low or battery powered devices, and patient monitoring systems.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X8.01-7768
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technology-Systems Analysis and Infrastructure Modeling
PROPOSAL TITLE: Service Oriented Spacecraft Modeling Environment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
I-Logix, Inc.
3 Riverside Drive
Andover, MA 01810-1141
(978)682-2100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Stephen Di Camillo
stephend@ilogix.com
3 Riverside Drive
Andover, MA 01810-1141
(978)645-3045

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The I-Logix team proposes development of the Service Oriented Spacecraft Modeling Environment (SOSME) to allow faster and more effective spacecraft system design using a model based design process. The SOSME consists of several innovations:
1. Service-Oriented Architecture for Spacecraft System Modeling (SOASSM).
2. General-Purpose Spacecraft Reference Model (GPSRM) implementing the SOASSM.
3. Requirements-Driven Model Customization Application (RDMCA) to aid in customizing the GPSRM to reflect a specific spacecraft system design.
4. Mission Scenario Generation Application (MSGA) to aid in capturing mission scenarios and execute models developed using the SOASSM against the mission scenarios.

The significance of these innovations is that they will:
1. Enable and facilitate a model based system design process for spacecraft systems.
2. Enable rapid development of spacecraft system models in support of Trade Studies.
3. Enable more effective and accurate trade studies by executing models against mission scenarios while capturing quantitative measures of performance.
4. Provide graphical and executable artifacts for use in project and peer reviews.
5. Enable system level validation against mission scenarios throughout the design process.
6. Facilitate the integration of detailed design models by providing standard interfaces for spacecraft services.
7. Facilitate Simulation Based Acquisition.
8. Enable Model Based Contracting.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
One of today's biggest challenges in designing a spacecraft is ensuring the design spacecraft will meet the requirements of a mission with maximum effectiveness while reducing the "time-to-space" and minimizing cost. The situation is compounded by the fact that mission requirements continue to grow in scope and complexity, and are subject to frequent change. Meeting this challenge is difficult with current spacecraft design and manufacturing processes. The innovations in this proposal address these challenge in:
Designing a System.
Selecting among Competing Systems Designs.
System Assembly Integration and Test.
Training System Operators.
Launching a System.
Operating a System.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed innovations are most valuable in the design of systems where many groups are involved in the deployment of the system, and where constraints and safety concerns do not allow for flawed systems to be developed and then repaired after they are in service. These innovations are especially useful where the system has some level of autonomy. The specifics of the innovations proposed here can be extended and customized to apply to the following:
Unmanned Combat Systems.
Warfighter Systems.
Intelligent Automotive Systems.
Intelligent Home Automation Systems.
Home Patient Monitoring Systems.
Disaster Management Systems.
Telecommunications Systems.
Ocean Exploration Systems.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X8.01-8873
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technology-Systems Analysis and Infrastructure Modeling
PROPOSAL TITLE: User Interactive Guided Search Design Environment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
PHOENIX INTEGRATION
1715 Pratt
Blacksburg, VA 24060-0000
(540)961-7215

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Scott A Ragon
sragon@phoenix-int.com
1715 Pratt
Blacksburg, VA 24060-0000
(540)961-7215

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Phoenix Integration's vision is to create an intuitive human-in-the-loop engineering design environment called Guided Search that leverages recent advances in multi-dimensional visualization techniques, state-of-the-art optimization algorithms, and parallel processing technology. The proposed environment will feature an ongoing two-way interaction between the engineer and an optimization algorithm. The guided search environment will utilize advanced multidimensional graphical displays to suggest promising designs to the engineer, while the engineer will have the ability to accept/reject these designs, suggest different/modified designs, or to reformulate the design problem on-the fly. The guided search environment will be fundamentally different from conventional "black box" approaches to optimization in that the engineer will be an integral part of the optimization process, with the ability to inject his/her knowledge and intuition into the process at any time, thus improving the efficiency of the design process and increasing confidence in the final results. The Guided Search environment will be capable of exercising full-phase, full-breadth mission and system models in a variety of design environments, trade studies, system and investment analysis efforts, and program and technology planning activities. As such, it will be a critical link in achieving NASA's model-based systems engineering goals.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
NASA requires new capabilities to characterize and model technology in terms of performance, risk, and cost, and the means to exercise that knowledge in the context of system-wide trades and design. The proposed guided search environment provides these capabilities by combining model integration, visualization, and optimization tools in a comprehensive user-intuitive package. This environment will be capable of exercising full-phase, full-breadth mission and system models in a variety of environments, trade studies, system and investment analysis efforts, and program and technology planning activities. As such, it will be a critical component in NASA's efforts to develop state-of-the-art Model-Based Design capabilities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The proposed guided search environment can be used by design engineers in a wide variety of high-technology industries to make design trade-offs and to improve the quality, decrease risk, and minimize the cost of their products and processes. The environment can be used during the conceptual, preliminary, and detailed design phases in industries such as aerospace, automotive, electronics, and oil and gas. The user-interactive nature of the proposed environment will be attractive to engineers who are uncomfortable with traditional "black-box" approaches to design optimization.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X8.01-8945
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Technology-Systems Analysis and Infrastructure Modeling
PROPOSAL TITLE: SIMULATION APPROACH TO MISSION RISK AND RELIABILITY ANALYSIS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
GoldSim Technology Group LLC
22516 SE 64th Place, Suite 110
Issaquah, WA 98027-5379
(425)295-6985

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Ian Miller
imiller@goldsim.com
22516 SE 64th Place, Suite 110
Issaquah, WA 98027-5379
(425)295-6985

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
It is proposed to develop and demonstrate an integrated total-system risk and reliability analysis approach that is based on dynamic, probabilistic simulation. This will be achieved by adapting a methodology and software that were originally developed for long-term safety analyses of nuclear waste disposal, and that are currently used by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission among others. The approach will provide a valuable new systems analysis capability to complement current NASA approaches, and will address many of the goals of the X8.01 Technology-Systems Analysis and Infrastructure Modeling research topic. In particular it will be useful for impact studies, risk/cost/benefit analyses, risk/uncertainty analyses, model integration, and Model-Based Design/Model-Based Engineering.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Performance and risk analyses of complex, multi-phase missions.

Reliability analyses of systems with redundant and/or repairable components.

Optimization analyses of system configurations with respect to cost and reliability.

Sensitivity analyses to identify optimal areas for uncertainty reduction (i.e. testing or additional analyses) or performance enhancement.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
The same applications are relevant for the following organizations:
- U.S. Commercial aerospace businesses.
- U.S. Department of Defense and DOD contractors
- International organizations with similar roles.
- Manufacturers of complex equipment systems for use in non-aerospace fields.


PROPOSAL NUMBER: 04 X8.02-9911
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Design Technologies for Entry Vehicles
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multidisciplinary Design under Uncertainty for Entry Vehicles

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Michigan Engineering Services, LLC
3916 Trade Center Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-0000
(734)358-0777

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/Zip, Phone)
Nickolas Vlahopoulos
nickvlahopoulos@netscape.net
3916 Trade Center Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48108-0000
(734)355-0084

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The physical difficulty of designing entry vehicles originates from the large degree of coupling between the various disciplines involved in the design. Every subsystem design decision has far reaching consequences that must be evaluated in a multidisciplinary fashion in order to assess the impact on the weight and the performance of the entire vehicle. The disciplines which must be accounted and integrated during the design are: trajectory optimization, guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) technology, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal-structural analysis, and thermal protection system (TPS) development. Previous efforts in developing a collaborative or a multidisciplinary optimization process never considered how uncertainty in the atmospheric conditions, in the entry parameters of the vehicle, in the condition of the vehicle during entry, and in the performance of the TPS will influence the design and provide a risk assessment for a mission. The proposed project will fill this void by developing a tool for multidisciplinary optimization under uncertainty (MDO-U) for entry vehicle design. The proposed development will consider how uncertainties influence the modeling results of each discipline, and how uncertainties influence the interaction between disciplines and the optimal solution. Finally, the new MDO-U design tool will compute the safety level for the optimum design.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Uncertainties due to manufacturing tolerances, material variability, the operating environment, and the state of the operating structure, are encountered in aircraft structures, launch vehicles, entry vehicles, and propulsion systems. The ability to account for such uncertainties in all these different areas, during the design stage will be valuable. Therefore, the MDO-U system will be useful to all NASA groups interested in designing space vehicles or aircraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS (LIMIT 100 WORDS)
Uncertainties due to manufacturing tolerances, material variability, the operating environment, and the state of the operating structure, are encountered in the automotive, the shipbuilding, the heavy construction equipment, and the defense industries. The MDO-U system will allow engineers to account for uncertainties during the design of their products. Thus, there is a great market potential for the outcome of this SBIR.