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NASA 2002 SBIR Phase 2 Solicitation

PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A1.01-8269 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023730 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS1-03012
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Deck Situation Awareness and Crew Systems Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Constraint-based Analysis of Aircraft Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge , MA   02138 - 4555
(617 ) 491 - 3474

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Greg Zacharias
glz@cra.com
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge , MA   02138 - 4555
(617 ) 491 - 3474

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The analysis of flight data presents us with the opportunity of sophisticated insights into the functioning of aircraft systems and into the effects of aircraft operations. However, the complexity and size of the data acquired through flight data logging represent a challenge to the most complex tools to date. The effort proposed herein sets forth a multi-phase approach for the efficient application of existing data processing, visualization and analysis techniques for the identification and characterization of safety-relevant flight conditions, and for the identification of their precursors. The approach starts by reducing the voluminous flight data into a feature-based encoding, where features used for each flight parameter type are selected to match its specific variation. The second processing phase allows domain experts to efficiently inspect the flight data starting from detected exceedances, and to formulate constraint-based hypotheses regarding co-occurring events, and possible precursors. The third phase uses the hypotheses developed during the second phase to apply constraint-based data mining techniques for the identification of patterns associated with exceedances, and to identify the precursor sets for safety-relevant flight conditions. The description of the proposed effort also includes preliminary implementation results for selected prototype components, and establishes the feasibility of the investigated approach.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We expect the full-scope environment for Constraint-based Analysis of Aircraft Operations to have immediate and tangible benefit for the Aviation Performance Measurement System. The proposed capability provides an approach to analyzing the vast amount of data collected during routine flights, to detect and characterize behaviors that are transient, and may potentially remain undetected, and to identify their precursors. The proposed approach will offer domain experts immediate access to the important flight data analysis capabilities, and will be applicable to a variety of safety analysis problems and aircraft types. The proposed effort has also integration potential with components of the Aviation Safety Program at NASA?s Langley Research Center, and has application potential to the analysis of engine condition data for the Space Shuttle Main Engines.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The non-NASA commercial applications of the technology for Constraint-based Analysis of Aircraft Operations will pursue the licensing of our constraint-based behavior verification technology to system integrators in the intelligent agent industry, and the application of the proposed approach to maintenance operations conducted by major airlines. Recent commercial scale experiments have demonstrated that the identification and recognition of safety-relevant flight and engine conditions can help airlines significantly optimize their maintenance schedule. The proposed approach would represent a new step in that direction, by helping maintenance personnel to accurately define the context in which certain engine conditions occur, and to take appropriate measures.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A1.02-7454 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024545 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS3-03026
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion and Airframe Failure Data and Accident Mitigation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Design and Manufacture of Lightweight Composite Fan Case

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
WebCore Technologies Corp.
591 Congress Park Dr.
Dayton , OH   45459 - 0000
(937 ) 297 - 4200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Sheppard
msheppard@webcoreonline.com
591 Congress Park Dr.
Dayton , OH   45459 - 0000
(937 ) 297 - 4200

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The goal of this program is to mature the FRF sandwich panel design for the engine fan case application. Toward this goal, the following technical objectives will be pursued. This program will demonstrate how critical structural details are incorporated with TYCOR technology, leading to unitized structures that require less post-processing than composite laminate approaches. The work will be focused on a commercial jet engine application using WebCore?s relationship with aircraft engine manufacturers to identify the best application. Structural and physical properties will be verified in each component structure as well as the final, integrated fan case.

The manufacturing processes used in the production of the engine case will be evaluated and refined. These include technologies to aid in the production of preforms, the methods for processing and molding the bodies of revolution. Of particular importance will be the molding of full-circumferential bodies and the production and molding of non-uniform cross-sections. Using the data collected during this program, a cost model will be generated to document the cost advantages of TYCOR/Resin Infusion Process technology vs. current baseline composite and metallic components. Finally, a full-scale demonstration article will be produced in which the components are integrated into the design. This fan case will show a full body of revolution with integral hard points and flange attachments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology is pervasive and can be used for aerospace, marine, industrial, and transportation applications for ligtweight and durable composite structures.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This technology can be used for general aviation aircraft engines.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A1.02-8080 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023919 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS3-03014
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion and Airframe Failure Data and Accident Mitigation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development of a rugged, fuel tank compatible, oxygen concentration sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Projects Research, Inc.
1925 McKinley Avenue, Suite B
La Verne , CA   91750 - 5800
(909 ) 392 - 3151

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Thomas Sobota
thsobota@advancedprojects.com
1925 McKinley Avenue, Suite B
La Verne , CA   91750 - 5800
(909 ) 392 - 3155

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of the proposed Phase II effort is to transfer proven sensor technology from the laboratory breadboard to a functional flight-ready prototype for installation in an aircraft fuel tank. In the Phase I effort, a novel spectroscopic technique was shown to be an effective method for measuring oxygen concentration in harsh environments with sufficient accuracy for use in an OBIGGS system. This system utilizes rapidly scanned Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Diode Lasers (VCSELs) to measure oxygen concentration by molecular absorption. This system can measure 1000 ppm to 100% oxygen in ambient temperatures from -60 to 150 F utilizing as the wavelength agile spectral-harmonic (WASH) technique. The wavelength agile aspect of the laser source/detection technique allows for temperature insensitive measurements of oxygen concentration over a wide range of pressures (0.3 atm to 2 atm) with high accuracy as well as with auto-calibration capabilities. The Phase II effort is focused on packaging this sensor technology in a form that is able to be inserted into an operational aircraft fuel tank and conform to a set of environmental and operational requirements as defined by both the OBIGGS needs as well as the fuel tank environment. Furthermore, achievement of the Phase II goal requires the miniaturization of the laser driver, data collection, and data processing functions into flight-scale electronic hardware.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many commercial and military applications for an accurate and rugged fuel tank oxygen concentration sensor. The fuel tank oxygen sensor could be used in both new and retrofit commercial aircraft as a control sensor for fuel tank protection systems. The reliable and precise instrument can be used to control onboard inert gas generation systems (OBIGGS) for cargo compartment fire suppression, fuel tank inerting, and emergency breathing oxygen systems (OBOGS) for passengers and crew. The key to the commercial viability of this product is the accuracy of the sensor, its ability to handle harsh environments including highly variable temperatures and pressures, and its reliability and lifetime, which we have engineered into the system. The long operating lifetime and stability of this measurement system in challenging operating environments are superior to existing oxygen measurement strategies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This type of sensor can also be used to monitor the air/fuel ratio in terrestrial gas turbine and high pressure combustion systems where a rugged sensor with long operating life characteristics is needed. Also possible using this sensor is a real-time measurement of oxygen tension in respiratory gases and respiration monitoring. The absorption based technique has no biofouling effects and is nearly independent of scattering environments such as heavy droplet sprays or moisture making the sensor useful in biological measurements.





PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A1.03-7779 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024220 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS4-03002
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Automated On-Line Health Management and Data Analysis
PROPOSAL TITLE: Embedded Dual-Function Arc Fault Circuit Breaker/ Locator based on OSA

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Williams-Pyro, Inc. (WPI)
2721 White Settlement Road
Fort Worth , TX   76107 - 1331
(817 ) 335 - 1147

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Matthew Scarpino
matt.scarpino@williams-pyro.com
200 Greenleaf
Fort Worth , TX   76107 - 1471
(817 ) 872 - 1500

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Within Phase 2, Williams-Pyro has designed, developed, and demonstrated a system for locating arc faults along aircraft cable. This fault localization is performed using signal reflectometry, in which an electrical waveform is transmitted through a length of wire. After the reflection is received, the characteristics of the reflected signal will be used to determine how far away the arc fault is located. After miniaturizing this system, it will be possible to integrate this functionality within a Texas Instruments' arc fault circuit breaker. In this manner, TI's AFCB's will be able to tell maintenance personnel where to look in order to perform repairs on the aircraft cable

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This system will be able to reduce the maintenance time and effort involved in repairing faulty electrical cable on NASA aircraft. After an arc fault has occurred, the Smart Wiring Infrastructure Fault Tester (SWIFT) will activate, using signal reflectometry to determine where the arc fault is located. Then, the SWIFT-enabled arc fault circuit breaker (AFCB) will be able to display the fault's location to the maintainer, saving hours of hunting for the damage within the wire. Texas Instruments has agreed that, given effective operation of the SWIFT functionality, they will be willing to consider integrating a SWIFT application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) within their Klixon family of aircraft circuit breakers

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This system will be able to reduce the maintenance time and effort involved in repairing faulty electrical cable on commercial aircraft. Following an arc fault, the Smart Wiring Infrastructure Fault Tester (SWIFT) will activate, using signal reflectometry to determine where the arc fault is located. Then, the SWIFT-enabled arc fault circuit breaker (AFCB) will be able to display the fault's location to the maintainer, saving hours of hunting for the damage within the wire. Texas Instruments has agreed that, given effective operation of the SWIFT functionality, they will be willing to consider integrating a SWIFT application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) within their Klixon family of aircraft circuit breakers


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A2.01-9022 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022977 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS3-03035
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion System Emissions and Noise Prediction and Reduction
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Temperature Polyimides for Resin Transfer Molding Process

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Triton Systems, Inc.
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford , MA   01824 - 4000
(978 ) 250 - 4200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mr. Norman Rice
nrice@tritonsystems.com
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford , MA   01824 - 4053
(978 ) 250 - 4200

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a novel high temperature PMR-RTM polyimide resin with a low melt viscosity (<5 Poise at 288 ?C) that will address the NASA-GRC need for advanced materials for lightweight propulsion systems for reduced emissions. Triton?s proposed innovative research will focus on developing a novel PMR-RTM polyimide resin that has a very low melt viscosity (1-5 Poise), excellent thermal stability and mechanical performance comparable to PMR-15. This resin will allow out of autoclave manufacture of complex shaped parts, and the size of the part will not be limited by the size of the autoclave

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Development of new low melt flow viscosity (RTM/VARTM), environmentally friendly high temperature polyimide resins would allow ?out-of-autoclave? manufacturing of large structures such as large composite tanks for the next generation Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs). Currently the size of the autoclave predicts the size of the components that can be fabricated, which is a limitation for development of the next RLVs

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Triton has teamed with end users to evaluate the development of the new RTM/VARTM high temperature resins for compatibility with their current composite manufacturing. This teaming arrangement will assist Triton to develop the resin within the manufacturer production specifications. The potential commercial applications are aircraft jet engines, rocket and turbine engines, and auxiliary power in aircraft and space vehicles.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A2.02-9354 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022645 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS3-03025
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Electric and Intelligent Propulsion Technologies for Environmentally Harmonious Aircraft
PROPOSAL TITLE: Co-Generation of High Purity Hydrogen and Electric Power

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ceramatec, Inc.
2425 South 900 West
Salt Lake City , UT   84119 - 1517
(801 ) 978 - 2119

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Patricia Vaughn
patricia@ceramatec.com
2425 South 900 West
Salt Lake City , UT   84119 - 1517
(801 ) 978 - 2119

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovation is an integrated hybrid solid state electrochemical system providing co-generation of high purity hydrogen and electric power. The embodiment is a physical, chemical and thermal integration of three processes: (1) production high purity hydrogen, (2) electrochemical partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel, and (3) power generation by a solid oxide fuel cell. This highly integrated, multi-function system eliminates any need for the CO shift and cleanup process steps currently required to generate hydrogen for use in Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell power plants being considered for aircraft electric propulsion and power needs. It also eliminates the efficiency penalty imposed by use of conventional partial oxidation reformers. Thermal integration of the endothermic hydrogen generation processes with the exothermic SOFC operation achieves several benefits, notably higher efficiency by chemical recuperation and much lower air pre-heater duty (size, weight and cost) by eliminating the need for excess cooling air. The process facilitates sequestration of fuel carbon content by segregation of product CO2 from non-condensable gases. This innovation closes a significant void in the technology required to implement efficient, quiet and clean electric aircraft propulsion and power systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed innovation would find application in meeting NASA needs related to:
? Fuel processing for electric aircraft propulsion and auxiliary power systems
? Ground based hydrogen production with CO2 sequestration

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed innovation would be generally applicable to the following non-NASA commercial applications:
? Aircraft and automotive auxiliary power
? Highway truck hotel power
? Fuel processing for automotive fuel cell electric vehicles
? Point of use hydrogen generation
? Stationary electric power generating plants


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A2.03-8862 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023137 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS3-03021
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Revolutionary Technologies and Components for Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Titanium-based Lattice Block Structures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Titech International, Inc.
4000 West Valley Boulevard
Pomona , CA   91769 - 3060
(909 ) 595 - 7455

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Edward Chen
ti_castings@msn.com
4000 West Valley Boulevard
Pomona , CA   91769 - 3060
(909 ) 595 - 7455

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Lattice block structures are innovative periodic cellular materials that derive their outstanding mechanical performance from a structure of highly ordered internal triangles, rather than the properties of the parent material. They are innovations that can provide tremendous opportunities for weight and cost reduction in future aerospace and non-aerospace systems. To date, lattice block structures have been successfully fabricated for a number of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, but not extremely difficult to cast reactive metals such as titanium-based alloys. As titanium is one of the most important metallic materials in existence today, with growing importance in aerospace systems due to its superior strength-to-density, high temperature strength, and corrosion resistance, titanium alloy lattice block structures offer significant benefits to NASA and the industry if they can be successfully produced. Consequently, the purpose of this SBIR Phase II effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of casting full scale lattice block structures from titanium alloys using a proprietary investment casting process. A successful Phase II project paves the way to manufacturing actual lattice block structural components in Phase III and beyond, providing the necessary foundation for a more widespread acceptance of this unique technology in the industry.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Titanium-based alloys, including gamma titanium aluminides, are high temperature materials that can meet the ever-increasing demands for more robust, higher temperature-tolerant, and lighter weight hypersonic vehicle airframe components for commercial and military systems. Titanium and gamma lattice block materials can be used as low weight structures within these applications. For example, gamma lattice block structures could be considered for sandwich structures for thermal protection system for the reusable launch vehicle.

Other potential NASA commercial applications include aircraft engine components such as fan blade and compressor casings, nozzle flaps, and engine tiles for next generation aircraft gas turbines.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Essentially, any application and/or industry that need superior strength-to-density within relative affordability while retaining the physical properties of titanium and gamma alloys could use lattice block structures. Furthermore, those that require potential replacements for Ni-based superalloys at lower temperatures and for titanium alloys at higher temperatures could consider gamma alloys. Potential commercial applications include aero engine components, automotive engine components, and aircraft and spacecraft structural applications. Other possible uses of lattice block materials include components for furniture, shipboard structures, building structures, automotive vehicle frames, and a potentially limitless number of other possibilities.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A2.04-8134 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023865 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS1-03014
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Airframe Systems Noise Prediction and Reduction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Improving Binaural Simulation of Structural Acoustics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AUSIM, Incorporated
241 Polaris Avenue
Mountain View , CA   94043 - 4514
(650 ) 322 - 8746

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joel Storckman
jstorckman@ausim3d.com
241 Polaris Avenue
Mountain View , CA   94043 - 4514
(650 ) 322 - 8746

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Phase I showed that the Singular Value Decompostion (SVD) technique significantly reduces processing requirements for 3D binaural rendering using Head Related Transfer Function (HRTF) datasets. Equally important, the Equivalent Source Reduction (ESR) experiments completed show a dramatic simplification of the problem of acoustically modeling surfaces, with little to no perceivable difference in the auralization.

While AuSIM3D? real-time binaural rendering capacity has grown from a few point sound sources four years ago to a few dozen point sources presently, largely due to gains in commodity processor speed, the performance improvement capacity shown by SVD and the simplification of the acoustic surface modeling problem demonstrated possible with ESR has been much more dramatic. Our results show hundreds of point sources can now be realistically rendered in real-time, and that these sources can represent a relatively large surface with negligible loss of accuracy. When these techniques are integrated in the AuSIM3D client and server applications as proposed in Phase II, it will be possible for the first time to binaurally render the sound of an acoustic disturbance applied to a surface model of considerable area.

AuSIM is also eager to optimize the ESR and SVD implementations into commercial-quality software applications to create the next generation of AuSIM3D technology. With the newly added horsepower, AuSIM3D applications will be soon able to render directly the acoustic data generated by industry standard Finite Element Analysis (FEA) acoustics vendors such as MSC/Nastran, COMET Acoustics, and ABAQUS. These firms have already signed Letters of Intent to provide whatever technical support, collaboration, and marketing resources we need to become fully interoperable with their systems. Soon designers will be able to regularly hear the acoustic performance of the surfaces they've designed while the models are still on the electronic drawing board.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
AuSIM's end product will import acoustic data from major commercial FEA packages, allowing NASA to use computer models of aerospace surfaces for airplanes, rotorcraft, and space vehicles. NASA applications that have a need to perceive the acoustic characteristics of aerospace surfaces range from assisting the design phase and the design promotion phase to, in the worst-case-scenario, assisting in the accident analysis phase.

In the design and redesign of new and existing aerospace vehicles, it will be very useful to hear the effect of airflow on external surfaces. Although noise levels alone can be quantified fairly well with existing technology, the spectral coloration that gives each sound its distinct characteristics can also determine how pleasant or unpleasant the sound will be to listeners. The acoustic comfort level of the crew and passengers inside the craft is an important design factor, as it will affect the flight crew's level of fatigue, which will affect their ability to operate the craft safely.

Another factor of concern to NASA engineers is the sound generated by an aircraft or spacecraft that reaches the ears of people on the ground. Our end product will enable a design to be simulated under a range of normal operating conditions, and enable the completion of a perceptual study that will help determine which designs will have the minimum negative psychological impact on passengers, ground crew, and the general public.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The largest commercial applications of the technology would be in the aircraft and automobile industries, where millions of dollars are spent yearly to get new vehicles to operate with a more comfortable noise level. The real-time acoustic data rendering capabilities that would be enabled with the development of the SVD/ESR-enhanced 3D audio binaural simulation software could be applied widely throughout the automobile design world by licensing it to be integrated with existing and broadly used industrial acoustics analysis packages. Such a combined package would offer significantly more display versatility to engineers designing to optimize acoustic performance than any other package available today.

Existing FEA packages with acoustics analysis modules do well at quantifying the noise levels and spectral characteristics of vehicle surfaces in the presence of an acoustic disturbance, but determining which frequency distributions plotted on a view graph will produce a negative visceral human response, versus which ones will sound pleasant or unobtrusive, is still an inexact science at best. Therefore, vehicle designers are required to produce multiple prototypes and test them acoustically before bringing a product to market. Our Phase II product will give these designers, and even their decision-making managers, the ability to hear prototypes in service before they ever leave the electronic drawing board, saving significant costs in the product prototype mockup stage.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A3.01-8246 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023753 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS1-03016
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Small Aircraft Transportation System Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: SATS Virtual Market Place Facilitating Traffic Flow Management

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Metron, Inc.
131 Elden Street, Suite 200
Herndon , VA   20170 - 4835
(703 ) 787 - 8700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris Brinton
brinton@metronaviation.com
131 Elden Street, Suite 200
Herndon , VA   20170 - 4835
(703 ) 234 - 0782

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) concept envisions a dramatic change in demand on National Airspace System (NAS) resources: a significantly increased number of flights operating as needed on Point-to-Point (PTP) routes with smaller aircraft. In addition to the increased demand on the NAS, the dynamic, ?on-demand?, nature of the SATS concept will present even greater challenges to the country?s Traffic Flow Management (TFM) system. The NAS regulates the flow of aircraft through TFM initiatives. However, the current TFM system does not perform well under uncertain demand patterns. The innovation proposed herein creates a website marketplace for providers and consumers of SATS services. More importantly, our innovation links the information from this SATS website to the Nation?s TFM system. Critical information regarding projected demand can be provided to the TFM system to allow the necessary management of the NAS. Advanced portions of this concept include interactivity between the SATS website and the TFM system to notify consumers of small aircraft transportation services regarding projected delays due to congestion along their requested route of flight at their requested flight time. In phase II of this effort, a human-in-the-loop simulation will be conducted using a prototype system to evaluate the concept.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SATS-VMP concept provides critical modeling and analysis elements to support further research into the SATS concept. The SATS concept will have a dramatic effect on the National Airspace System (NAS). In order to continue to refine and enhance the SATS concept itself, the interconnection with the NAS must be evaluated. As NASA continues to refine and develop the modeling and analysis efforts associated with both the SATS concept, and air transportation in general, components of the simulation and analysis conducted in this effort can be enhanced and provided for further NASA application.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A significant need exists for the SATS-VMP technology. The TFM system requires improved operational predictability, which the SATS-VMP concept provides. Metron Aviation is competing on an FAA procurement to modernize the TFM system to which the SATS-VMP concept can be applied. Commercially, a website can be created for purchasing charter travel services. The SATS-VMP website can provide public awareness of charter operations and interaction with the TFM system. The operators of the SATS-VMP website can use multiple revenue models, including transaction fees for bookings and advertising. Licensing the SATS-VMP concept to another website operator is also under consideration


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A3.01-9714 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022285 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS1-03018
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Small Aircraft Transportation System Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Avionics Based Runway Incursion Prevention

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rannoch Corporation
1800 Diagonal Road, Suite 430
Alexandria , VA   22314 - 2840
(703 ) 838 - 9780

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rick Cassell
rcassell@rannoch.com
1800 Diagonal Road, Suite 430
Alexandria , VA   22314 - 2840
(703 ) 838 - 9780

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This research involves the adaptation of an aircraft based runway incursion advisory and alerting system for general aviation applications. PathProx is a runway incursion advisory and alerting system developed by Rannoch Corporation for air carrier operations. The work under Phase I of this SBIR included the definition of the developmental needs for adapting the PathProx conflict detection and alerting collision avoidance algorithms to General Aviation (GA) operations. Systems currently being deployed by the FAA are based on a ground infrastructure where runway incursion conflict alerts generated by the system are provided to ATC. Under this operational scenario the pilot is not provided with conflict alert information in the cockpit, leaving the aircraft dependent on the ground ATC infrastructure and human response. A General Aviation runway incursion advisory and alerting system will provide the following safety benefits:

?Reduction in the likelihood of near collisions resulting from runway incursions.
?Improved pilot response in taking evasive actions following incursions.
?Provision of runway incursion alerting at airports not equipped with surface surveillance systems
?Provision of runway incursion alerting at uncontrolled (non-towered) airports

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are two current NASA programs where GA runway incursion alerting has application ? Aviation Safety and the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). The Aviation Safety program includes the Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS), which has been addressing runway incursion prevention for air carrier operations. This program also includes General Aviation operations, however there has no work done to date on the GA application. The PathProx GA implementation would fulfill that role.

GA runway incursion alerting would be an augmentation to the SATS program. Although the SATS operational concept does not include runway incursion alerting, it does include conflict detection and alerting in the terminal area ? under the High Volume Operations (HVO) part of the SATS program. PathProx runway incursion alerting would extend the alerting to include the airport surface.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ultimate product that would result from this research has potential application to general aviation, because runway incursions are a significant problem at all classes of airports. A runway incursion alerting system is currently not available to any class of aircraft. It is envisaged that the PathProx alerting algorithms would be a supplement to several other technologies that are currently under development. These other technologies are GPS, ADS-B, and CDTI. As the infrastructure for these technologies is established, it will be easy to integrate aircraft based PathProx into the avionics.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A3.02-8938 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023061 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS2-03108
SUBTOPIC TITLE: 21st Century Air-Traffic Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: NAS-Wide Environmental Modeling of Alternative Airspace Concepts

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Metron, Inc.
131 Elden Street, Suite 200
Herndon , VA   20170 - 4835
(703 ) 787 - 8700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Terry Thomspon
thomspon@metronaviation.com
131 Elden Street, Suite 200
Herndon , VA   20170 - 4835
(703 ) 234 - 0789

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA, through several technology and concept development projects, is developing simulation/evaluation tools to assess the capacity and efficiency of alternative airspace/operational concepts. Missing from the current tool suite, however, is the ability to evaluate concepts from the perspective of environmental impact ? a key missing piece required to move a promising concept from simulation to implementation. To fill this gap, Metron Aviation develops a NAS-wide environmental impact modeling (NASEIM) service and fully integrates access to this service within the Advanced Concept Evaluation System (ACES), a fast-time simulator being developed as a national resource for evaluating NAS concepts. NASEIM not only spares researchers from the computational burden and data requirements associated with environmental modeling, but provides innovative tools for interpreting modeling results. The design of NASEIM allows fast-time noise computation ? consistent with the needs of the simulation it is supporting. In addition to noise modeling, NASEIM integrates air quality impact assessment in the form of emissions inventories, providing a more complete environmental impact picture. Using NASEIM, researchers can, early in the development cycle, identify concept elements that are significant contributors to specific impacts. Further, NASEIM allows comparison across multiple concepts. Phase II concludes with an integrated demonstration of NASEIM with ACES.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed NASEIM service is initially targeted for application to the Advanced Concept Evaluation System (ACES) simulation environment being developed under the Virtual Airspace Modeling and Simulation (VAMS) project. By generalizing the interfaces and services designed in Phase II and leveraging existing web-based protocols, we open up access to NASEIM to other simulation environments. Another particularly viable NASA application is the Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET). Other potential ?clients? include CTAS tools such as FAST and EDP ? where NASEIM could assess impacts of a given window of traffic or, alternatively, provide real-time support for the CTAS decision logic.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In direct response to the globalization of air travel and increasing environment concerns, potential commercial applications of NASEIM include:
? State and local governmental bodies that need low-cost access to environmental modeling that across many airports and large regions;
? Transport providers that need the ability to see what impacts their evolving business strategies may have on the environment, and where their strategies may potentially conflict with environmental concerns;
? Aerospace firms and other contractors interested in airspace concepts that need a nationwide modeling capability to reduce the need for duplication of data, model elements, and analytical effort.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A3.02-9526 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022473 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS2-03109
SUBTOPIC TITLE: 21st Century Air-Traffic Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Tool for the Evaluation of Proposed TFM Initiatives

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Metron, Inc.
131 Elden Street, Suite 200
Herndon , VA   20170 - 4835
(703 ) 787 - 8700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dan Rosman
rosman@metronaviation.com
131 Elden Street, Suite 200
Herndon , VA   20170 - 4835
(703 ) 234 - 0731

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Metron Aviation, Inc. builds the Pre-Operations Hypothesis Evaluation Tool (PROPHET), a tool for Traffic Flow Management (TFM) that integrates existing and emerging technologies in the areas of modeling and operations analysis to enable the evaluation of proposed TFM initiatives. The key innovation of this effort is the integration of the Post Operations Evaluation Tool (POET) and the Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET) to accomplish ew tasks that neither of these tools can do alone. This development leverages the following key features: FACET?s trajectory prediction and modeling capabilities, and POET?s mature database management system and operations analysis tools. By integrating the tools we provide a system allowing Traffic Flow Managers to investigate future TFM initiatives in real-time. These users then exploit the tool?s analysis capabilities to observe and compare the benefits and impacts of several proposed initiatives prior to operational implementation ? an assessment carried out based on explicit reasoning regarding uncertainty. In Phase I, we provided a proof-of-concept, demonstrating technical feasibility. In Phase II, we develop a plug-and-play module for FACET enabling interaction with POET?s databases and data mining capabilities and providing users access to PROPHET functionality. Phase II culminates in a demonstration of this plug-and-play functionality.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed PROPHET tool is initially targeted towards researchers at NASA Ames developing and enhancing the Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET). Additional NASA applications include real-time VAST-RT tools and the fast-time Advanced Concept Evaluation System (ACES) being developed under NASA?s Virtual Airspace Modeling and Simulation (VAMS) project. Real-time application would allow concept developers to ?test drive? different concept-specific strategies with Traffic Flow Managers ?in-the-loop?, and directly compare their performance against other baseline strategies used today. Integration of PROPHET?s functionality into ACES? various strategic TFM agents will allow fast-time evaluation of the potential for automating robust TFM decision-making under uncertainty.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential commercial applications of PROPHET include:
? Near Real-Time Decision-Support Tool (DST) for specialists at the ATCSCC
? Near Real-Time DST for Traffic Flow Managers at FAA field facilities including ARTCCs, TRACONs, and ATC Towers
? Supporting various industry working groups (such as CDM) in prototyping and evaluating novel TFM concepts
? Supporting airlines in filing flight plans and managing their operations network
? Supporting aviation industry/university researchers
? Applicability to TFM concerns of EuroControl and other international ATM organizations
Through these applications, PROPHET allows users to actively participate in developing robust TFM solutions consistent with local and system-wide concerns.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A3.02-9528 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022471 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS2-03110
SUBTOPIC TITLE: 21st Century Air-Traffic Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Efficient Air Traffic Scenario Generation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Seagull Technology, Inc.
1700 Dell Avenue
Campbell , CA   95008 - 6902
(408 ) 364 - 8200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mr. David B. Signor
dsignor@seagull.com
1700 Dell Avenue
Campbell , CA   95008 - 6902
(408 ) 364 - 8219

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovation is the use of advanced GUI and underlying functionality to reduce the time and effort required for real-time air traffic simulation scenario development. Our product directly addresses efficient generation of scenarios for real-time HITL simulations which analyze NAS operational performance and economic impact. Thus, we are responsive to: next generation simulation and modeling capability; NAS operational performance, economic impact; and real-time simulations: components with different levels of fidelity, human in-the-loop - in the A3.02 subtopic. The project objectives are to field a working prototype during Phase-II that demonstrates efficient scenario generation and incorporate feedback into a range of profitable commercial scenario generation products. The Phase-II effort includes; (1) refine application requirements; (2) refine application architecture;, (3) implement and evaluate the Phase-II prototype; and (4) prepare Phase-III business plans. We anticipate the Phase-II prototype to demonstrate significant efficiency gains regarding scenario generation - initially for the ATM domain and subsequently for other domains. Our application supports NASA human factors research regarding; current and future airspace systems, human performance, human-computer interfaces, distributed human decision-making, and design/evaluation of decision support tools. Benefits include: (1) increased scenario generation efficiency by reducing both time and resource requirements; (2) usable scenario output across multiple simulation facilities; (3) compatibility with distributed simulations; and (4) reduced need of expensive target simulation facilities for scenario development and evaluation. The period of benefit will begin during Phase-II and continue as long as there is a need for efficient scenario generation ? we expect tangible benefits for the next 10 years.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The initial NASA application will enable scenarios used in real-time HITL simulations to be generated and changed much more efficiently than they are today. The Phase-II prototype will be the first demonstration of the collection of innovative features and is intended to provide tangible near-term benefits to NASA real-time simulation efforts such as the VAMS project. Our application will support more complex and extensive research into a variety of human factors issues regarding current and future airspace systems including:, human performance, human-computer interfaces, distributed human decision-making, and design and evaluation of decision support tools. The proposed application would enable not only increased efficiency in generating the initial scenario but would allow the scenario to be changed while preserving the salient features of the desired experiment. With some modifications to the initial application it will support additional NASA applications including: (1) scenario generation for fast-time air traffic simulators such as NASA?s Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES); (2) the study of integration of new vehicle concepts such as SATS aircraft, reusable launch vehicles, and uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) into the National Airspace System; and (3) the static and dynamic visualization of air traffic research results.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The FAA, commercial airlines and fleet operators perform airspace analysis regularly. An improved scenario generation application would support; technology investment decision making, new procedure design, new operational concept robustness analysis, operations analysis, airport and airspace design and capacity studies, noise and emissions analysis, fleet response planning, and training. The FAA may use our product in connection with real-time simulations to provide quick-turnaround, human factors analysis of future operational concepts. Within commercial air traffic market, there is a growing demand for airspace operation simulation research to support: a) communication, navigation, and surveillance, and weather sensing equipment loading and placement analysis; b) UAV and commercial space launch scheduling and design; c) planning and procedure development; d) mission training and rehearsal; e) mission debrief; f) pilot training; g) safety training; h) aviation security threat analysis; i) situation re-enactment and post-mortem analysis; and j) accident/incident investigation. Our application can be used by scientific researchers as a graphical display and analysis tool for illustrating: conflict detection and resolution study result;, airport design or redesign; en route planning; and re-planning or weather avoidance research results. Adacel is interested in our application regarding generation of scenarios for non-ATM applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A4.01-8734 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023265 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS8-03006
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Transportation Architecture Definition
PROPOSAL TITLE: Dynamic Transfer Function Measurements for Cavitating Pumps

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Concepts ETI, Inc.
217 Billings Farm Road
White River Jct , VT   05001 - 9486
(802 ) 296 - 2321

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Karl D. Wygant
kdw@conceptsnrec.com
217 Billings Farm Road
White River Jct , VT   05001 - 9486
(802 ) 296 - 2321

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Phase I effort demonstrated the feasibility of measuring cavitating inducer dynamic transfer functions using an upgraded Concepts NREC pump test facility. As there are no analytical tools or experimental facilities in the world today that can quantify a cavitating inducer?s dynamic transfer function, developing this capability is crucial for the safety, reliability and competitiveness of the American Space Industry. An innovative experimental technique that uses mappings of inlet and exit flow and pressure fluctuations to quantify a cavitating inducer?s dynamic transfer function is proposed. A cavitating inducer can be a source of instability in a rocket vehicle. Due to cavitation dynamics, inlet flow perturbations maybe amplified by the inducer resulting in very large flow and pressure fluctuations in the fuel system. The resulting dynamic couplings can lead to vehicle instability (POGO) as well as generate intense dynamic loadings on the turbopump. The feasibility of implementing the proposed measurement technique on an upgraded Concepts NREC water flow test loop was demonstrated in the Phase I effort. Implementation of the test loop upgrades and demonstration of the transfer function measurement technique on a scaled inducer with a historical pedigree will occur in the proposed Phase II effort.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As mission requirements lead to higher power density turbopumps with lower specific weights and higher suction specific speed requirements the potential for flow-induced dynamic instabilities, both at the turbopump level and at the system level, increase. Rocket vehicle dynamic models require an accurate dynamic characterization for the inducer. The proposed experimentally measured dynamic transfer functions will provide accurate and reliable pump dynamic attributes which are necessary to assess the probability of destructive flow instabilities, such as cavitation surge and rotating cavitation, and their effect on engine component reliability and life expectancy and integrated vehicle system instability.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High energy density turbomachines such as gas re-injection pumps and compressors and high-energy density industrial pumps are a source of instability. Accurate dynamic characterizations of these machines are required to ensure safe and reliable operation of the systems into which they are installed. In addition to understanding the dynamic attributes of these machines under cavitation or stalled conditions, the dynamic transfer function under normal operating conditions is also required. The methodology proposed to measure the dynamic transfer function of a cavitating inducer is transferable. The proposer is well positioned to commercialize the technology to both aerospace and industrial customers.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A4.02-7982 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024017 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS9-03008
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Structures, Materials, and Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Production of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNT) by catalytic disproportionation of CO in a continuous fluidized bed system ? Phase II

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Southwest Nanotechnologies, Inc.
710 Asp Avenue, Suite 303
Norman , OK   73069 - 4324
(405 ) 217 - 8388

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Leandro Balzano
lbalzano@swnano.com
710 Asp Avenue, Suite 303
Norman , OK   73069 - 4324
(405 ) 217 - 8388

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The overall goal of SouthWest Nanotechnologies (SWeNT) is the development of superior technology for the large-scale manufacturing and marketing of nanotubes of unique quality for near-term specialty applications. The Phase I of this SBIR focused in demonstrating that SWeNT's process can be scaled-up to a continuous-mode operation. In the commercialization aspects, the company focused on developing strong partnerships with companies such as Dupont, ChevronPhillips, General Electric, Applied Nanotechnologies Inc., and Nomadics, who will use nanotubes for their end-products.

The low operating costs and scalability of the SWeNT's process, coupled with its versatility for producing nanotubes with tailored structure are attractive characteristics that may make this technology the preferred mode of nanotube production. The expertise developed at SWeNT may position the company in a leading role in the field of nanotube-based materials.

To consolidate the technology and boost the commercialization of SWeNT's products, phase 2 includes the expansion of the nanotube production capabilities and the development of applications to take advantage of the uniqueness of the SWeNT's process for tailoring nanotubes for each specific application. The targeted applications are directly relevant to NASA's stated goals and include structural and conducting composites, fuel cells, microelectronic parts, and field emission devices.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A4.02 Space Structures, Materials, and Mfg
A8.01 Revolutionary Aerospace Vehicle Sys. Concepts
E2.01 Structures and Materials

SWeNT is working with ChevronPhillips Chemical and Lockheed Martin, to help advance this project by "market pull," rather than by "technology push." SWeNT's success in Phase 1 is reflected in the commitment of these two organizations in Phase 2.

Additionally, with the support of the University of Oklahoma, GBTech, and ConocoPhillips, the Company expects to deliver NASA-spec material at the end of this phase 2 project.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Company will focus on near-term specialty applications for carbon nanotubes. These include structural and conducting composites, fuel cells, microelectronic devices, and flat-panel displays. The aforementioned products will drive demand, resulting in demonstrable near-term revenue.

SWeNT is currently working with ~10 Fortune 500 companies on various application development programs. In July 2003, after only six months in operation, the Company began making commercial sales. This was partially a result of NASA's phase 1 funding to SWeNT, and provides validation that NASA dollars were spent wisely. At the start of Phase 1, the Company is pleased to announce that it received an investment and partnership from ConocoPhillips.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A4.02-8771 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023228 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS8-03008
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Structures, Materials, and Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultrasonic Tape Laminated Cryogenic Tank Structures Processed Outside Autoclave

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Foster-Miller, Inc.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham , MA   02451 - 1196
(781 ) 684 - 4000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Player
jplayer@foster-miller.com
350 Second Ave.
Waltham , MA   02451 - 1196
(781 ) 622 - 5502

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Recent designs for large aerospace structures especially cryotank structures for the second and third Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) are driving the aerospace community to develop out-of-autoclave composite manufacturing processes to save an estimated $30 million in autoclave capital equipment costs. In the Phase I effort, this process was demonstrated to produce excellent quality laminates typical for most of the thin regions of cryotank structure. In this proposed Phase II effort, Foster-Miller will further refine its Ultrasonic Tape Lamination (UTL?) technology coupled with its novel out-of-autoclave processing approach, controlled state curing, and demonstrate that reinforced regions cryotank structure can be fabricated with this novel methodology. The proposed Phase II program will also advance the state of art for the UTL? equipment by developing key articulation control mechanisms for complex contour fabrication. Foster-Miller will fabricate and deliver the resulting advanced UTL? head to NASA at the conclusion of the Phase II program. Foster-Miller will also fabricate a cylindrical demonstrator using both the advanced UTL? equipment and the refined controlled state curing technique. Northrop Grumman and Alliant TechSystems (ATK) supported the Phase I program, and both have agreed to cost share in the proposed Phase II program. (P-030587)

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Foster-Miller?s UTL ? technology, coupled with its novel out-of-autoclave processing approach, controlled state curing can be utilized during the manufacture of many of NASA?s large aerospace structures. The most prominent are the cryogenic fuel tanks for the next generations of reusable launch vehicle. Although the cryotanks provide the largest immediate cost savings primarily due to the elimination of autoclave capital investment, the opportunity to save manufacturing costs with this novel out-of-autoclave processing approach exists for other large space vehicle structures such as RLV wing skins, payload bay and landing gear doors. Other launch vehicles such as Delta IV rocket and its composite payload fairings also provide an excellent cost saving opportunity for the UTL?/controlled state bag-less technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Foster-Miller?s UTL?/controlled state bag-less cure has the potential to dramatically change the cost structure for fabricating a wide range of commercial aircraft composite components. Many of the large nacelle and flight control structures on Boeing and Airbus aircraft require multiple autoclave cycles for their manufacture, incurring substantial costs in cycle time and associated labor. Foster-Miller?s UTL?/controlled state bag-less cure would eliminate the need for the autoclave and perhaps more importantly, would eliminate the labor costs associated with vacuum bagging, usually performed several times during a component?s fabrication. UTL?/controlled state bag-less curing can also be applied to the manufacture of a wide range of other large composite structures that need high quality at low cost such as thick tubulars for offshore oil drilling, military fighter structures (JSF, F-18E/F, and V22) and military space plane structures (Air Force SOV cryotanks).


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A4.02-8845 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023154 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS8-03009
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Structures, Materials, and Manufacturing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Innovative Tungsten Alloys for Advanced Propulsion Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Plasma Processes, Inc.
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville , AL   35811 - 1558
(256 ) 851 - 7653

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Hickman
robert@plasmapros.com
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville , AL   35811 - 1558
(256 ) 851 - 7653

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Non-conventional technologies are needed to revolutionize space propulsion. Development of materials with improved properties is essential to increase performance and reduce cost. Advancements are needed for components in solid and hybrid rocket, high powered electrical, beamed energy, and nuclear propulsion systems. Innovative processes for fabricating net shape, tungsten-rhenium-hafnium carbide alloy components are proposed. Tungsten is being used for its high melting temperature (6170?F) and chemical stability. However, conventional tungsten materials have to be forged to get adequate properties. Forging tungsten into complex shapes is difficult and has limited its application. Small additions of rhenium improve the ductility of tungsten without significantly decreasing the melting point. Also, dispersion hardening by additions of HfC increases the high temperature strength and creep resistance by pinning grain boundaries. In Phase I, W-Re-HfC materials and processing parameters were developed, and W-Re-HfC samples were fabricated for characterization and hoop tensile testing. In hoop tensile tests, Phase I W-Re-HfC was stronger than baseline W-Re or W. Solid rocket nozzle inserts were fabricated and are being hot fire tested at ATK-Thiokol to demonstrate non-eroding nozzles. Development of these materials will allow the production of components with unique properties and reduce the size, weight, and cost of propulsion systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The results of the Phase I effort clearly demonstrate the ability to fabricate improved tungsten alloy components. Development of these advanced materials will produce robust components with unique properties and reduce the size, weight, and cost. Potential clients for these components are NASA, DOD, ATK-Thiokol, and Aerojet. PPI will develop and transfer the SBIR technology to other applications such as: rocket nozzles, Ballistic and tactical missiles, gun barrel liners, Arc-jet thrusters, Heat exchangers, welding electrodes, plasma facing components for nuclear reactors, gas turbines, automobile engines, incinerators, thermal control coatings, oxidation protective coatings, coatings for composite parts and structures, thermal barrier coatings, structural jackets on tubular combustors and nozzles, crucibles, tubes, valves, and storage vessels.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commerical applications are solid and hybrid rocket nozzles, high powered electrical contacts, crucibles, heat pipes, fuel cells, components for solar thermal propulsion, valves, liquid rocket motors, nuclear power containment, furnace parts, armor penetrators, heat shields, electronics, incinerators, protective coatings and other high temperature applications.
Over $300,000.00 of commercial investment has been obtained for Phase III development.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A5.01-7863 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024136 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS8-03010
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lightweight Engine Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Multilayer Fiber Interface Coatings for Improved Environmental Resistance and Slip in Ceramic Matrix Composites, Phase II

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ultramet
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima , CA   91331 - 2210
(818 ) 899 - 0236

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jason R. Babcock, Ph.D.
jason.babcock@ultramet.com
12173 Montague Street
Pacoima , CA   91331 - 2210
(818 ) 899 - 0236

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Application of fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMC) can enhance the efficiency and performance, reduce the weight, improve the durability, and lower the cost of rocket engine combustion devices and turbomachinery components used in high temperature, high-stress environments. Meeting these objectives requires improvements in fiber-reinforced CMC materials and fabrication processes, particularly improved fiber/matrix interfaces, interface deposition processes, and oxidation protection. In previous work, Ultramet developed an ultraviolet-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (UVCVD) process that allows deposition of dense, strain-tolerant ceramics at room temperature, thus avoiding heat-induced material degradation and providing excellent material performance, including enhanced oxidation protection. Although these coatings have improved performance, identifying a single phase that best performs the two key functions of the interface coating, oxidation protection and interface slip, has proven elusive. Phase I focused on development of both conventional CVD and UVCVD deposition techniques that resulted in several novel multilayer interface coating systems utilizing oxide and carbide phases. Fiber tows coated with multilayer systems exhibited dramatic improvement in tensile strength compared to both uncoated tows and fiber coated with a single oxide layer. One multilayer system was employed in the fabrication of a carbon fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) CMC that demonstrated the highest mechanical strength yet achieved for C/SiC using Ultramet's melt infiltration densification process, verifying the beneficial effect of the multilayer system via a 33% strength increase. The Phase II project will build on this encouraging preliminary room temperature data via further optimization of multilayer interface deposition at Ultramet and extensive evaluation of both coated tows and CMCs utilizing the coatings at the elevated temperatures expected in actual use.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Ceramic matrix composite materials are projected to significantly increase safety and reduce costs simultaneously, while decreasing weight for space transportation propulsion. Innovative material and process technology advancements are required to enable long life, reliable, and environmentally durable materials. Specific areas of technology development that are of interest include low-cost, rapid, scalable, repeatable CMC fabrication process development for multiple space transportation propulsion applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The composite materials to be developed in this project using innovative interfaces and novel UVCVD processing will have broad commercial applicability to a range of products, including fuel-rich turbomachinery components, aircraft engine components, recuperators, ducts, and other hot gas path components, process industry components requiring high temperature capability and corrosive environment resistance (e.g. hot gas and liquid handling equipment), furnace structures, and high temperature filter elements.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A5.01-9041 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022958 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS8-03012
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Lightweight Engine Components
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Cost, Polymer-Derived Interface Coatings for CMC Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Starfire Systems, Inc.
10 Hermes Road
Malta , NY   12020 - 1903
(518 ) 899 - 9336

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynn Tarnowski
tarnowskil@starfiresystems.com
10 Hermes Road
Malta , NY   12020 - 1903
(518 ) 899 - 9336

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The need for low density, high temperature materials in space has driven evaluation and implementation of carbon-carbon, ceramics and ceramic matrix composites (CMC) for structural applications. The thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties of ceramic matrix composites make them attractive both for next generation and retrofit applications. CMC?s require a fiber matrix interface coating to impart toughness, but the high cost of current interface coatings ? from 30 to 70% of the cost of a CMC part - has severely limited overall adoption of CMC?s. Low cost oxidation resistant coatings are the third leg of the CMC material triad (fiber-interface-matrix) needed to realize full commercial potential. Starfire polymer based coatings can reduce interface coating costs by 95%.
In Phase I, these coatings exhibited desirable interface properties (thin, uniform, debonding). The phase II effort will optimize these interface coatings such that they will protect the fiber from oxidation and support an oxygen sealing feature against both matrix micro-cracking and impact damage. The interface coatings will be validated for hypersonic, rocket, and turbine engine applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Key NASA applications are expected to include virtually all CMC applications such as thermal protection systems, turbo-pumps, cryotanks, nozzles, thrusters, and even space structures that would take advantage of the light weight and low thermal expansion properties of CMC?s. Specific programs may include: Integrated High Performance Turbine Technology (combustors, turbine rotors, exhaust nozzles); Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology (turbomachinery, nozzles, thrust chambers); Reusable and Expendable Launch Vehicles (thermal protection, thrust chambers, nozzles, brakes); In-Space Propulsion (maneuvering thrusters).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Low cost, oxidation resistant fiber interface coatings will enable ceramic composites to be utilized in a wide range of applications where they are currently considered too costly. Specific applications that have been identified as potential markets include: brakes for commercial and military aircraft; brakes for automobiles, trucks, heavy equipment and trains; hot gas filters for pressurized fluidized bed combustion and integrated gasification combined cycle systems; furnace hardware such as pipe hangers for petroleum refining; reverberatory screens in porous radiant surface burners used for drying, curing and process heating, components for melting and handling metals; non-rotating components in ground-based gas turbines, especially combustion liners and shrouds; heat exchangers for externally-fired combine cycle (EFCC) power systems, thermophotovoltaic power systems for household appliances and quiet generators, reforming tubes for the chemical processing industry; and exhaust manifolds and high temperature engine components for diesel and gasoline powered auto engines.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A5.02-8092 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023907 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS1-03020
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Reusable Launch Vehicle Airframe Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Emissivity Protective Cerablak Coatings for Metallic TPS

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Applied Thin Films, Inc.
1801 Maple Ave., Suite 5316
Evanston , IL   60201 - 3135
(847 ) 467 - 5235

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kimberly Steiner
ksteiner@atfinet.com
1801 Maple Ave., Suite 5316
Evanston , IL   60201 - 3135
(847 ) 491 - 3373

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Space transportation and other vehicles entering the earth?s atmosphere at hypersonic speeds undergo aerodynamic heating which necessitates thermal protection systems (TPS) on exterior surfaces. Future reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) will require TPS durable over several missions with rapid turnaround between each flight. Advanced metallic TPS are under development that utilize a honeycomb structure with thin face sheets (typically 7-10 mils) that are coated to provide high emissivity, oxidation protection, and low catalytic efficiency. Currently-available TPS coatings are not adequate and do not have the durability required for use with RLVs. Thus, a new coating system with suitable and environmentally-friendly formulations are required that meet the basic property requirements and also have the ability to withstand the harsh acoustic and aerodynamic thermal environments during reentry over several missions. Phase I results demonstrated technical feasibility of an innovative approach utilizing a nanocomposite material (Cerablak) that contain carbon as nanosized inclusions to provide emissivity. The coatings are deposited using low-cost, simple, easy-to-apply, and stable formulations. High emissivity properties after heat treatment and excellent protection against oxidation protection were demonstrated. Phase II effort will include further optimization of precursor formulations and coating properties with the primary objective to meet the durability requirements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Direct use of the proposed technology will be with metallic TPS which are being developed by several companies for both NASA and DoD. ATFI intends to commercialize the technology through strategic partnerships with these companies. Black pigmented high emissivity paints are currently used on various parts of NASA?s space shuttle fleet. The proposed coating product offers many advantages including low-cost, durable high emissivity, ease of applicability, relatively thin, and oxidation protection. The proposed formulations contain no VOCs, have extended shelf stability (years), and require short curing times. The coating can be applied using brush/spray/flow/dip coating methods. With these attributes and relative low-cost, the proposed technology has excellent potential for insertion. Excellent oxidation protection has been demonstrated with thin hermetic glassy films (200-500nm) with excellent adhesion properties on alloys that will be useful for turbomachinery components, seals, and other components exposed to high temperatures during service.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High emissivity coatings are being widely used to limit heat transfer in furnaces, boilers, ducts, and other components and to improve thermal efficiency and performance of IR radiant burners used in the energy industry. The proposed product will help improve performance and will be durable that will result in lower maintenance costs and downtimes for production. In addition, oxidation protection will also be beneficial in both protecting the components as well as to prevent cracking and spallation of the high emissivity coating. Due to the large volumes of formulations used, environmental concerns are more relevant for these commercial applications. Hence the zero VOC and environmentally-friendly formulation offered by the proposed technology will serve as a distinct advantage over currently-used products. The ease and flexibility of application of the coating and short curing times will be especially beneficial as minimal training or skills will be required to perform the function.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A5.02-8195 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023804 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS1-03021
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Reusable Launch Vehicle Airframe Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Design Sensitivities of Response/Fatigue Life of Panels to Thermo-Acoustic Loads

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Zona Technology, Inc.
7430 E. Stetson Drive, Suite 205
Scottsdale , AZ   85251 - 3540
(480 ) 945 - 9988

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jennifer Scherr
jennifer@zonatech.com
7430 E. Stetson Drive, Suite 205
Scottsdale , AZ   85251 - 3540
(480 ) 945 - 9988

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Among the critical components of the next generation launch technology (NGLT) is the design of panels and ?integrated panel systems? (panel + support + thermal protection system). Such an effort can be built upon ELSTEP/FAT, an existing ZONA software providing accurate predictions of the response and fatigue life of panels subjected to severe acoustic loads and thermal effects. The work carried out successfully during the Phase I led to the formulation and proof-of-concept validation of an estimation strategy of the sensitivities of a panel to changes in its geometric and/or material properties. Accordingly, the first focus of the proposed Phase II effort will be on the generalization of the approach to account for changes in all aspects of the 2 or 3-dimensional panel geometry and on the various material properties involved (Young?s modulus, ply angles and thickness, ...). Panels are not independent structures but are part of more complex systems, e.g. panel + support + TPS, and an accurate estimate of the response/life of the panels must include the interaction with these other components. Accordingly, the predictive and sensitivity capabilities of ELSTEP/FAT must be extended and validated for such integrated systems. Computational aspects will also be re-visited to maintain the efficiency of ELSTEP/FAT.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed design-oriented software (ELSTEP/FAT) will become the only available tool for the prediction of the response, fatigue life, and their design sensitivities of panels subjected to thermo-acoustic loads. Additionally, it will include the capability to model the integrated panel system (panel + support thermal protection system) and thus will help in the transition from component design to system design. With its strong focus on fatigue, ELSTEP/FAT will cover two separate markets (panels and fatigue) thereby increasing its distribution potential. ZONA can market ELSTEP/FAT through agreement with MSC Software (seamlessly integrated) or as a standalone package loosely integrated with several nonlinear finite element packages. It can be adopted by structural engineers for a wide class of aerospace vehicles ranging from JSF, UAV/UCAV, supersonic transports, reusable launch vehicles, RLV/TAV and other new hypersonic aerospace vehicles. It will be an ideal design tool for the current NASA projects under its space initiative and, with its sensitivity analysis, will also naturally support the NASA multidisciplinary optimization efforts. Other than NASA, potential customers include R&D and design arms of DoD Government and private industry such as ZONA?s ZAERO software users in the structures community. With ZONA?s user/customer network, the marketing of ELSTEP/FAT is relatively straightforward with or without MSC Software.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ELSTEP/FAT software will occupy a unique niche as there is currently no software to predict the response/fatigue life of panels subjected to thermo-acoustic loads nor to evaluate the response/life design sensitivities. It will play an important role in the design of many flight vehicles including supersonic transports, reusable launch vehicles, RLV/TAV and other projects of NASA?s space initiative that experience severe thermal, acoustic, or both types of excitations. The inclusion of the TPS modeling and of its interaction with the panel will provide a common platform for the development of these components and will help to transition from component design to system design. Further, the reduced-order modeling of ELSTEP/FAT will lead to expedient sensitivity computations. Thus, ELSTEP/FAT will also naturally support NASA?s multidisciplinary optimization efforts.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A5.03-8079 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023920 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS8-03013
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nuclear and Exotic Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Technologies for Momentum-Exchange/Electrodynamic-Reboost Tether Facilities

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tethers Unlimited
19011 36th Ave W. Suite F
Lynnwood , WA   98036 - 5752
(425 ) 744 - 0400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Hoyt
hoyt@tethers.com
19011 36th Ave W. Suite F
Lynnwood , WA   98036 - 5752
(425 ) 744 - 0400

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The MXER Tether Boost Facility will serve as a fully-reusable in-space ?upper-stage? that will provide propellantless propulsion for orbital transfer and Earth-to-Orbit launch assist. By elimi-nating the need to launch an upper stage along with each payload, the MXER Tether can reduce the size of the launch vehicle needed to deploy the payloads, achieving dramatic reductions in total launch costs. In the Phase I effort, we successfully developed an architecture that will en-able MXER tethers to be constructed using small modular components that can be designed, tested, and mass-produced at low cost. We demonstrated methods for fabricating high-strength tether structures, for protecting the high-strength materials in the tethers from the atomic oxygen environment, and for providing the high voltages and high powers needed to enable the MXER system to restore its orbit using propellantless electro-dynamic propulsion. In the Phase II effort, we will develop tools for performing design trade studies of MXER Tether Systems. We will then use these tools to design a flight demonstration mission that will bring the components needed to build an operational MXER tether up to a TRL of 8. We will develop and test new methods and algorithms for controlling the dynamics of MXER tethers. Finally, we will design, build, and test a prototype tether deployer module suitable for use in both the flight demonstration and the opera-tional MXER tether.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The MXER Tether Boost Facility will particularly benefit NASA?s deep space missions, such as the Europa Lander, Titan Explorer, and Neptune Orbiter, by enabling them to use a much smaller launch vehicle, saving over $30M per mission. The MXER Tether can also achieve fivefold launch cost savings for NASA scientific missions to GEO, the Moon, and Mars. The high-power tether technologies developed in this SBIR can also provide propellantless propulsion for orbital transfer, asset repositioning, and deorbit of LEO spacecraft. Potential for Phase III success is demonstrated by the fact that during the Phase I SBIR effort, TUI was selected for award of two contracts from NASA?s In-Space Propulsion Program for development of tether technologies and simulation tools for MXER Tether systems, with total non-SBIR funding of up to $2.1M over the course of the proposed Phase II project.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The MXER Tether Boost Facility can also provide significant launch cost savings for DoD and commercial space organizations. It can combine with DARPA?s RASCAL launch system to pro-vide a rapid, low-cost means of delivering 200 kg microsatellites to GEO for space control and spacecraft servicing applications. The high-voltage power systems and space-survivable tether technologies developed by this SBIR also have applicability to an innovative new concept for remediation of natural and HAND-induced radiation belts. During the Phase I, TUI received $205K in DARPA funding for development of high-voltage and electrodynamic tether technologies that are directly relevant to the MXER Tether System. TUI has also been selected for award of a $350K DARPA seedling effort for the development of innovative technologies for capturing space objects. The high-strength tether technologies also have strong potential for solving some of the critical problems facing the oceanographic community in the area of deep-sea research cables.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A5.03-9245 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022754 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS8-03014
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nuclear and Exotic Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Grid-Sphere Electrode for Tether Current Collection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SRS Technologies
1800 Quail Street, Suite 101
Newport Beach , CA   92660 - 0000
(256 ) 971 - 7000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Nobie H. Stone
nstone@stg.srs.com
500 Discovery Drive
Huntsville , AL   35806 - 9999
(256 ) 971 - 7029

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Grid-Sphere is a passive electrode contactor that relies on a very large area to allow the collection of large currents from the ionosphere. Dynamic drag is minimized by using a grid construction. This Grid-Sphere can provide electrodynamic tethers with the ability to passively collect arbitrarily large currents at the positive pole?requiring only low bias voltages. This makes current collection independent of tether length and eliminates hazardous high-voltage operations. The Phase-1 results include the development of grid-film materials with the required characteristics and the derivation of a linearized model of the current collection process?and clearly show the Grid-Sphere to be feasible and to collect current with virtually the same efficiency as a solid-surface spherical electrode of the same radius.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Grid-Sphere electrode will be an attractive addition to space tether technology because it will allow the collection of arbitrarily large currents with arbitrarily short tether systems while maintaining very low dynamic drag. These characteristics will be enabling to applications such as the Tether Reboost System that has been proposed as a alternative means of reboosting and maintaining the orbit of the International Space Station?where the micro-gravity environment must be maintained, thereby prohibiting long tethers. It will also be a valuable asset for the MXER Tether Launch System concept being proposed as a low-cost alternative to second-stage boosters for missions requiring launch into deep space. In this case, high-power electrodynamic reboost of the MXER system will be essential to achieve efficiencies competitive with alternative launch technologies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Grid-Sphere Electrode relies on deploying a very large-scale spherical body of 10 to 20 meters or more in radius. Dynamic drag is minimizing by using a grid construction so that orbital lifetime may be very long?even in LEO. The Grid-Sphere can, therefore, be used as a very large RF antenna that could remain in LEO for long periods of time. Grids can be upwards of 90-percent transparent, in order to minimize drag, and still allow grid spacings ranging from sub-millimeter to several centimeters to be used. Grid spacing can, therefore, be selected to match the frequency range of the RF band used. Placing such an antenna in LEO would minimize the distance to mobile ground-based transmitters, thereby reducing transmitter power requirements and improving receiver sensitivity.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A5.04-8190 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023809 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS13-03006
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Testing of Rocket Engines
PROPOSAL TITLE: Wireless Ethernet-based Data Acquisition System (WEBDAS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Invocon Inc.
19221 IH 45 South - Suite 530
Conroe , TX   77385 - 8703
(281 ) 292 - 9903

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eric Krug
ekrug@invocon.com
19221 I-45 South, Suite 530
Conroe , TX   77385 - 8746
(281 ) 292 - 9903

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The feasibility of extremely low-power wireless RF sensors has been demonstrated by Invocon, Inc. and others, but the application of the technology to broader applications, particularly ground test systems, has been limited. Ground test facilities must be capable of providing reliable, laboratory grade instrumentation capabilities as part of a reconfigurable architecture in sometimes extreme environments, while simultaneously considering purchase costs, maintenance and operations costs, and upgrade costs. The proposed system shall enable the use of existing Ethernet hardware and Web-based IT resources for the configuration, acquisition, transmission and display of sensor data from extremely low-power RF sensors. Standard facility and experiment monitoring functions such as set points, alarms, data logging, and status displays will be provided, as well as the capability to integrate wireless sensor data into existing third party data acquisition and analysis tools available at the NASA ground test facilities. Configuration of individual sensors will be via a Web browser, and sensor output will be available anywhere with Internet access. By providing widespread access to miniature RF sensors, this system will enable the creation of a highly flexible, scalable, robust, wireless instrumentation backbone, which can be integrated with the existing resources of NASA rocket engine ground test facilities.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This system could benefit many NASA ground test facilities, including wind tunnels, environmental chambers, and biological chambers. Monitoring of launchpads and other Orbiter processing facility resources could be enhanced and further automated with the proposed system, eliminating labor-intensive data logging activities currently employed. The International Space Station, which is already outfitted with wired and wireless LAN, could potentially benefit from this development through the utilization of environmental and vehicle sensors, crew health monitoring sensors, and payload monitoring and control. Finally, significant benefits to the 2nd Generation RLV Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring system or payload systems could be realized.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential Non-NASA applications include industrial facility monitoring, building monitoring and automation, and industrial process control systems. Recent efforts to capitalize on the low cost and trained workforce associated with Ethernet-based networks for factory monitoring and automation have been successful, and would benefit from the ability to utilize low-power RF sensors within that framework. The successful development of a standard Ethernet-based access point with the associated network software could be the enabling technology that leads to the widespread application of RF sensors within the industrial market.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A5.04-9371 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022628 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS13-03008
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Testing of Rocket Engines
PROPOSAL TITLE: Miniature Intelligent Sensor Electronics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NVE Corporation
11409 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie , MN   55344 - 3617
(952 ) 996 - 1602

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Russ Beech
beech@nve.com
11409 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie , MN   55344 - 3617
(952 ) 996 - 1613

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed development will integrate data acquisition electronics with a relatively high performance processing capability and a large amount of memory, all in a miniature package, yielding a miniature, intelligent, sensor electronics module. This combination allows embedding of intelligent functions on sensors, providing the capability to implement data pre-processing and health monitoring of the system. The data acquisition electronics will provide programmable, analog I/O and digital I/O, including programmable gain, filtering, and voltage or current source, and auto-calibration. With the included processing power and memory, this system could operate autonomously, reporting to a higher level system only when queried or when specific conditions occur. With an included Ethernet interface, the system can use a standard network to communicate with a higher level system or other intelligent sensor modules. This system will simplify the task of data acquisition from remote locations or within a large, distributed data acquisition system. Implementation of health monitoring within the intelligent sensor module increases confidence or trust in the data that comes from the module. Maintenance is also simplified when the sensor node is able to report on its own health status, indicating when there is a fault or other need for maintenance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The intelligent sensor module is being developed for use in ground testing of rocket engines, including monitoring of related support systems. The programmable sensor interface will allow the system to be used with a wide variety of different sensors. The Ethernet network interface and health monitoring capability allow the system to be conveniently deployed in remote and/or hard-to-reach locations. Because of the systems versatile interface and programmable processing capability, the system could be applied to other test and monitoring applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other potential commercial applications for the intelligent sensor module include automotive and industrial testing and monitoring, which are similar to the target NASA application. Again, the flexible sensor interface, standard network interface, and processing capability, including the ability to monitor system health, allow the module to be applied in a broad range of situations. With the ability to include complex data processing at the sensor level, the module could be used to distribute the processing load in an industrial process control system. Similarly, the module would prove useful in automation and control applications that are not well served by traditional Programmable Logic Controllers, due to inadequate processing power or sensor input flexibility.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A5.04-9486 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022513 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS13-03009
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Testing of Rocket Engines
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Flow Analyses in Complex Feed Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Combustion Research and Flow Technology,
6210 Keller's Church Road
Pipersville , PA   18947 - 1020
(215 ) 766 - 1520

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vineet Ahuja
vineet@craft-tech.com
6210 Keller
Pipersville , PA   18947 - 1020
(215 ) 766 - 1520

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The development of simulation technology is proposed for carrying out high-fidelity transient analyses of systems that support experimental rocket testing such as control valves, feed system elements, pressure regulators and other flow control elements. The simulation technology comprises of a generalized multi-element unstructured framework (CRUNCH CFD) with integrated sub-models for grid adaption, grid movement and multi-phase flow dynamics including cryogenic cavitation. As part of our Phase I effort, simulations were performed for a series of systems that included the 10-inch LOX service valve, split-body valve, pressure regulator valve and the cavitating LOX venturi valve, all at constant valve settings. Results indicated excellent agreement with experimental flow coefficient curves. In Phase II, we will extend the framework to provide coupled valve motion - flow transient analyses with the development of an automated grid movement procedure to track valve motion. Valve timing analysis for a number of high pressure valve systems will be performed and the resultant dynamic events such as cavitation and valve chatter that lead to pressure fluctuations will be simulated. The framework will be used as an analysis support tool to generate performance metrics, evaluate design modifications and identify dominant frequencies associated with hydrodynamic instabilities and valve motion.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The software product resulting from our Phase II effort directly addresses core needs of the propulsion testing and design community at NASA as outlined in the Next Generation Launch Technology Program (NGLT). One of the requirements of the NGLT program is to operate the system over a wide range of off-design conditions where dynamic effects and cavitation become important. The simulation technology proposed here will be directly applicable to performance evaluation and transient analyses of components of the main propulsion system such as propulsion-related ducts, valves, lines and actuators delivering fuel from main propulsion tanks to the main engine. Analyses of hydrodynamic instabilities related to cryogenic tanks can also be carried out with the proposed technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The testing and design of launch systems places increased reliance on high pressure valve systems. Our simulation software could be used as an analysis support tool in enhancing on-site capabilities at test stand facilities. Besides the launch systems industry, the developed software product can be used in development of valves for cavitation control, design of cryogenic control valves, and fluid-transient simulations for feedback in control loops. Such applications would encompass a broader commercial market including (a)distribution networks associated with water, waste (b) valve industry (in petrochemical, refining, chemical processing and food processing). The proposed Phase II effort can also directly address problems in the area of biomedical devices such as the functioning of prosthetic heart valves that are sensitive to valve timing and susceptible to cavitation.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A6.02-7948 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024051 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS2-03114
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nanotechnology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Stress-induced bandgap-shifted titania photocatalyst for hydrogen generation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanoptek
250 Old Marlboro Rd.
Concord , MA   01742 - 4128
(978 ) 371 - 7339

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
John Guerra
jguerra@nanoptek.com
250 Old Marlboro Rd.
Concord , MA   01742 - 4128
(978 ) 371 - 7339

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Phase II will continue developing the efficient production of hydrogen from water using sunlight and nanostructured titania thin-film semiconductor electrodes achieved in Phase I, delivering a solar hydrogen generator. Titania?s (TiO2) absorption cutoff is moved from UV (414 nm) to visible (529 nm) by shifting the energy bandgap to ~2.0 eV , through stress induced by the nanostructured template. The disorder/strain distribution forms amorphous/strained titania with a high density of states localized within the energy band gap. Absorption of 29% of the solar spectrum is achieved, more than 5X improvement over single-crystal TiO2. The nanostructures enhance total absorption through multiple total internal reflections, eliminating the need to track the sun. A prototype three-electrode electrochemical cell evolves hydrogen at 2 mL/(s?W?m2) ? a solar-efficiency of 8% after light source correction; electrochemistry data shows 20% efficiency is attainable. Efficient conversion of water to hydrogen fuel with sunlight is ideal for closed environments like the International Space Station, with continuous recycling of hydrogen from contaminated water back to clean water when combined with a fuel-cell electrical generator. With possible water on the moon, Mars, and other bodies in the solar system, this technology will greatly reduce the mass of space ships for future missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Phase III production of bandgap-shifted titania photoelectrolysis would provide NASA with the hardware to efficiently use solar energy to convert water to hydrogen fuel. This technology is ideal for closed environments like the International Space Station, with continuous recycling of hydrogen, using photo-electrolysis, from contaminated water back to clean water while also producing electrical power in a fuel cell. If water is confirmed on the moon, Mars, and other bodies in the solar system, efficient conversion of water to hydrogen fuel using sunlight will greatly reduce the mass of space ships for future missions to and from these bodies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Phase III commercial product applications include supplying clean hydrogen fuel for small-scale power generation for hospitals and businesses or home refueling of fuel cell automobiles, as well as large-scale hydrogen supply for local utilities and ?super? fueling stations located along major interstates. With this point-of-use technology, problems with hydrogen transport, leakage, and storage are reduced or eliminated. Hydrogen flow rates and efficiencies determined in Phase 1 project a payback in 2 years for residential and commercial installations, and a reduction of the price of hydrogen by a factor of 4 assuming a realizable projected photo-electrolytic cell lifetime of 8 years.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A6.02-8612 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023387 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS2-03115
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nanotechnology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Compact X-ray Tube with Carbon Nanotube Cathode

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Microwave Power Technology
1280 Theresa Avenue
Campbell , CA   95008 - 6833
(408 ) 379 - 5335

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Espinosa
micpwrt@aol.com
1280 Theresa Avenue
Campbell , CA   95008 - 6833
(408 ) 379 - 5335

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The primary goal of Phase II is to produce an X-ray tube with a small focal spot suitable for an X-ray Diffraction instrument that can be used for in situ analysis of materials in industrial and planetary exploration environments. A base model, based on a previously developed miniature, carbon nanotube X-ray tube, was designed and fabricated during Phase I. Four tubes will be delivered at intervals during Phase II. Each tube will incorporate improvements converging on the objective specifications, 40 kV operating voltage, 100 microamps of current and a focal spot of 40 microns. Design improvements will be achieved with electron optics simulation computer code that was modified to model emission from CNT cathodes and the electron beam analyzer that was design and constructed during Phase I. Improvement in the emission stability and uniformity will be sought using the cathode test and evaluation station that was constructed and operated during Phase I. The cathode evaluation system has already been used to select cathodes and develop CNT cathode processing regimens that resulted in improving the acceptance rate, from 50% to 90%,of CNT cathode X-ray tubes being produced at Oxford X-ray Technologies for hand held XRF Spectrometers.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Cold cathode x-ray tube provide the source for very small x-ray fluorescence and diffraction instruments that are suitable for hand held and portable applications on earth as well as space. These tubes are well suited to withstand the rigors of space travel and mounting on small rovers. The improvements in CNT cathode technology and electron optics design tools that we are developing to meet the space based requirements, are key to utilizing CNT emitters in vacuum electron devices for microwave amplifiers and electron beam sources for air purification, environmental remediation, sterilization, and space base manufacturing.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Development of the focused beam x-ray tube will immediately extend the utilization of CNT cathodes to x-ray diffraction instruments and imaging that require small focal spots and higher intensity. Improvements in emission stability and uniformity resulting from this project will be exploited for electron beam generators for use in drying inks on high speed presses, for non-burning destruction of toxic and odoriferous hydrocarbons in the environment, for sterilization of surfaces and powdered materials in industry and pharmaceuticals and for brachytherapy in medicine. Integrated arrays of microwave amplifiers based on cold cathode vacuum electronics technology are currently being investigated.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A6.02-8807 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023192 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS2-03116
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Nanotechnology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Thermal Management of Solid-State Devices Using Nanotechnology

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Atlas Scientific
1367 Camino Robles Way
San Jose , CA   95120 - 4925
(408 ) 507 - 0906

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ali Kashani
akashani@atlasscientific.com
1367 Camino Robles Way
San Jose , CA   95120 - 4925
(408 ) 507 - 0906

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Future NASA programs will utilize solid-state devices (e.g., detectors, processors) that require cooling. Thermal management is of critical importance for a variety of solid-state devices. As the size of solid-state devices continues to shrink, device performance and reliability is limited by the ability to remove the increasing density of heat generated within these components. Furthermore, other devices such as solid-state lasers and infrared cameras require cooling and active temperature control. We propose two complimentary approaches to address these issues. The first approach is to develop thermoelectric (TE) coolers using nanotechnology. Thermoelectric materials require high electrical conductivity, but low thermal conductivity. Using nanotchnology it should be possible to significantly suppress the thermal conductivity without a corresponding reduction in electron transport. The second approach we propose is to enhance the thermal contact conductance at interfaces by taking advantage of nanotechnology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are several NASA applications for both proposed approaches to thermal management in solid-state devices. The thermoelectric devices could be used for refrigeration and cooling from cryogenic to room temperature for a variety of devices such as microprocessors or detectors. The same thermoelectric materials could also be used for power generation in the presence of an external heat source. A variety of heat sources could be utilized including waste heat from engine exhaust or heat from a radioactive isotope. The technique for enhancing thermal conductance at interfaces could be used for the thermal management of space-borne microelectronic and nanoelectronic packages and systems. The concept could be integrated with current device technology and packaging and it would allow for an efficient method to manage excess heat generation without requiring any additional power.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are several potential commercial applications for both proposed approaches to thermal management in solid-state devices. The thermoelectric devices could be used for refrigeration and cooling from cryogenic to room temperature for a variety of devices such as high-performance electronics and IR/visible CCD/CMOS imaging cameras. The same thermoelectric materials could also be used for power generation in the presence of an external heat source. A variety of heat sources could be utilized including waste heat from engine exhaust or heat from a radioactive isotope. The technique for enhancing thermal conductance at interfaces could be used for the thermal management of microelectronic and nanoelectronic packages and systems. The concept could be integrated with current device technology and packaging and it would allow for an efficient method to manage excess heat generation without requiring any additional power.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A7.01-9262 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022737 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS1-03023
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Modeling and Control of Complex Flows Over Aerospace Vehicles and Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Comprehensive Uncertainty Estimation for CFD

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nielsen Engineering & Research, Inc.
605 Ellis St. Suite 200
Mountain View , CA   94043 - 2241
(650 ) 968 - 9457

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Childs
childs@nearinc.com
605 Ellis Street
Mountain View , CA   94043 - 2241
(650 ) 968 - 9457

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the primary tool of aerodynamic design, and the ability to reduce and quantify uncertainties in CFD results is essential. Efforts throughout the CFD community are aimed at improving the accuracy of CFD methods. The proposed work will develop computational algorithms and software that yield comprehensive estimates of uncertainty in CFD results. The methods involve error modeling, in which specific sources of error, such as truncation error, and error in the transition and turbulence modeling, are related to the errors and uncertainty in the solution via solutions of an error equation. These methods will be relatively comprehensive, accounting for the dominant sources of uncertainty in typical CFD analyses, and yielding the uncertainties in all data predicted by the CFD solution. For example, the uncertainty in distributed aerodynamic heating can be computed. The techniques to be used in the work have been demonstrated in predictions of uncertainty due to truncation error in structured-grid CFD data. The proposed work will extend these methods to unstructured-grid CFD and to transition and turbulence modeling errors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed technology will have benefit wherever CFD is used to assess aerodynamic performance in critical applications. This includes the design and analysis of all commercial, NASA, and military aerospace vehicles. The technology developed will be represented as a set of software modules that can be used with existing and new CFD solvers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The benefits to non-NASA applications is similar to NASA applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A7.01-9281 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022718 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS1-03024
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Modeling and Control of Complex Flows Over Aerospace Vehicles and Propulsion Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Next Generation Data Management of Large-Scale CFD Simulations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
JMSI, Inc. dba Intelligent Light
1290 Wall Steet West Third Floor
Lyndhurst , NJ   07071 - 3603
(201 ) 460 - 4700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Edwards
dee@ilight.com
1290 Wall Steet West Third Floor
Lyndhurst , NJ   07071 - 3594
(201 ) 460 - 4700

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Large-scale, 3D simulations of complex configurations using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) have become increasingly critical in the design of aircraft, aerospace vehicles and propulsion systems. The CFD analysis process consists of three phases: pre-processing, solver and post-processing. Multi-disciplinary techniques, which analyze phenomena such as fluid-structure interaction, introduce additional computational complexity and require non-trivial coupling between CFD and structures codes. In designing software for each of the three analytical phases, software developers tend to look at what is optimal and necessary for their particular operation. Considerations such as data sharing, archiving and interoperability are given less attention than efficiency and accuracy of physical models. As the pace of simulation increases, the sheer volume of numerical data requires that a stable and easy to operate methodology be made available to developers and users of pre-processing, post-processing and solver tools. The offeror proposes to create a software toolkit that provides an intelligent storage and retrieval mechanism for large-scale CFD simulation data, combining software libraries, database/compression methodologies and web browser-style control and query tools. This toolkit will assist those developing and maintaining solver codes as well as the analyst/designer community and greatly accelerate aerospace vehicle synthesis by enabling data sharing, storage efficiency and interoperability.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA programs such as ASCoT, AVST and 3rd Generation RLV all have components that hope to develop new, fast tools for rapid assessment of new vehicle configurations. FAAST is one such element. The technologies proposed herein can be used by authors of these solvers and pre/post-processing tools to accelerate their development of tools. Designers and analysts can then take advantage of the benefits of the technologies in their work as well. Current NASA CFD tools that are known to the offeror are CFL3D, OVERFLOW, TLNS3D, VULCAN and USM3D.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Integration of the proposed technologies into CFD analysis codes will increase productivity and interoperability between industrial users of CFD in the Aerospace, Automotive, Propulsion and Chemical Process industries. The technologies are applicable to commercial CFD codes, those developed by the government and in-house codes as well. The technology can be extended to other forms of analysis, such as structural analysis, heat transfer and computational electromagnetics (CE). Furthermore, it can be used to assist in coupling such codes for multi-disciplinary analysis.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A7.02-7501 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024498 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS4-03006
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Modeling and Simulation of Aerospace Vehicles in a Flight Test Environment
PROPOSAL TITLE: Finite Element based Fracture Mechanics using Multidisciplinary Approach

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MATRA
P.O. Box 1264
Carmel , CA   93921 - 1264
(831 ) 917 - 0943

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Shun Lung
kolar@redshift.com
P.O. Box 1264
Carmel , CA   93921 - 1264
(831 ) 917 - 0943

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Fracture mechanics capabilities based on finite element multidisciplinary analysis will be designed and developed. Incorporating finite element based fracture mechanics analysis will enhance the power and strength of the MDFEM software. An in depth literature survey will be conducted to assess the appropriate finite element methodology for modeling crack tip stress regions and associated material constitutive relations. In order to characterize fracture behavior, crack tip finite elements, crack tip opening displacement and J-integral methods will be implemented. Software to perform these fracture related parameters will be developed and tested with benchmark problems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of fracture mechanics capabilities enhances the strength and applicability of existing finite element multidisciplinary engineering analysis software such as STARS software. Such capabilities enable application to monitor and perform risk assessment of flight vehicle structural integrity in NASA?s shuttle programs, Flight Testing of Research flight vehicles, extending flight envelope of test flight vehicles. The structural integrity and safety monitoring of NASA's shuttle programs, Flight Test Research vehicles, lauch vehicle structural integrity risk assessment will be potential beneficiaries.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The development of fracture mechanics capabilities enhances the strength and applicability to monitor and perform risk assessment of structural integrity in such areas as commercial airplane structures, nuclear power plants, and other fracture and damage critical structural components in rail-roads, off-shore structures, and automobiles. Other applications include home land security related issues with nuclear power plants, and other fracture and damage critical structural components of national security interests.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A7.03-9587 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022412 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS4-03008
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Sensors, Sensor Arrays and Airborne Instruments for Flight Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Optical Sensor for Detection of Fatigue Damage Precursors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MetroLaser, Inc.
2572 White Road
Irvine , CA   92614 - 6236
(949 ) 553 - 0688

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christina Arnold
carnold@metrolaserinc.com
2572 White Road
Irvine , CA   92614 - 6236
(949 ) 553 - 0688

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Investigation into fatigue damage precursors over the last decade has demonstrated that surface-evident defects such as cracks and slipbands evolve in a regular manner, which corresponds to the development of fatigue damage. Through examination of the evolution of such damage precursors in a component, this regularity can facilitate prediction of the component?s remaining fatigue life. The proposed Phase 2 work is to develop and characterize a sensor for in-situ examination and historical tracking of the precursor defects and to construct the analytical framework for using that data to predict the onset of catastrophic failure. Since a major application of this technology is for monitoring fatigue damage in aircraft components, the proposed system will be compact, durable, and relatively inexpensive. The Phase I results have confirmed models of precursor evolution on surfaces; and testing of several prototype surface inspection devices has shown that the technology is compatible with the restrictions on light sources, beam scanners, detection systems, and communication interfaces which this application demands. Design analysis and preliminary designs have also been completed for the in-situ sensor modules as well as their supporting communications and control systems, so that this technology is now ready to enter Phase II development.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA requires advanced sensors to inspect critical components of airframes that are subjected to low and high-cycle fatigue. If unchecked, fatigue-induced damage in airframe components can lead to formation of cracks. Crack formation is often followed by sudden catastrophic failure of the airframe component and destruction of the aerospace vehicle. By providing a timely warning, the proposed sensor will assist in identifying potentially damaged components, and in this way will improve safety of aerospace vehicles while reducing maintenance costs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Since over 90% of mechanical failures are due to fatigue damage, the proposed sensor will be useful in many industries which employ dynamically loaded mechanical systems. Of particular significance are the commercial and military aircraft industries, where the instrument could be used to quickly verify the safety condition of many critical components, such as turbine blades, fuselage panels, and landing gear. In addition, many other industries can benefit from this diagnostic tool including the automotive, power generation, shipping and railroad industries. Additionally, fatigue over spans of years is of interest in structural members in many construction and civil engineering contexts, and a mature form of this technology could become sufficiently inexpensive and long-lived to provide automatic fatigue monitoring capability in these as well.

The two most direct applications are (a) in detecting the onset of highly premature failure of components that would not be detected in ordinary scheduled inspections and (b) in providing a new type of window into the fatigue history of a component. In this latter function, the devices will provide a rich new source of data for the highly developed field of materials engineering dealing with prediction of remaining fatigue life, reliability, and durability.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A7.03-9648 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022351 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS4-03009
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Sensors, Sensor Arrays and Airborne Instruments for Flight Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Real-time Aeroelastic Measurement System (RAMS) for in-Flight Flutter Testing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tao of Systems Integration, Inc.
471 McLaws Circle, Suite 1
Williamsburg , VA   23185 - 5525
(757 ) 220 - 5040

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Elizabeth Compton
liz@taosystem.com
471 McLaws Circle, Suite 1
Williamsburg , VA   23185 - 6317
(757 ) 220 - 5040

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A high dynamic response, Real-time Aeroelastic Measurement System (RAMS) using microns-thin hybrid sensor arrays will be developed to provide simultaneous unsteady normal-pressure and tangential shear-stress distributions on lifting surfaces undergoing bending and torsion during in-flight flutter testing. The surface signatures obtained with these sensors will be used to simultaneously obtain, in real-time, the spatial location and dynamic characteristics of unsteady flow phenomena such as boundary-layer transition, vortex flows, flow separation, and shock (flow oscillations) and boundary oscillations (flutter). Surface signatures will provide accurate information on the amplitude and frequency of the aerodynamic forcing functions, as well as the time lag between unsteady aerodynamic phenomena and the structural response of the test article. RAMS will provide flight-test researchers with an effective tool to obtain time-accurate unsteady coupling physics of the aerostructural system by sensing surface signatures coordinated with pressure, strains, and accelerations. With the proposed measurements there will be an entire force-response description of the aerostructural dynamics. RAMS will result in a comprehensive measurement technology that can be used for routine flutter flight-testing, CFD validation, development of new and advanced design tools, development of active aeroelastic wing (AAW), and the development of flutter warning and active control systems.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
RAMS will be of value to ground / flight-testing and health monitoring of fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft, turbo-machinery, propellers, unmanned vehicles, missiles, and space vehicles. Advanced aerospace vehicles tend to be slim and elastic, resulting in severe aeroservoelastic problems at high speeds, which require attention in both design and routine performance for safety and ride quality. All vibrating structures subjected to unsteady aerodynamic or hydrodynamic forces and moments are prone to aeroelastic and flutter problems, which could lead to catastrophic results unless properly taken care of. RAMS will be of value to the design and testing of sails of sailboats, high-rise buildings, chimneys of power and cooling towers of plants, masts of ships, and other structures subjected to vibrations in the presence of fluid flow.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
RAMS has significant potential applications for the aerospace industry. Flutter is one of the chief limiting factors in the design of more efficient and more maneuverable high-speed aerospace vehicles. The proposed innovation will significantly contribute to the important recent initiative taken by NASA DFRC to develop Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW). Aerodynamic nonlinear effects could be severe in the high transonic Mach numbers due to, for example, changes in the flow separation and shock wave patterns with amplitude of oscillation. Nonlinear effects are likely to become more important in the future as aircraft fly faster, are more flexible, and use complex control systems. The benefits of successfully addressing the flutter problem will lead to a larger safe-flight envelope and payload for aerospace vehicles, which can be translated to economic value, while simultaneously possessing superior maneuver performance.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A7.04-7529 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024470 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS2-03117
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Knowledge Engineering for Safe Systems in Lifecycle Engineering
PROPOSAL TITLE: Simulation and Analysis of Socio-Technical Risk using SpecTRM

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Safeware Engineering Corporation
1520 Eastlake Ave. E., Suite 101
Seattle , WA   98102 - 3717
(206 ) 328 - 4880

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Grady Lee
lee@safeware-eng.com
1520 Eastlake Ave. E., Suite 101
Seattle , WA   98102 - 3717
(206 ) 328 - 4880

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to create model-based simulation and analysis tools for
risk management throughout the system life cycle. Rather than using
traditional approaches based on failure events in static engineering
designs, we will treat a system as a dynamic process that is
continually adapting to achieve its ends and to react to changes in
itself and its environment. The original design must not only enforce
appropriate constraints on behavior to ensure safe operation, but the
system must continue to operate safely as changes occur. The process
leading up to an accident (loss event) can be described in terms of an
adaptive feedback function that fails to maintain safety as
performance changes over time to meet a complex set of goals and
values. Using this definition of risk management, we will extend our
commercial system engineering tool set to include model-based
simulation and analysis of risk throughout the system life cycle,
including complex human decision-making, software errors, system
accidents (versus component failure accidents), and organizational risk
factors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The results of this SBIR research will be potentially applicable to
every NASA project where significant losses can result from the
operation or lack of operation of the system. It should be
particularly important in systems with significant software and human
automation interaction components and in large projects where
management decisions about risk are critical and need to be supported.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The results of this SBIR project will be applicable to risk management
in any safety-critical system. SpecTRM-RL, the modeling language as
well as the more SpecTRM requirements specification and analysis
tools, are currently in use in the automotive and aerospace industries
and being evaluated for use in the medical device industry as well.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A7.04-9392 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022607 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS2-03118
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Knowledge Engineering for Safe Systems in Lifecycle Engineering
PROPOSAL TITLE: Networks in Organizational Risk Management

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aptima, Inc.
12 Gill Street, Ste 1400
Woburn , MA   01801 - 1728
(781 ) 496 - 2424

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Kari Chopra
kchopra@aptima.com
12 Gill Street, Ste 1400
Woburn , MA   01801 - 1728
(215 ) 765 - 5942

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a formal modeling software tool, Networks in Organizational Risk Management (NORM), that allows mission planners and organizational designers to create and experiment with organizational structures that minimize risk throughout the lifecycle of a system. The core of our approach is a computational organizational model of the network of interrelationships among people, knowledge, tasks, technology, organizational goals, system failures, and the surrounding environment. In Phase I we defined a simulation and optimization model of organizational safety and illustrated the use of NORM as applied to Team X, a concurrent engineering design team specializing in unmanned space missions. In Phase II we will develop the NORM modeling software, develop a customized Team X application, and perform a comparative analysis of Team X using NORM and several additional computational modeling tools.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Formal modeling of organizational risk management is critical to a variety of NASA applications, including launch operations, the Mission to Mars, and the International Space Station (ISS). Failures such as the Challenger launch and the Mars rover illustrate the need for tools to design organizations that minimize rather than induce errors, and to identify latent errors introduced during design and construction before they manifest themselves as operational failures providing little opportunity for recovery. The challenges of constructing, maintaining, and continually expanding the ISS demand cost-effective methods for predicting the impact of new technologies on system safety prior to installation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The capabilities of NORM are most likely to appeal to customers who have the need to analyze and improve organizational safety or design organizations for safe operations. Examples of potential applications include air traffic control, supervisory control systems, command and control systems, ground and maritime transportation, hospital administration, construction, and manufacturing. In addition, management consulting firms provide a potential market for software licensing and consulting services. Business analysts that advise corporate management on safety issues require a deep understanding of the risks present in the organization, but are typically unacquainted with scientific methods for rigorously modeling and analyzing organizational risks.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A8.01-9327 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022672 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS1-03027
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Revolutionary Aerospace Vehicle Systems Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Commercial Framework for Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Phoenix Integration
1715 Pratt
Blacksburg , VA   24060 - 0000
(540 ) 961 - 7215

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brett Malone
malone@phoenix-int.com
1715 Pratt
Blacksburg , VA   24060 - 0000
(540 ) 961 - 7215

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase II proposal by Phoenix Integration is intended to refine and bring to market the NASA Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis (BLISS) technology. BLISS is a method to address the above difficulty by defining engineering system optimization problems in terms of subsystems and disciplines that correspond to a natural structure of engineering team in specialty groups. Making the BLISS method useful in industrial practice requires software that creates an environment where engineers and managers can freely interact and optimize performance and cost. Phoenix proposes innovative software to bring BLISS to industry by using Web-based integration of users in a Multidisciplinary environment combined with the automation of computer assets. The automation will provide seamless parallel computing in a distributed manner prescribed by the BLISS methodology. In the Phase I research we defined the key system requirements, performed a design optimization test case to confirm these requirements, and completed a preliminary design for the Phase II system development. Phase II development will include eight technical tasks covering a twenty-one month time frame. The program has been structured so that the development efforts will result in a working system after the first year with the balance of required features being incorporated during the remaining nine months

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed software will help NASA streamline program management by combining collaborative project tools with system design and analysis. Phoenix software will help integrate program management with engineering to give a total picture for optimizing the mix of performance against cost and risk. NASA will realize a significant reduction in workflow problems due to non-concurrent data and information that is not synchronized with program schedules and goals. Furthermore, the proposed innovation will allow NASA program managers to view complex system interactions. For NASA it will enhance the Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) and find immediate application on current projects such as Next Generation Launch Technology, Orbital Space Plane, Engineering for Complex Systems, and Aeronautics.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The software can be applied to a wide spectrum of defense, electronic, and automotive industries. Benefits will derive from significantly reducing the cost of weapons system design, making industrial products more robust, and enabling companies to use their engineering resources more efficiently. These benefits are all based on the Phoenix Integration implementation of BLISS that will allow the combining of diverse and distributed engineering organization skills, make feasible the optimization of the design process. This evolutionary approach to development, testing, and market introduction will facilitate program management, minimize project risk, and accelerate market penetration.

The business plan details an approach to achieve sales of $13M within five years. Phoenix has partnered with The Boeing Company as a commercialization pathfinder. Boeing intends to use versions of the BLISS software on reusable launch vehicles, hypersonics, the 7E7 commercial transport, and the Army?s Future Combat System. These are all representative programs for industry.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A8.02-7852 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024147 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS4-03010
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Revolutionary Flight Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: UV Rigid Inflatable Wing

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Adherent Technologies, Inc.
9621 Camino del Sol NE
Albuquerque , NM   87111 - 1522
(505 ) 346 - 1685

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ronald E. Allred
adherenttech@comcast.net
9621 Camino del Sol NE
Albuquerque , NM   87111 - 1522
(505 ) 346 - 1685

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
As the unmanned exploration of Mars and Venus becomes more of a focus area at NASA, inflatable, rigidizable wings will become an enabling technology. The successful development of this type of wing will also have significant military applications in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Rigidization of inflatable wings provides several potential advantages, including reducing the vulnerability to punctures, increasing stiffness and load-carrying capability, allowing a higher aspect ratio for high altitude efficiency and longer missions, and reducing weight by eliminating the make up pressurization supply. In the Phase I program, rapid cure resin systems (10 sec at 0?aC) with long shelf lives (>10 yrs) were formulated and used to fabricate, deploy, and rigidize a half span wing. Mechanical tests of the rigidized wing showed that it had attained the desired stiffness. The Phase II program will demonstrate internal cure, tailoring the resin formulation and lighting system for more efficient rapid cure at low temperatures, determine a more optimized design for a selected application, and demonstrate improved manufacturing techniques with skinning for better aerodynamic performance. Wind tunnel tests of the optimized wing will be conducted including deployment and rigidization with internal light cure. Aerodynamic behavior during deployment and rigidization and of the rigidized wing will be determined.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed work will result in a new materials technology for rigidizable inflatable aero-structures. It is expected that the ROC technology will be adopted by the inflatables community for use by NASA and its contractors for a variety of space missions involving large antennas, mirrors, radars, and Gossamer structures such as solar sails. Rigidization of inflatable wings provides several potential advantages for planetary exploration, including reducing the vulnerability to punctures, increasing stiffness and load carrying capability, allowing a higher aspect ratio for high altitude efficiency and longer missions, and reducing weight by eliminating the make up pressurization supply.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The eventual markets for inflatable spacecraft are extremely large for communications antennas and radars. In the commercial sector, over 200 satellites are expected to be launched in the next 10 years to meet consumer demand for cellular phones and other communication devices. A large number of military satellites are also expected to be launched in that timeframe. Military UAVs represent another potentially large market for UV rigidized inflatable aero-structures for munitions and survilance missions. Inflatable shelters for military and emergency uses and field appliable splints represent additional markets as do rapid cure coatings and adhesives. The unique features of the ROC?? technology bring a distinct competitive advantage to the marketplace for inflatables compared to competing technologies.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A8.02-7966 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024033 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS4-03011
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Revolutionary Flight Concepts
PROPOSAL TITLE: Robust Flow Control For Radically Enhanced Natural Laminar Flow Wings

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rolling Hills Research Corporation
3425 Lomita Blvd.
Torrance , CA   90505 - 0000
(310 ) 257 - 9578

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Kerho
MKerho@RollingHillsResearch.com
3425 Lomita Blvd.
Torrance , CA   90505 - 5010
(310 ) 257 - 9578

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Airfoil stagnation point control will significantly improve the performance of aircraft by producing a radically enhanced natural laminar flow, low-drag wing. By controlling the stagnation point location of an NLF airfoil, the range of low-drag lift coefficients can be extended by up to 100%. The objective of this Phase II proposal is to validate the Phase I design of a radically enhanced NLF airfoil design. The new airfoil design incorporates a compliant structure trailing-edge flap system for stagnation point control. The complaint trailing-edge is used to control stagnation point movement through an automated feedback and control system designed in Phase I. The system will provide a significantly enhanced performance envelope for any aircraft able to utilize an NLF wing. The system will provide full lateral, spanwise lift distribution and gust and maneuver load alleviation control of the vehicle, while producing a lower radar cross-section and better battle tolerance. The system will provide increased maximum lift in the low-drag bucket, providing better performance at the beginning of cruise, resulting in a higher altitude, or more payload to altitude, or more fuel to altitude for longer endurance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed highly aerodynamically efficient, reliable and maintainable compliant wing system utilizing stagnation point control has significant potential application in several NASA programs. The compliant trailing-edge/stagnation point control system could be fielded in several NASA aircraft including manned and unmanned systems. NASA designers will be eager to exploit the advantages of the current stagnation point control based design. This new design approach will deliver radically enhanced performance as compared to traditional laminar flow wings in a low risk package. The system will be applicable throughout NASA's aviation community.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercialization potential is excellent for a highly aerodynamically efficient, reliable and maintainable compliant wing system utilizing stagnation point control with low observable potential. It is recognized that long endurance aircraft in the form of uninhabited air vehicles (UAVs) and high altitude aircraft are expected to play an increasingly important role in military and civilian operations from tactical reconnaissance and uninhabited combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) to high altitude communications relays and environmental sampling. The aviation industry will be eager to exploit the advantages of the current stagnation point control based design. This new design approach will deliver the advantages sought by the mission adaptive wing concept but with much lower weight and much lower cost of manufacture, and be applicable throughout the aviation community. Both commercial and military airframe designers will find the technology extremely appealing, allowing significant commercialization potential.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II B1.01-9762 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022237 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS3-03008
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Exploiting Gravitational Effects for Combustion, Fluids, Synthesis, and Vibration Technology
PROPOSAL TITLE: Void Fraction Sensor for Packed-Bed Reactors in Microgravity

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare Inc.
Etna Rd., P.O. Box 71
Hanover , NH   03755 - 0071
(603 ) 643 - 3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher J. Crowley
cjc@creare.com
Etna Rd., P.O. Box 71
Hanover , NH   03755 - 0071
(603 ) 643 - 3800

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The innovative product from this project is an instrument to measure void fraction in packed-bed reactors using an impedance-based approach. As NASA pursues long-duration crewed missions, it will be necessary to adapt packed-bed chemical processing methods to reduced gravity to minimize the mass and volume of consumables hauled from earth. To develop design tools, accurate measurement of void fraction is critical to (1) identify the flow regimes, and (2) quantify the liquid holdup. Opaque reactor beds and conductive working liquids render various traditional void fraction measurements impractical. Advantages of impedance-based measurements include: excellent sensitivity to void fraction, non-intrusive installation, and high rates of data sampling. In Phase I we demonstrated that our approach can meet the need with a prototypical packed-bed geometry and a conductive liquid. Our results prove a sensor configuration, demonstrate a signal-conditioning approach, and show that electrical impedance measurements in a packed-bed configuration can be correlated readily to void fraction for both steady-state and transient two-phase flows. During Phase II we will develop purpose-built electronics, adapt the sensor mechanical design to the configuration of packed-bed facilities, and demonstrate a prototype with packed-bed facilities like those used in NASA research projects.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Long-duration, crewed space activities depend upon the development of packed-bed reactors for regenerative life support systems for extraction, absorption, humidification, leaching, etc. Development of design tools for microgravity packed-bed reactors depends upon knowledge of the void fraction. No simple, non-intrusive, fast-response instrument exists to measure void fraction in packed-beds. We can deliver an instrument to measure temporal and spatial variations of void fraction applicable to NASA research, including current microgravity aircraft and planned International Space Station experiments. In addition to this primary application, the same innovative electronics approach that will enable operation with conductive fluids will also optimize the sensor performance with cryogenic fluids. NASA has many obvious potential applications for this technology in propellant transfer applications and in the operation of systems that use these fluids.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A void fraction instrument capable of being used with conductive fluids has numerous industrial and research applications in many areas including chemical processing facilities, biotechnology, and pharmaceutical manufacturing. There are a host of industrial and aerospace applications where this capability is needed.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II B1.02-8039 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023960 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS8-03016
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Gravitational Effects on Biotechnology and Materials Sciences
PROPOSAL TITLE: Portable Gene Expression Array Reader for NASA Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance , CA   90505 - 5217
(310 ) 530 - 7130

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Srivatsa Venkatasubbarao
sbirproposals@intopsys.com
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance , CA   90505 - 5217
(310 ) 530 - 7130

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In recent decades, there has been significant progress in the fields of biotechnology, molecular biology, and genetics. These efforts have enabled deciphering of the human genome, and have fueled the development of microarray technologies for studying the very basis of life; how genes and proteins develop, function, and how they can change under certain conditions. Commercially available microarray readers are not suitable for space use. To perform experiments in space, NASA needs a portable, lightweight, sensitive microarray reader.
In Phase I, Intelligent Optical Systems (IOS) demonstrated a lightweight, low power, compact, gene microarray reader for monitoring gene expression. The high sensitivity was achieved by utilizing nanoparticles as labels, and evanescent field ellipsometry for detection. The Phase I results showed an attractive alternative to fluorescence as a microarray readout method. The sensitivity, resolution, measurement speed, and simplicity of IOS?s system exactly match NASA's requirements.
In Phase II, IOS will design and construct a compact portable microarray reader for NASA?s use. The biochip preparation and testing procedures will be optimized and the prototype device?s performance will be optimized. At the end of Phase II, IOS will deliver to NASA an effective, working prototype device, along with 20 gene chips for testing.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The evolution of life on earth has occurred under the influence of gravity. Therefore, all biological processes are influenced by and have evolved in the presence of gravity. IOS? proposed reader system could be used for gene expression studies beyond earth's gravity, in a microgravity environment. Astrobiologists, microbiologists, and others interested in medical, pharmaceutical, and research applications will use this reader. Genetic engineering studies for waste remediation, studying the effects of radiation, and genetic engineering of food to enhance value are other possible space applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary application of the proposed device will be as a gene chip microarray reader for expression monitoring. Any application that involves genetic engineering will benefit from this reader system. Such a device will be useful to research laboratories, universities, and the pharmaceutical and biotech industries. Modified versions of this device could serve as a sensitive biosensor for homeland defense applications, and also for clinical diagnostics and proteomic studies. Secondary applications for this device include industrial, environmental, and process monitoring.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II B1.02-8784 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023215 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS8-03017
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Gravitational Effects on Biotechnology and Materials Sciences
PROPOSAL TITLE: Enhanced Blackbody Sensors for the Quench Module Insert

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Plasma Processes, Inc.
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville , AL   35811 - 1558
(256 ) 851 - 7653

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Scott ODell
scottodell@plasmapros.com
4914 Moores Mill Road
Huntsville , AL   35811 - 1558
(256 ) 851 - 7653

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Experiment Modules (EM) such as the Quench Module Insert (QMI) must be comprised of robust components to minimize the need for recalibration and refurbishment/replacement on the International Space Station. A critical aspect for proper operation of the QMI is thermal performance monitoring by blackbody sensors (BBS). Significant improvements in the ability of the sensor to monitor thermal performance can be realized by improving the joint quality between BBS rings and tantalum sheathed thermocouples. Modification of the sensor rings' surface properties to increase emissivity benefits thermal performance. In Phase I, novel laser brazing techniques have been developed for the production of robust joints between tantalum sheathed thermocouples and BBS rings. Additionally, an ultra high temperature tantalum carbide emissivity coating has been developed for use with tantalum sensor rings for improved radiative heat transfer properties. Thermal cycle testing demonstrated excellent joint quality of the enhanced BBS and the bond between TaC emissivity coatings and tantalum sensor rings. During Phase II, the techniques will be optimized such that enhanced flight quality BBS will be fabricated for testing in QMI furnaces at Marshall Space Flight Center.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Much emphasis is currently being placed on the development of high temperature, robust joining techniques for refractory metals, ceramics and composite materials for numerous commercial applications. The joining techniques developed during this research can be used for many of these applications including, but not limited to, high temperature furnace and retort components, rocket motor throat inserts, radiation shields, heat pipes, power generation equipment, nuclear components, turbines, combustion chambers, incinerators, and deposition equipment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Laser brazing of thermal couples and sensors has immediate commercial use in furnaces, ovens, boilers, combustion engines, rocket motors, waste processing, fuel cells, water heaters, etc.. High emissivity coatings increase performance of high temperature transfer devices such as furnaces, ovens, boilers, combustion engines, rocket motors, incinerators, etc..


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II B1.03-7777 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024222 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS3-03032
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Bioscience and Engineering
PROPOSAL TITLE: Chronic Telemetric Biofluid Flow Monitoring Device

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Integrated Sensing Systems, Inc. (ISSYS)
391 Airport Industrial Dr.
Ypsilanti , MI   48198 - 7812
(734 ) 547 - 9896

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alexander Chimbayo
alec@mems-issys.com
391 Airport Industrial Dr.
Ypsilanti , MI   48198 - 7812
(734 ) 547 - 9896

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Currently, no method exists for continuously, noninvasively monitoring flow in the vascular and other biofluidic systems. The proposed effort will ultimately develop a stent-based, telemetric, implantable flow monitor. Once implanted, flow data may be read noninvasively through magnetic telemetry, using a compact readout unit. This system will take advantage of state-of-the-art Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) technology to develop a highly stable device for real-time, noninvasive collection of flow data. The core technology will be based on a high-sensitivity capacitive MEMS pressure sensor developed by ISSYS. The system will be fully spaceworthy, itself being immune to the effects of both microgravity and hypergravity as well as shock and vibration. Phase I for this project demonstrated the feasibility of calculating relative flow rates from measured pressure gradients and provided the framework for obtaining absolute flow. Phase II effort would develop the complete implantable monitor and the associated readout unit capable of measuring both relative and absolute flow rates.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
-Vascular fluid distribution on short and long time scales
-Cardiac output measurement
-Macro- and micro-scale biofluid mechanics of the vascular system in various environments, including microgravity
-Understanding the role fluid physics plays in human physiological processes
-Tools to permit understanding of biofluid mechanics

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
-Understanding normal and abnormal cardiac mechanics and function
-Understanding abnormal fluid dynamics associated with ischemic heart disease
-Understanding abnormal fluid dynamics associated with valvular dysfunction
-Improving diagnosis and treatment of heart patients through better information about heart function and progressive dysfunction as determined by flow parameters


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II B1.03-8019 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023980 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS3-03006
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Bioscience and Engineering
PROPOSAL TITLE: Drag &Drop, Mixed-Methodology-based Lab-on-Chip Design Optimization Software

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville , AL   35805 - 1944
(256 ) 726 - 4800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
S. Krishnamoorthy
jls@cfdrc.com
215 Wynn Dr., 5th Floor
Huntsville , AL   35805 - 1944
(256 ) 726 - 4891

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The overall objective is to develop a ?mixed-methodology?, drag and drop, component library (fluidic-lego)-based, system design and optimization tool for complex lab-on-a-chip systems. Experiments-based design is expensive and time-consuming. Full multiphysics simulations, while successful in designing components, are computationally infeasible for system design. The proposed tool will accelerate (days to minutes) and simplify (non-expert vs. expert) biomicrofluidic system design.

Simple representation of complex, interacting physico-bio-chemical processes is a formidable challenge. Our innovative ?mixed-methodology? solution seamlessly exchanges information between vastly different methodologies, (Artificial Neural Network, Differential Algebraic Equation, Analytical and High-fidelity). In Phase I, we have developed a hierarchical software consisting of System Designer (GUI), System Solver and component models. Proof-of-concept was successfully demonstrated, (compared to high-fidelity simulations), by characterizing a candidate biomicrosystem in a fast (350 fold reduction, 1.5 hour to 15 seconds), intuitive manner, while retaining accuracy (~10% difference).

Phase II will feature enhanced component models and system solver for multiphysics phenomena (electrokinetics, biochemistry, capillary and hemodynamics), augmented GUI functionalities and extended library of microfluidic components. An expert advisory board (NASA, academia, industry) will guide the multidisciplinary development team. CFDRC is committed to developing simulation tools for biotechnology, and will leverage its considerable expertise and resources toward successful commercialization.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Microfluidic technology is inherently advantageous for space applications due to the reduced size/weight and power requirements as well as the capability for multiplexed analysis without user intervention (automated). The proposed software tool will directly benefit NASA?s endeavors to develop lab-on-a-chip systems for use in space (e.g., NASA GRC Biomedical Engineering Consortium?s efforts to deploy biodiagnostic chips on-board the International Space Station; NASA MSFC effort in growing protein crystals in space using microfluidic platforms; NASA JSC?s microfluidics-based biosensor for their rotating cylinder bioreactor; as well as NASA Ames focus on automated bioanalysis systems for medicine and space exploration).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
CFDRC will also market the software to biotechnology companies. CFDRC has an already established client base in biotechnology sector such as Agilent, Dupont, Micronics, Sandia (see enclosed support letters), Applied Biosystems, Caliper Technologies, etc.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II B2.03-7965 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024034 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS9-03009
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Understanding and Utilizing Gravitational Effects on Molecular Biology and for Medical Applications
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cytometer on a Chip

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ciencia, Inc.
111 Roberts Street, Suite K
East Hartford , CT   06108 - 3653
(860 ) 528 - 9737

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Salvador M. Fernandez
fernandez@ciencia.com
111 Roberts Street, Suite K
East Hartford , CT   06108 - 3665
(860 ) 528 - 9737

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Cytometer on a Chip will provide a powerful alternative to conventional flow cytometry. This system spatially sorts cells on a microarray chip based on the presence of specific cell surface markers. Detection is accomplished with grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance imaging (GCSPRI). This is a label-free detection technology that eliminates the need to fluorescently label the cells, as is necessary with conventional flow cytometry. This innovation will reliably measure cellular composition while avoiding the limitations of traditional flow cytometry. Since the cells are run over the chip surface, there is no requirement for the stringent optical alignments that are so essential to fluorescence-based cytometry. Moreover, the system does not require the narrow orifice of the flow cell that is used by most traditional cytometers, so is far less susceptible to clogging or to flow disturbances caused by accumulation of adsorbed proteins or air bubbles. Finally, it eliminates the complexity, mass and power associated with laser and detection systems traditionally used in flow cytometry. These features, and the fact that the technology is amenable to miniaturization and low power operation, make the cytometer on a chip system ideally suited to the assessment of immune function in space and to cost-effective, rapid, on site clinical diagnostics.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Cytometer on a Chip addresses NASA?s needs for instrumentation and methods for assessment of immune function during long-term space flight, for the analysis of cell architecture and function in space, and for the assessment of cellular composition in rotating vessel bioreactor cultures. These are high priorities for NASA?s research programs in space biology, medicine and biotechnology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The cytometer on a chip presents a number of unique benefits, which should have considerable commercial value in the life sciences research market as well as in clinical diagnostics. It is not difficult to envision an eventual implementation of the cytometer on a chip with a portable, inexpensive, hand-held device for performing sophisticated immune function profiling on site (e.g., bedside) at very low cost, with immediate results. Potential applications include oncology, hematology, autoimmune diseases, HIV/AIDS research and diagnostics, stem cell and gene therapy, and prenatal genetics. Non-clinical potential applications include drug discovery research, livestock selection and new crop development, food diagnostics and biological defense. These potential commercial applications represent substantial market opportunities.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II B3.01-7618 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024381 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS9-03012
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Spacecraft Life Support
PROPOSAL TITLE: Carbon-Supported Amine Sorbent Monoliths for Carbon Dioxide Removal

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Fuel Research, Inc.
87 Church Street
East Hartford , CT   06108 - 3728
(860 ) 528 - 9806

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Marek Wojtowicz
marek@AFRinc.com
87 Church Street
East Hartford , CT   06108 - 3728
(860 ) 528 - 9806

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The NASA objective of expanding the human experience into the far reaches of space will require the development of regenerable life support systems. On-board carbon dioxide (CO2) removal units play a key role in such systems ensuring high quality cabin air for crew members. Similar but more compact units are needed for extravehicular activities (space suit). The overall objective is to develop a CO2-removal system that possesses substantial weight, size, and power-requirement advantages over current systems (improved CO2 adsorption and lower pressure drop). The proposed innovation involves the use and manufacture of lightweight, porous carbon monoliths with controlled pore characteristics that will serve as support for the sorbent material (amines). The proof of feasibility was successfully demonstrated Phase I. The objective of the Phase II study is to develop a 1/7 scale prototype CO2/H2O removal system capable of supporting air revitalization for one person. This will be accomplished in the following six tasks: (1) Sorbent Optimization; (2) Subscale Device Development (1/70 scale); (3) Prototype Design; (4) Prototype Construction; (5) Prototype Testing; and (6) System Evaluation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The main application of the proposed technology would be in spacecraft life-support systems, both in cabin-air revitalization and extravehicular activities (e.g., space suit).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The carbon materials developed in this project could find spin-off applications in fuel cells and batteries. Greenhouse gas mitigation is another potential application. DOE is aggressively pursuing technologies beyond pumped aqueous amine systems. New systems must offer lower cost of capture compared to the pumped amine systems. Our solid amine systems can offer higher amine loadings and, therefore, better CO2 removal compared to the pumped systems. Due to a lower power requirement, operating costs should be lower. CO2 scrubbing in the medical field offers additional opportunities (inhalation drug therapy and anesthetic CO2 removal). European and US manufacturers are having more difficulty with single-use CO2 scrubbers due to the increased disposal costs. Regenerable technologies will provide reduced cost when the overall life cycle costs are counted (e.g. disposal). The technology developed in this project may also find an important application in air-revitalization systems on board U.S. Navy submarines.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II B3.01-8163 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023836 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS2-03123
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Spacecraft Life Support
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Hybrid Pyrolysis/Incineration System for Solid Waste Resource Recovery

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Fuel Research, Inc.
87 Church Street
East Hartford , CT   06108 - 3728
(860 ) 528 - 9806

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael A. Serio
mserio@AFRinc.com
87 Church Street
East Hartford , CT   06138 - 0379
(860 ) 528 - 9806

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The objective of the Phase I SBIR program was to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating pyrolysis and incineration steps into a system for processing of spacecraft solid wastes. The Phase I study involved a combination of bench scale experiments and data analysis. This work was accomplished in four tasks: 1) design and construct bench scale unit; 2) laboratory studies on solid waste processing; 3) evaluation of laboratory results; 4) preliminary design of Phase II prototype. The Phase I project demonstrated that it is possible to pyrolyze a representative solid waste sample and combust the effluent gases in a catalytic incinerator in a close-coupled integrated reactor system. The net result is a significant reduction in Equivalent System Mass (estimated at about 40%) and system complexity. This integration takes advantage of the best features of each process, which is insensitivity to product mix, no O2 consumption, and batch processing, in the case of pyrolysis, and simplicity of product effluent stream in case of incineration. Under Phase II, a prototype hybrid pyrolysis/incineration system will be developed in collaboration with Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International (HSSSI) and delivered to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This project addresses two important problems for long term space travel activities, i.e., solid waste recycling and electrical power production. While the problem of solid waste resource recovery has been studied for many years, there is currently no satisfactory waste disposal/recycling technology. The simple catalytic incinerator in the current study can be replaced with a solid oxide fuel cell for power generation. The char produced in the first stage can be stored as a future source of carbon dioxide or converted to activated carbon which has multiple uses on board a spacecraft (flue gas clean-up, air revitalization, water purification, methane activation, hydrogen storage, radiation protection, medicinal purposes). This system will be useful to NASA in at least three respects: 1) it can be used as the primary solid waste disposal unit; 2) it can be used as a net generator of electrical power; 3) it can be used to produce activated carbon from solid waste.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary purpose of this effort will be to develop a piece of hardware for NASA which can become an important component of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). However, there are also important potential benefits to society in terms of significantly increasing the capabilities for distributed power production from biomass and other solid waste. This will contribute to improved energy security, environmental quality and balance of payments. In the near term, the technology will have commercial applications to solid waste resource recovery problems in remote areas such as underdeveloped countries, arctic regions, oil production platforms, cruise ships, rural areas, farms, etc. In the long term, the technology can be integrated with fuel cells and have widespread business or residential use for solid waste removal and combined heat and power generation.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II B3.01-8478 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023521 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS8-03018
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Spacecraft Life Support
PROPOSAL TITLE: Advanced Monitoring System for Space Flight Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Luna Innovations Incorporated
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg , VA   24060 - 6657
(540 ) 552 - 5128

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Roger VanTassell
vantassellm@lunainnovations.com
2851 Commerce Street
Blacksburg , VA   24060 - 6657
(540 ) 961 - 4502

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Microbial growth in storage water has been a problem for NASA since the onset of space flight. During the Phase I program, Luna developed a novel affinity microcantilever-based biosensor that was capable of directly monitoring water supplies for bacterial contamination during space flights. The biosensor is based upon the principle that as organisms bind to an affinity coated microcantilever beam, the chemomechanical forces induce a deflection in proportion to concentration of bound target. Using gold-based coupling methods, anti-E coli antibodies were attached to the microcantilever beams and tested with varying concentrations of E. coli. Luna?s patented EFPI technology was then used to monitor the cantilever deflection with subnanometer sensitivity. Binding of E. coli was successfully demonstrated at concentrations of 105 CFU/ml which induced significant signal responses. During the Phase II, sensitivity will be increased using the new USB FiberPro II system and through optimization of affinity coatings and signal enhancement reagents. The affinity microcantilever will be adapted for multiplexing using micromachined arrays and integrated with microfluidics for stable reagent handling. The affinity microcantilevers will not only be useful for space-based applications, but will be adaptable for use in water quality and environmental monitoring, food safety, process monitoring, and medical diagnostics.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Phase II work will result in the development of a novel, compact, low-power rapid biosensor platform with which microbial contamination of stored water supplies may be monitored on the Space Station and during prolonged space flights. The sensor suite also will be able to screen for surface contamination and monitor water recycling efficiencies. Through support electronics and spectral sharing, Luna will exploit the fiber optic sensors to provide a sensor suite capable of measuring a broad range of biochemical and physical parameters.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The key advantages of the affinity microcantilever sensor include; i) field-use operation with no critical alignment issues, ii) cost-effective multiplexing techniques already developed for communications applications, iii) real-time, absolute, spectrally encoded information that, unlike fluorescent systems is not affected by non-specific background interference and detection without labeling. Consequently, the affinity microcantilever sensor platform also will allow Luna to produce a wide range of products with immediate near-term and long-term market impact for applications in, i) water quality and environ-mental monitoring, ii) food safety, iii) process monitoring, and iv) medical diagnostics.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II B3.01-8520 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023479 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS2-03124
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Spacecraft Life Support
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microwave Powered Solid Waste Stabilization and Water Recovery

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
UMPQUA Research Company
125 Volunteer Way
Myrtle Creek , OR   97457 - 0102
(541 ) 863 - 7770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James E. Atwater, PChem, CChE
jatwater@urcmail.net
PO Box 609
Myrtle Creek , OR   97457 - 0102
(541 ) 863 - 7770

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A Microwave Powered Solid Waste Stabilization and Water Recovery system is proposed as the primary step in the treatment of solid waste materials generated during extended manned space missions. The system will recover water initially contained within wastes and stabilize the residue with respect to microbial growth. Dry waste may then be safely stored or passed to the next waste treatment process. Using microwave power, water present in the solid waste is selectively and rapidly heated. Liquid phase water flashes to steam and superheats. Hot water and steam formed in the interior of waste particles create an environment that is lethal to bacteria, yeasts, molds, and viruses. Superheated steam contacts all exposed surfaces and provides an effective thermal kill of microbes, in a manner similar to that of an autoclave. Both water and heat are recovered in a condensing heat exchanger, with further water reclaimed from saturated air by adsorption, using microwave regenerable sorbents. Benefits of microwave power include rapid heat-up and cool-down, and selective heating of water by the direct absorption of electromagnetic radiation, thus minimizing conductive and convective losses. This translates directly into reduced size and power requirements, and lower Equivalent System Mass (ESM).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary governmental application for the proposed innovation will be as Flight Hardware purchased by NASA, or by an aerospace contracting firm on behalf of NASA, to provide solid waste stabilization and resource recovery, thereby minimizing resupply requirements for future advanced life support (ALS) systems needed for long duration manned missions in space, such as a Lunar base, or a manned mission to Mars.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Within the private sector, the primary commercialization opportunities are in the areas of biohazard containment and elimination. The proposed technology offers many attractive features which can be utilized for the safe mass reduction and stabilization by disinfection and dehydration of solid hazardous wastes, particularly infectious wastes or wastes containing genetically engineered microorganisms. Two private sector opportunities are immediately apparent: [1] hardware for the stabilization and disinfection of medical wastes generated in physicians offices, clinical laboratories, hospitals, etc., and [2] hardware for the destruction of biohazardous materials generated during biological, pharmaceutical, and biomedical research.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II B3.01-9666 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022333 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS8-03019
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Spacecraft Life Support
PROPOSAL TITLE: Mesoporous Catalysts for Ambient Temperature Aqueous Phase Oxidation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
UMPQUA Research Company
125 Volunteer Way
Myrtle Creek , OR   97457 - 0102
(541 ) 863 - 7770

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James R. Akse, Ph.D.
akse@urcmail.net
PO Box 609
Myrtle Creek , OR   97457 - 0102
(541 ) 863 - 7770

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced development of mesoporous catalysts for ambient temperature oxidation of dissolved organic contaminants is proposed. Mesoporous materials consist of highly ordered three-dimensional structures with precisely controlled pore size distributions, relatively high surface areas, and surface affinities which promote the adsorption of aqueous organic contaminants. When used as a catalyst support, these features offer an effective means to overcome the primary factors which limit the performance of conventional catalysts. These innovative catalysts will facilitate the development of more effective methods for the destruction of organic contaminants in wastewaters generated aboard spacecraft, Lunar and planetary habitations. When fully developed, ambient temperature catalysts can be employed in the volatile removal assembly (VRA) or other similar aqueous phase catalytic oxidation reactors to both increase the degree of mineralization of organic contaminants and to drastically reduce the required operating temperature and pressure. These improved performance characteristics directly translate into reduced size, weight, and power consumption, and therefore will result in substantially lower Equivalent System Mass (ESM) for catalytic reactors which employ these innovative highly active ambient temperature catalysts. Feasibility of the proposed innovation was conclusively demonstrated during the Phase I project in which ambient temperature reaction rates were improved by a factor of 50 times.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The advanced low temperature oxidation catalyst has the potential for immediate use by NASA aboard the International Space Station soon after completion of the Phase II effort. The proposed technology offers the following advantages: 1) ambient temperature (or low temperature) operation will provide savings in energy, simplification in design, and improved safety, 2) lower pressure operation reduces material requirements and enhances safety, 3) higher catalytic activity offers more complete oxidation, thereby increasing reactor efficiency, reducing expendables and extending the useful lifetime of post- treatment IX beds. All of these advantages translate into cost savings.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Private sector applications for the advanced low temperature oxidation catalyst have been identified as: 1) industrial & municipal pollution control and environmental remediation, and 2) ultrapure water production for the manufacture of integrated circuits and pharmaceuticals. The primary competitors to the innovative technology are alternative methods for the removal of organic contaminants from aqueous and gas phase process streams. These include sorption using media such as activated carbon and oxidative techniques such as photocatalytic oxidation, ozonation, Fenton?s type peroxidation, and combinations of ozonation and peroxidation. The low temperature aqueous phase catalytic oxidation process offers improved efficiency, safety and reduced cost over these competing alternatives. The oxidation process has also proven capable of producing a virtually sterile effluent.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II B3.03-9487 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022512 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS9-03016
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human Adaptation and Countermeasures
PROPOSAL TITLE: Spaceflight Urine Analysis System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Creare Inc.
Etna Rd., P.O. Box 71
Hanover , NH   03755 - 0071
(603 ) 643 - 3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Kynor
dbk@creare.com
Etna Rd., P.O. Box 71
Hanover , NH   03755 - 0071
(603 ) 643 - 3800

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Exposure to microgravity results in a number of physiological changes including loss of bone and increased risk of kidney stone formation. Long duration spaceflight requires a near real-time of monitoring bone loss during flight to alert astronauts to the potentially debilitating problems and direct the use of countermeasures. Present technology requires post-flight measurement of urinary calcium on stored urine samples. The Creare Urine Analysis System (UAS) provides a unique solution to this problem by enabling spectrophotometry (a proven technique in clinical chemistry) to provide real time measurements of urinary calcium loss to serve as a marker of bone loss and risk of kidney stone formation. The Creare UAS can be fully integrated into the International Space Station Urine Monitoring System to provide astronauts with running totals of total urinary calcium loss during the past day, week, and entire mission. The real-time nature of the system will provide a non-invasive biosensor capable of early detection of excessive calcium loss, identification of crew members with elevated risk for kidney stone formation, and effective application of in-flight countermeasures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Urine Analysis System will permit, for the first time, real-time monitoring of urinary calcium during spaceflight. The data provided by our system will allow astronauts to evaluate the extent of their bone loss during extended periods in microgravity, determine when more aggressive countermeasures are needed to prevent or limit bone loss, monitor the effectiveness of bone loss countermeasures, and assess risk of renal stone formation. Data collected by the system will provide a valuable database for guiding continued research in bone loss prevention.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology developed under this program has direct application to clinical monitoring of the ten million Americans suffering from osteoporosis each year. Present clinical monitoring techniques must be performed in the physician?s office or require expensive test kits. The technology being developed under this program has the potential to permit cost-effective, continual home monitoring. Low-cost, unobtrusive home monitoring of calcium loss could be extremely beneficial for many patients including those at greatest risk for rapid disease progression and those just starting therapy. In addition, the frequent data points provided by a home-based monitor could provide the detailed data required to detect the subtle changes encountered in clinical application on earth without dietary control and facilitate research efforts aimed at development of new therapies.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II B3.04-8291 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023708 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS9-03017
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Food and Galley
PROPOSAL TITLE: Biodegradable Nanocomposites for Advanced Packaging

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TDA Research, Inc.
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge , CO   80033 - 1917
(303 ) 422 - 7819

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Andrew Myers
amyers@tda.com
12345 W. 52nd Ave.
Wheat Ridge , CO   80033 - 1916
(303 ) 422 - 7819

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) proposes to develop a high barrier, biodegradable food packaging system that will address the issues of extended-life food storage and waste disposal in space. On long-term space missions, on board the International Space Station, or on future lunar or planetary facilities, a biodegradable food packaging plastic could be disposed of in hydroponic environments that support agricultural production. Several biodegradable polymers are commercially available, but they lack the barrier properties needed for food preservation. TDA proposes to improve the barrier properties of biodegradable plastics by forming a multi-layered laminate film containing biodegradable polymers modified with our proprietary nanocomposites. Much of TDA?s nanocomposite research has focused on the careful design of surface treatments to produce nanocomposites compatible with and dispersible in targeted host polymers. In Phase I, we demonstrated that we could improve the barrier properties of several individual films of biodegradable polymers. In Phase II we will meet high barrier packaging requirements by combining layers of biodegradable nanocomposites to achieve protection against both oxygen and water vapor permeation. We have shown that we can form well-dispersed nanocomposites with several biodegradable plastics and, in one example, have demonstrated improved barrier properties without a loss in biodegradation rates.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The high barrier multi-layer laminate films developed in this project could be used in extended duration space missions that would require a significant amount of packaged, shelf-stable food. A high barrier packaging material that was biodegradable would be a critical part of the Advanced Life Support system and would decrease the amount of food package waste that would be stored on board until re-entry or incineration is possible. Biodegradable food packaging materials could be recycled in-flight in hydroponic baths as a supplement for crops grown inside the spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
As a bio-based polymer, PLA can be produced domestically at low cost, eliminating dependence on foreign petroleum supplies with their corresponding demand and price fluctuations. PLA is also biodegradable - an additional important feature that realistically addresses the problems of plastic waste generation. Successful development of high barrier PLA would find application in a variety of areas including consumer packaging applications, packaging for food and food service applications, and medical packaging. PLA nanocomposites also have the potential to replace several commodity thermoplastics like polyolefins and PVC in certain applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II B3.05-8130 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023869 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS3-03041
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Biomedical R&D of Noninvasive, Unobtrusive Medical Devices for Future Flight Crews
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Medical Diagnostic Instrument based on Real-time Breath Analysis

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Los Gatos Research
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View , CA   94041 - 1518
(650 ) 965 - 7780

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Douglas Baer
d.baer@lgrinc.com
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View , CA   94041 - 1518
(650 ) 965 - 7778

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Los Gatos Research proposes to develop and test a novel medical diagnostic instrument that will non-invasively measure the ratio of the isotopic abundances of 13C to 12C in exhaled breath. The instrument, based on a new technology called Off-Axis ICOS, will be inexpensive, portable, easy to use, and report measurements with sufficient sensitivity and precision to replace mass spectrometry in 13C-labeled breath tests for diagnosis of several diseases, including diagnosis of liver fibrosis, bacterial overgrowth, pancreatitis, irritable bowel syndrome, sepsis, and infection. During Phase II, we will develop an instrument for measurement of the gastric emptying rate for diagnosis of gastroparesis and associated conditions. In addition, we will quantify the specificity and sensitivity of the instrument by incorporating it into clinical trials. The instrument will enable long-term studies of astronaut health based on non-intrusive breath analysis and thus addresses the needs of the Biomedical Research Program. The program will involve clinical testing in human subjects to demonstrate concept efficacy and thus meet Countermeasure Readiness Level 6. At the end of the program, the instrument will be available for evaluation with human subjects in controlled laboratory conditions simulating space flight environment and thus meet Countermeasure Readiness Level 7.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed instrument may be used for real-time determination of the health of an astronaut in flight and/or in ground-based studies based on the measurement of the stable isotopes of CO2 in exhaled breath. The instrument may be applied for detection of a broad spectrum of medical conditions including gastroparesis and associated conditions (e.g., gastroesophageal reflux disease), diagnosis of liver fibrosis, bacterial overgrowth, pancreatitis, irritable bowel syndrome, metabolic stress, sepsis, and infection. The proposed medical diagnostics instrument will be capable of achieving state-of-the-art precision, sensitivity, speed and reliability and thus compete favorably with existing technology for point-of-care measurements. The proposed instrument will be the first compact and autonomous medical diagnostics device capable of addressing several important conditions based on the measurement of CO2 isotopes in breath including rate of gastric emptying, infection due to Helicobacter pylori, diagnosis of liver fibrosis, lactose intolerance, bacterial overgrowth, assessment of pancreatic function, and irritable bowel syndrome. Point-of-care breath analysis is attractive because it is minimally invasive, inexpensive and yields results quickly. Present technology, based on mass spectrometry, is expensive and difficult to use.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to the medical applications described above, the proposed technology may be used for real-time monitoring and control of chemical processing plants from measurements of important processes gases including CO, CO2, H2O, NH3, CH4 and various hydrocarbons, and for real-time monitoring of greenhouse gases, pollutants, and stable isotopes in the stratosphere and troposphere for validation and confirmation of atmospheric chemistry and transport models.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II B3.06-7571 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024428 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS1-03029
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Shielding to Protect Humans
PROPOSAL TITLE: Carbon based aerogel composites for radiation shielding

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Ceramics Research, Inc.
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson , AZ   85706 - 5013
(520 ) 573 - 6300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ranji Vaidyanathan
rkv@acrtucson.com
3292 E. Hemisphere Loop
Tucson , AZ   85706 - 5013
(520 ) 573 - 6300

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The prime objective of this proposal is to develop a multi-functional sandwich composite material design to fulfill current needs for non-parasitic, lightweight, high-strength, thermally insulating and effective radiation shielding materials for deep space exploration applications. The phase II program will further improve and characterize the mechanical, physical and radiation protection properties of the sandwich composite structures developed in the phase I program. The phase I program clearly demonstrated the technical feasibility of the ACR manufacturing approach to fabricate thermally insulating and radiation shielding capable sandwich composite structures using dissimilar materials such as aerogels and polyethylene with added radiation and neutron shielding capable elements.
For the phase II effort, ACR will continue to improve the mechanical and radiation shielding properties of the aerogel materials that have been infiltrated into low thermal conductive reticulated carbon foam. ACR will also develop the manufacturability of the sandwich composite structures with aerogel and polyethylene materials. Mechanical testing and optimization will be performed to improve the sandwich construction and the interlaminar properties of the composites. Mechanical and thermal modeling will be conducted. Comprehensive sample irradiation will be conducted to evaluate the radiation effects on the materials and the material effects on the radiation. ACR will also transition the state of the current sandwich composite construction into a technology capable of large-size component manufacture.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Samples of appropriate size will be fabricated for use in NASA Marshall?s deep space test bed. Sandwich composites will be supplied with passive dosimeters to NASA?s balloon-borne Deep Space Test Bed (DSTB) facility. The DSTB operations include an engineering test flight in the U.S. early in 2005 and the first polar flight in December 2005. The payload definition for each of these flights will be completed in 2004 and integration of the experiments for both flights will begin in January of 2005. Other potential applications include habitat structures on the moon and Mars as well as astronaut quarters on the ISS.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
ACR will collaborate with DoD and NASA prime contractors to develop commercial applications for the multi-functional structural radiation shielding materials. Thus, there is a strong relationship between the goals of the proposed phase II program and the NASA mission, in addition to a strong commercial potential.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II B3.06-9611 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022388 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS1-03031
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Radiation Shielding to Protect Humans
PROPOSAL TITLE: Interfacing Design Code and Simulation Code for Biological Shielding

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alternative Energy Solutions, Inc.
PO Box 230269
Boston , MA   02123 - 0269
(617 ) 373 - 2941

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tom Paul
stephen.reucroft@cern.ch
c/o AES, PO Box 230269
Boston , MA   02123 - 0269
(617 ) 365 - 4363

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The purpose of this project is to continue developing tools to match existing Computer Assisted Design (CAD) software to Geant4 with a special view to shielding simulations for NASA.

Geant4 is a particle transport and interaction simulation toolkit,originally developed to help with Monte Carlo simulations of high energy physics experiments. It represents decades of development and is the standard tool for experimental particle physics simulations. In another SBIR Phase I project AES had already established its level of suitability for the simulation of space radiation shielding to protect astronauts. Geant4, however, represents geometry in its own format which is not immediately
compatible with standard CAD programs which generally lack critical information for radiation simulation such as composition of materials.

Based on experience in Phase I, we plan to continue developing an XML framework plus associated tools supporting both CAD (STEP) format and Geant4, plus a rich variety of extensions which offer significant flexibility in terms of the ability to track accounting, assembly, quality, and countless other parameters with no interference with the main physics/engineering tasks. This could prove invaluable in attempts to better understand equipment and mission failures, optimize maintenance and repair schedules, and generally improve reliability.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
For NASA the primary interest is in the augmentation of CAD (STEP) format data with information which allows radiation effects simulations with Geant4 to be carried out. That said, the results of our Phase I research have made it clear that the needed flexibility and extendability is also ideally suited to allow arbitrary augmentations of CAD data. Recent events have underlined to us, the potential value of a fully extensible data description. For example, in the case of failure (either catastrophic, or simple wear and tear leading to replacements) there would be clear value in having the geometrical description of the constructed object contain information on the components which might not seem of immediate interest to a physicist or engineer.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Within the particular scope of making it easier to handle radiation simulations, we expect to find major applications in fields in which shielding and dosimetry are important such as commercial space applications, reactor design, medical radiology, etc. The general ability to augment CAD-produced data, and in fact the general proposed XML framework for a fully extensible format is potentially applicable to any CAD user, as well as to anyone wanting to manage almost any conceivable process or engineered device.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II B3.07-8790 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023209 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS10-03011
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Biomass Production for Planetary Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Deployable Vegetable Production System (VEGGIE)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Orbital Technologies Corporation
1212 Fourier Drive
Madison , WI   53717 - 1961
(608 ) 827 - 5000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert C. Morrow
morrowr@orbitec.com
Orbital Technologies Corp., 1212 Fourier Drive
Madison , WI   53717 - 1961
(608 ) 827 - 5000

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
ORBITEC proposes to develop a deployable facility called the Vegetable Production System (VEGGIE) to produce vegetable (salad) crops to supplement prepackaged foods during long stays in space. The innovation of the VEGGIE is in providing, within a single middeck locker, a plant growing facility with a growing area of 0.5m2 to 1.0m2, a light source sufficiently intense for crop production, a compressible nutrient and water delivery system, and a semi-passive atmospheric control system that minimizes water use without limiting gas exchange. To minimize complexity, VEGGIE would utilize the cabin environment for temperature control and as a source of CO2. The primary goals are to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe source of fresh food and to provide the crew with a tool for relaxation and recreation. The anticipated results of Phase II activities include the development of high fidelity VEGGIE prototypes, food safety protocols to prevent microbial contamination, and the necessary data and documentation to support a critical design review (CDR). Completion of the CDR would allow an immediate build of flight qualified units as a Phase III activity.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
VEGGIE technologies have significant near-term NASA applications including flight qualified personal gardens on ISS as a psychological benefit desired by space crews (available now); middle school, high school and college education and outreach kits relating to plant growth in space (available October 2003); and one square meter of commercial, NGO or NASA-operated fresh food augmentation for ISS (available in 2005). Additionally, several system configurations would be immediately available to support conduct of food production and ALS research on ISS with minimal resources and cost. All of this activity supports technology, knowledge-base and experience for future advanced life support systems development.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications for the VEGGIE system include products for horticulture therapy practiced in facilities for the aged, rehabilitation hospitals and clinics, prisons, and other settings where psychological and/or physical therapy is required; commercially available, pre-college and college level science education systems; personal indoor gardening products and gifts; inexpensive specialty plant growth systems; and storable food supplements for emergency or remote locations. A series of commercial education systems varying in complexity are being pursued with industry partners who have proclaimed interest in these technologies. VEGGIE technologies also increase productivity of tissue culture and other biologically-based manufacturing markets.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II B4.01-7532 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024467 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS8-03020
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Telescience and Outreach for Space Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Grid-Based Distribution of Payload Video to Experimenters

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AZ Technology, Inc.
7047 Old Madison Pike, Suite 300
Huntsville , AL   35806 - 2188
(256 ) 837 - 9877

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jim Chamberlain
jimc@aztechnology.com
7047 Old Madison Pike, Suite 300
Huntsville , AL   35806 - 2188
(256 ) 837 - 9877

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Distribution of International Space Station (ISS) downlink video to Remote Principle Investigators (RPIs) requires a connection to Abilene, an Internet2 high-performance research network, or a network that peers with Abilene. Additionally, multicast network capability and four megabits per second bandwidth capacity per video channel is required end-to-end in order to receive the downlink video.

The Grid Video Distribution System (GViDS) will make ISS downlink video much more accessible to the RPI and NASA center sites by converting the downlink video to lower resolutions, unicast, and widely used commercial-off-the shelf codec formats. Providing this video capability within a grid environment will provide additional flexibility to the experimenter, by supporting the integration of instruments, displays, and computational/information resources. GViDS will be integrated into the MSFC Space-based Science Operations Grid.

The GViDS innovation is a cost-effective, flexible, manageable, automated scheme for routing streaming video in a standards-based computational grid environment. Hundreds of ISS users will be involved in distributed mission operations and telescience. NASA telescience operations will benefit from the use of innovative video streaming and grid technology. The successful Internet Protocol-based system will be ?dual-use?: providing both telescience support to the experimenter as well as excellent Web-based education and public outreach.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The immediate commercialization market is hundreds of ISS experiment telescience users over the next decade. Additional markets are other NASA missions requiring video streaming. There is great interest in E/PO applications utilizing live telemetry data, audio, and video. This is confirmed by MSFC Media Relations Department support for the WIS/PER project. Our goal is to provide a turn-key package for use directly off of the Internet or for touch-screen kiosks at museums, Challenger Centers, etc. GViDS education-related applications for NASA include packaging ISS science for informal education communities, formal education and multiple target audiences program uses. This supports Goal 4 of the HEDS Strategic Plan and involves the public in live space activities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial application areas include development and integration of video streaming to the military, medical, and homeland security/emergency response. AZTek has become Alabama?s only certified Osprey Reseller. AZTek has sold approximately $52,000 in ViewCast Osprey video streaming systems in the past year. AZTek has obtained a contract to develop telemedicine workstations for the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Medicine. GViDS-enabled video streaming expertise has been crucial in obtaining and performing this work. AZTek is marketing inexpensive video display capabilities to Emergency Operations Center integration offerings to emergency management agencies. AZTek, which has been traditionally a NASA support contractor, will use this business area to extend its support to the Department of Defense (DoD). AZTek has submitted a proposal to AMTEC of Huntsville for an Army video streaming system. AZTek is in discussion with UAH about potential Nursing School distance learning applications based on new video streaming expertise.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II B4.02-7759 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024240 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS8-03022
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Commercialization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Biological Aerosol Spectrofluorometric Identification System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanohmics, Inc.
6201 East Oltorf St, Suite 100
Austin , TX   78741 - 7511
(512 ) 389 - 9990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Keith Jamison
kjamison@nanohmics.com
6201 East Oltorf St, Suite 100
Austin , TX   78741 - 7511
(512 ) 389 - 9999

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
There is a need for a rapid, inexpensive technique to monitor bioaerosol loading in a manned space environment in order to insure the safety and health of the occupants. Condensate traps from air conditioners and heating and cooling ducts in spacecraft provide particularly efficient means for producing and transmitting airborne pathogens. The lack of regeneration of internal air with fresh air allows the bioaerosol concentration to build to unacceptably high levels. Nanohmics Incorporated (Austin, TX) is developing a compact Ambient Biological Aerosol Spectrophotometric Identification System (Ambient BASIS) for in-flight detection and monitoring of potentially hazardous biological particles present in the manned space environment. The instrument will discriminate biological aerosols from nonbiological aerosols by detecting the fluorescence and elastic scattering from individual micron-sized airborne particles.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A real-time method for characterizing bioaerosols does not presently exist. The instrument would support NASA's Earth Science Enterprise program by developing an instrument for characterizing bioaerosols in the earth?s atmosphere. This instrument would also support NASA?s mission for a permanent presence of man in space by continuously monitoring air quality to protect crew health. Aspects of this instrument would be utilized on space probes to assess acceptability of unknown environments for human habitation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The instrument developed in this program will identify and monitor the amount of airborne contaminants around municipal solid waste recycling and composting plants; monitor and track bioaerosols in health care facilities; monitor and evaluate the bioaerosol content in structures that have little recirculation with outdoor air; monitor the concentration and source of bioaerosols in a variety of indoor industrial environments; determine the amount of bio-pesticide that is outside of crop areas; and monitor the effluents from suspect biological warfare agent production facilities for treaty verification and compliance


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II E1.01-8848 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023151 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS5-03052
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Passive Optical
PROPOSAL TITLE: All-digital, CMOS-based Photodiode Camera

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown , MA   02472 - 4699
(617 ) 926 - 1167

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James F. Christian, Ph.D.
jchristian@rmdinc.com
44 Hunt Street
Watertown , MA   02472 - 4699
(617 ) 926 - 1167

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
CCDs (Charge-Coupled Devices), and more recently, CMOS (complementary-symmetry metal-oxide-semiconductor) APS (Active Pixel Sensor) cameras have revolutionized imaging instrumentation and the many fields that utilize these instruments. Both these technologies rely on integrating, the analog photo-current generated in each pixel, which limits their sensitivity and bandwidth. Counting individual optical photons with an avalanche photodiode operated above its breakdown voltage provides the greatest sensitivity, and represents true digital imaging that facilitates pixel-level signal processing. In essence, the Geiger APD pixel directly converts an incident photon flux into a digital count rate, which eliminates the readout noise associated with analog detection, providing a unique CMOS architecture for analog-to-digital conversion.
This program develops a fully integrated, digital camera chip, which is an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) that counts individual optical photons using avalanche photodiodes operated above breakdown, in Geiger mode. This all-digital, CMOS imaging technology fulfills the demanding requirements for providing high-resolution images at ~GHz speeds characteristic of CMOS devices. In Phase I, we successfully completed all the Phase I goals by designing, fabricating, and characterizing the Geiger APD pixel elements of the APS camera ASIC. In Phase II, we will design, fabricate and characterize prototypes of the complete APS camera ASIC.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The advantages of this technology applies to many imaging applications, including the following (NASA missions): Airborne, spaceborne or Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms for imaging and measuring climate, meteorological parameters, aerosols, clouds, water vapor and other chemical atmospheric constituents, vegetation index, biological productivity, chlorophyll fluorescence, 2D and 3D surface terrain mapping, and ocean color. Our detector provides tracking and collision avoidance capabilities for rovers and other robotic exploration vehicles, in addition to providing ranging capabilities using LADAR and LIDAR. In spectroscopy applications, such as LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy), and satellite communications, the proposed technology represents an ideal detector technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Non-NASA applications include low-light-level imaging, photography, diffuse optical tomography, nuclear imaging, x-ray imaging, (nuclear medicine). The proposed ASIC camera would find widespread use in instrumentation where compact, high-speed, hi-resolution imaging detectors are used. High-performance imaging detectors currently have a large commercial market, and as such, the proposed development holds a very high potential for commercialization.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II E1.01-9581 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022418 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS1-03034
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Passive Optical
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Ultra-Narrow Tunable Optical Bandpass Filter

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MetroLaser, Inc.
2572 White Road
Irvine , CA   92614 - 6236
(949 ) 553 - 0688

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vladimir Markov, Ph.D.
vmarkov@metrolaserinc.com
2572 White Road
Irvine , CA   92614 - 6236
(949 ) 553 - 0688

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Ultra-narrow bandpass tunable filters in the visible and infrared spectral regions are needed for the remote sensing industry and NASA in particular. Such filters are applicable in high-resolution spectroscopy, tunable lasers, and multi-spectral and hyperspectral imaging. During Phase I, we performed a feasibility study of an innovative ultra-narrow bandpass filter based on unique features of a photonic crystal interferometer (PCI), and did a meticulous and extensive analysis and modeling of its characteristics. We then assembled and tested a PCI breadboard and demonstrated its tunability over a 1 nm spectral range with a bandpass close to 0.02 nm and an acceptance angle close to 1o. The acquired data demonstrated conclusively that an approach based on the PCI concept provides an optimal solution for designing and constructing an ultra-narrow tunable optical bandpass filter. During Phase II we will design, build, deliver to NASA, and perform field testing of a compact and robust prototype module of a 1? diameter PCI filter with a tunability range of 1 nm and a bandpass range of 0.01 nm at 50% transmittance range. The Phase II design should allow for retrofitting the PCI to existing instruments and provide a stable performance in harsh operating environments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed ultra-narrow tunable optical bandpass filter will expand the capabilities of NASA?s Earth Science Enterprise for high spectral resolution and high accuracy measurements of atmospheric and surface parameters from space and airborne platforms. These include measurements of biological productivity of land and ocean, measurements of climate and meteorological parameters, and terrain mapping.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed ultra-narrow tunable optical bandpass filter will find commercial applications in space-based and airborne multi-spectral imaging and remote sensing systems, including LIDAR stations and meteorological instruments. It will expand capabilities for high accuracy spectral measurements within the tunable narrow spectral regions necessary for resolving individual spectral features. Due to its high spectral resolution, wide tunability range, compactness, ruggedness and stability, the proposed filter will allow for innovative solutions in high-resolution spectroscopic instrumentation, especially when portable devices are of interest.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II E1.02-8857 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023142 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS5-03018
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Optical
PROPOSAL TITLE: Tunable, High Power Fiber Optic Laser for Lidar Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sigma Research and Engineering Corp.
9801 Greenbelt Road, Suite 103
Lanham , MD   20706 - 6204
(301 ) 552 - 6300

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher T. Field
christopher.field@SigmaSpace.com
9801 Greenbelt Road, Suite 103
Lanham , MD   20706 - 6204
(301 ) 552 - 6300

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop a fiber laser which can be tuned over the range of 1530-1575 nm,produce high pulse energy at pulse rates from CW up to 10 KHz, has a narrow line width, and can simultaneously lase on two tunable wavelengths. Additionally, this laser will operate within the eye safe range. A laser of this type would be attractive for conventional lidar and altimeter systems as well as wind lidar and DIAL systems. With the addition of a fiber amplifier this laser would eventually be capable of generating pulses on the order of tens of milli-joules, an amount suitable for space-based lidar systems. The laser output could be doubled into the near-IR range, tripled into the visible range, and quadrupled into the UV range of 382 to 394 nm. We propose to combine the dual wavelength fiber laser developed by Jin U. Kang of Johns Hopkins University and fiber amplifier techniques developed at Sigma. These lasers would provide a breakthrough for ground based, airborne and space based lidars due to their combination of eye safe wavelengths, high power, tunability, and capability for dual wavelength operation. Their inherent solid state structure and lack of external components make them ideal for space applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A high repetition rate, tunable, dual wavelength, high power fiber laser operating at eye safe wavelengths would be a breakthrough source for wind, water vapor, aerosol lidar, and altimetry systems. There is great need for lidar measurements of wind profiles as well as atmospheric constituents which this laser would enable, the last one particularly through its dual wavelength capability. Furthermore, a large fraction of the visible and soft UV spectral region could be covered by conversion, producing a tool for laboratory and field research not currently available. Its all fiber construction makes it a rugged compact, alignment insensitive system, ideally suited for space applications. The goal of this proposal is to demonstrate power scalability to obtain the per-pulse energies necessary for space based systems. If successful, this technology would provide a good alternative to Nd:YAG lasers for similar missions to GLAS, MLA and VCL in the future, and become a true enabler for missions with more stringent requirements.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A high repetition rate, tunable, high power fiber laser would mean a break through in commercial laser technology. With the capability to tune and double, triple and quadruple the output frequency, most of the visible and soft UV spectral region could be covered, producing a new tool for laboratory and field research. In the scientific lidar sector, this laser could be implemented in various types of lidar/altimeter systems used in global studies and weather modeling. In R&D labs in academia or industry this laser would be an excellent source at wavelengths where other sources are cumbersome (OPOs), and would offer greater flexibility. In the commercial sector this laser can be implemented in airport-based instruments (i.e. ceilometers, windshear detection) and urban pollution monitoring systems where reliability, ease of maintenance and eye-safety are paramount. Other applications include remote sensing of chem-bio agents, in urban and military environments. Overall market could be measured in several hundreds to few thousand units.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II E1.02-8892 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023107 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS1-03036
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Optical
PROPOSAL TITLE: Quantum-Cascade-Laser-Seeded OPO for DIAL

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Q-Peak, Inc.
135 South Road
Bedford , MA   01730 - 2307
(781 ) 275 - 9535

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Glen Rines
grines@qpeak.com
135 South Road
Bedford , MA   01730 - 2307
(781 ) 275 - 9535

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop an all-solid-state, laser-based source that covers the 2.5- to 14-micron band and is suitable for use in airborne and space-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems. The proposed DIAL transmitter would enable high-resolution, high-accuracy remote sensing of atmospheric molecular species of interest to NASA including carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide as well as many others.
The proposed project would yield a deliverable laboratory-level system comprised of a diode-laser-pumped, Q-switched, 2-micron laser, which pumps a middle-wave-infrared (MWIR) optical parametric oscillator (OPO), that is injection-seeded with a quantum cascade laser (QCL) to provide a narrow linewidth.
The primary innovation is the use of recently developed distributed feedback (DFB) QCLs to injection-seed a MWIR OPO for the purpose of obtaining narrow linewidth, high-pulse-energy operation in a compact, simple configuration. A secondary innovation is the specific selection of other critical system components that make the overall system suitable for airborne and space-based instrumentation. These include the all-solid-state 2-micron pump laser and the MWIR OPO, which can be constructed with either zinc germanium phosphide (ZGP) or cadmium selenide (CdSe) depending on the wavelength coverage desired.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications of the technology are related to the Earth Science Enterprise, specifically for aircraft- or space-based measurements of the profile of atmospheric gases that will allow better understanding of global climate changes and the human impact on the atmosphere. The species include common greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane, as well as a wide variety of gases that play a role in atmospheric chemistry. Of these gases, the majority exhibit infrared absorption connected with the vibration-rotation features of the gas molecule, and this can be sensed using DIAL techniques. The narrow-linewidth, seeded OPO design proposed here can produce wavelengths in the two atmospheric windows (3-5 and 8-12 ?Ym) available for sensing, and thus can be used in a number of NASA remote-sensing systems operating from both aircraft and space-based platforms. Since the OPO technology is driven by a 2-?Ym Ho:YLF laser, it leverages the high-energy laser technology developed at NASA Langley for wind-sensing into a wide range of species-sensing applications.
An additional application of the technology would be in coherent wind-sensing systems based on Ho:YLF lasers, also part of the Earth Science Enterprise. The proposed work will advance the technology of high-energy, resonantly pumped Ho:YLF lasers, and data developed in the effort will be of significance to the existing NASA Langley-centered program in that area.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A commercial product applications include:
1. Fence-line monitors at industrial sites, needed to meet Clean Air Act requirements. Problems have been encountered with FTIR systems now used such as lack of sensitivity to meet regulations for many gases and interference from water vapor, which is difficult to correct due to the limited resolution of the FTIR. A broadly tunable, narrow-linewidth IR source based on an OPO /multi-QCL combination could be an alternative to the FTIR system, and solve the operational difficulties now encountered.
2. Systems for determination of air pollution in urban and industrial areas from automobiles and industrial processes, including both criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases.
3. Systems for homeland security, such as continuous monitoring of urban air or entry points for the presence of chemical agents and explosive devices.
4. Systems for military applications, including long-range detection of chemical agents. Another example is chemical detection systems flown on UAVs. These systems would have strategic application in determining whether a country is developing nuclear, chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction. Tactical applications include monitoring of battlefield conditions and wide-area monitoring of fixed assets such as military bases against chemical-warfare attacks.
5. Systems for scientific investigations, including basic spectroscopy and dynamics of molecules, liquids and solids.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II E1.02-8894 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023105 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS5-03019
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Optical
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Power Pump Laser for Ozone Lidar

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Q-Peak, Inc.
135 South Road
Bedford , MA   01730 - 2307
(781 ) 275 - 9535

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Yelena Isyanova
isyanova@qpeak.com
135 South Road
Bedford , MA   01730 - 2307
(781 ) 275 - 9535

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop and demonstrate a key component of a laser transmitter that can meet the performance requirements of both systems. In contrast to solid state, diode-pumped, high-energy, low-pulse-rate transmitters that have been considered for ozone lidar systems, our innovative approach is to use a high-pulse-rate (1 kHz) source with similar average powers to low-pulse-rate systems, but greatly reduced energies per pulse. The resultant reduction in the number of diodes and the size of the beam-handling optics leads to a lower-cost, lighter weight system, advantages for both the satellite- and aircraft-based systems. Our approach will enable a new generation of lower-risk, lower-cost science missions, requiring lower power and weight resources. This technology will lead to high performance DIAL systems deployable on small aircraft, UAVs and satellites. This flexibility in choice of platform will greatly enhance the capability of NASA to achieve the science goals of ESE.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The work proposed here has direct application to the development of aircraft and satellite-based ozone DIAL systems, as described in detail earlier in this proposal. The pump source would drive a nonlinear conversion system to generate UV wavelengths suited for ozone sensing from different platforms. Other NASA applications for the pump source would be in precision altimetry for earth and other planetary investigations. The source, combined with other nonlinear optics, could also serve as the DIAL transmitter for probing of other species than ozone. In particular, combined with optical parametric oscillators, the source we develop could provide broadly tunable infrared for sensing of a wide variety of molecular species.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed high-energy MPS technology would be an extension of our existing diode-pumped product line and would offer a step-up in power and energy from our existing products, into the 100-W range now served by more conventional lamp-pumped Nd:YAG lasers. A MPS Nd:YLF laser with 100 mJ/pulse fundamental energy, 1-kHz rate and high beam quality, with the addition of harmonic generation for some systems, could provide a relatively low-cost solution for precision machining applications such as marking, cutting, welding and drilling, of interest to the electronics, automotive and medical-device industry. Q-Peak, as it is now doing with the MPS product line, would strive to establish OEM relationships with systems integrators who supply machining and processing tools to end customers.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II E1.02-9748 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022251 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS1-03037
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Optical
PROPOSAL TITLE: Diode-Pumped Neodymium-Yttria Laser for Ozone Lidar

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aculight Corporation
11805 North Creek Parkway S. Suite 113
Bothell , WA   98011 - 8803
(425 ) 482 - 1100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David C. Shannon
dave.shannon@aculight.com
11805 North Creek Parkway S. Suite 113
Bothell , WA   98011 - 8803
(425 ) 482 - 1100

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The purpose of this program is to develop a compact and efficient ultraviolet laser system for ozone sensing from space. The basis for this system will be a diode-pumped neodymium-yttria (Nd:Y2O3) laser which is frequency-tripled to generate uv light at either 305nm or 315nm. The ability to generate both uv wavelengths from a single frequency-tripled Nd:Y2O3 laser makes this approach potentially 4x more efficient than other approaches. In Phase I, diode-pumped operation of Nd:Y2O3 at 915nm and 947nm was demonstrated for the first time. In Phase II, these preliminary results will be extended and combined with efficient harmonic frequency conversion to develop an efficient and compact ultraviolet laser system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to ozone monitoring applications, an efficient 947nm Nd:Y2O3 laser could be used for NASA water vapor Lidar programs. A frequency-quadrupled laser at 237nm could be used for uv resonance Raman spectroscopy for NASA?s search for signs of life in our solar system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Frequency-doubled Nd:Y2O3 lasers in the 450-475nm range can be used for display applications and in bio-medical instruments such as cell sorters, flow cytometers, and DNA sequencers. Frequency-tripled lasers in the 305-315nm range will be used for stereo-lithography and materials processing such as micro-machining. Frequency-quadrupled lasers near 237nm can be used for detection of chemical and biological agents, remote detection of explosives, and semiconductor inspection.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II E1.03-8224 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023775 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS2-03126
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Terrestrial Sensors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Flight-based instrumentation for in situ measurements of multiple trace gases

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Los Gatos Research
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View , CA   94041 - 1518
(650 ) 965 - 7780

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Manish Gupta
m.gupta@lgrinc.com
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View , CA   94041 - 1518
(650 ) 965 - 7874

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Los Gatos Research proposes to develop a novel, flight-ready, instrument based on a new technology called Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy and continuous-wave, mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers to simultaneously measure the concentrations of CO, CH4, and N2O in the stratosphere and troposphere. These species have been identified as strong greenhouse gases, have very long atmospheric lifetimes, and thus play an important role in climate change. The proposed multi-laser Off-Axis ICOS instrument will measure all three of these species simultaneously while on board a NASA aircraft. In Phase I, we have demonstrated feasibility by building a laboratory prototype Off-Axis ICOS instrument and measuring CH4 in the near-infrared and CO in the mid-infrared. In Phase II, LGR will perform a series of scientific studies to characterize the selected absorption features, engineer a flight-ready, multiple-species analyzer, and test the analyzer aboard an aircraft before delivering the final system to NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
CH4, CO, and N2O are critical atmospheric species that have been implicated in the greenhouse effect, stratospheric ozone depletion, and pollution transport. Due to the importance of these species, NASA has developed a wide array of instruments to measure these gases including ALIAS, ARGUS, ATLAS and DACOM. These instruments have provided precise concentration measurements but have been limited in their utility by their sensitivity to alignment and lack of robustness.

In this SBIR effort, we propose to circumvent these limitations by combining our novel Off-Axis ICOS technique with continuous-wave quantum cascade (QC) and DFB diode lasers. Off-Axis ICOS surpasses the traditional multi-pass methods currently employed by NASA because it provides a longer sample pathlength and is far less sensitive to alignment. Moreover, QC lasers are poised to replace Pb-salt lasers in many future applications due to the imminent possibility of room-temperature operation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Beyond NASA, the proposed multiplexed, ultrasensitive gas analyzer has several commercial applications. These applications include industrial process control, emissions monitoring, and the scientific instrumentation market. During the Phase I research effort considerable progress has been made in developing an industrial process control monitor in collaboration with Dow Chemical Company. Los Gatos Research is actively pursuing such commercial ventures and support through the SBIR Program would greatly bolster our efforts.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II E1.03-8410 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023589 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS5-03020
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Terrestrial Sensors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Microwave Rain Gauge

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Center for Remote Sensing, Inc.
3702 Pender Drive Suite 170
Fairfax , VA   22030 - 6044
(703 ) 385 - 7717

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Suman Ganguly
sganguly@cfrsi.com
3702 Pender Drive Suite 170
Fairfax , VA   22030 - 6044
(703 ) 385 - 7717

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal describes a plan to design, develop and demonstrate the capabilities of microwave techniques for precise and accurate measurements of various parameters associated with rain and snow fall. We have developed and demonstrated the capabilities of multi-frequency (13.6, 27 and 35 GHz) forward and backscatter measurements with high precision using a single instrument during Phase I. We propose to extend the development of this radar and perform experiments in order to define the requirements of fully flexible, high precision, scientific quality radar. We next build a complete field deployable prototype system and install it at Wallops Island. We continue scientific observation of snow and rain, determination of DSD, etc. We finally design and develop an inexpensive field portable device for general use for rain and snow measurements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The rain and snow measuring instruments will provide valuable contribution to Earth Sciences. These will be used to:
a. Calibrate the Rain Radars, such as TRMM, GPM, etc.
b. Provide Ground Truth and area averaged Rain measurement at Wallops Island and other monitoring sites.
c. Provide simple, inexpensive means of measuring rainfall drop size distribution (DSD), Discriminate between rain and snow, estimate snow water contract, etc.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Simple, portable, inexpensive, accurate instrument for measuring rain and snow parameter will have large scale impact in monitoring and prediction of hydrologic, meteorological events. These are useful for Hydrologic applications, agriculture, electric power utilities, etc., in predicting River Run-off, power failures, total snow and rain fall, etc. These are also crucial for global environment.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II E1.03-9865 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022134 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS5-03021
SUBTOPIC TITLE: In Situ Terrestrial Sensors
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Reusable and Autonomous Ocean-Atmosphere Sensor Integration System (OASIS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pacific Gyre
7460 Capstan Drive
Carlsbad , CA   92009 - 4682
(760 ) 918 - 9798

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Andy Sybrandy
asybrandy@pacificgyre.com
7460 Capstan Drive
Carlsbad , CA   92009 - 4682
(760 ) 918 - 9798

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The need to acquire observations on oceanic and atmospheric physical and biogeochemical processes continues to increase. These data are presently being used as initial conditions for model forecasts, for creating climatological fields, for calibration and validation of remotely sensed data, for model data assimilation, and for flux estimates. Presently, autonomous sensor platforms have been designed as low cost expendables and are capable of taking measurements of temperature, salinity, wind speed, and bio-optics. Recent advances in the development of in situ ocean sensors will shortly allow these autonomous sensors to also obtain measurements of pCO2, nitrate, silicate, ammonium, and iron. However, as more sensors are included on the sensor package, the ability to use them as expendables is reduced dramatically. This proposal seeks to investigate the development and testing of a new low-cost sensor platform that would be capable of retrieval and reuse. The goal would be to develop a self-navigating, self-powered platform controlled via two-way satellite communication. This instrument platform could then be augmented with a wide variety of presently available oceanic and atmospheric sensors.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The OASIS sensor platform will allow NASA to deploy a wider suite of biogeochemical, and physical sensors in the ocean for Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) because the OASIS is a reusable low-cost platform. NASA collects synoptic data on the oceans from space. These data are necessary for assessing annual and seasonal climatologies, intra-seasonal and climate variability, ocean prediction and weather forecasting. The sensors used to obtain these measurements require a significant amount of in situ data for Cal/Val because the installed passive sensors are sensitive to changes in the composition of the earth?s atmosphere. The use of in situ observations to calibrate all NASA products is currently not possible because high cost, and/or post-deployment calibrations requirements eliminate the possibility of installing many useful sensors on expendable platforms. The OASIS platform will enable NASA to affordably collect in-situ data for Cal/Val using a wider range of important sensors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Development of a low cost, autonomous, recoverable surface sensor platform will provide scientific, commercial, and government organizations with the ability to obtain low-cost observations of the ocean and atmosphere. The U.S. Global Carbon Cycle community will use this platform to obtain air-sea CO2 flux, pCO2 and wind measurements in a variety of ocean regions that are typically under-sampled by commercial and NOAA ships. The climate community could use such a sensor platform to develop a dynamic ocean observational network for obtaining ocean data to forecast storms. The scientific community has also expressed interest in the OASIS as a platform for the study of Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB). Commercial use of this sensor platform would include environmental monitoring, water quality studies, oil spill tracking and nutrient dynamic studies.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II E1.05-7685 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024314 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS5-03055
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave
PROPOSAL TITLE: New Structures for Large Sensor Array Platforms

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AEC-Able Engineering Company, Inc.
7200 Hollister Ave.
Goleta , CA   93117 - 2807
(805 ) 690 - 2447

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bill Gadsby
bgadsby@aec-able.com
7200 Hollister Ave.
Goleta , CA   93117 - 2807
(805 ) 690 - 2447

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Second-order Augmentation of Lattice Trusses (SALT) is a unique configuration that promises to alleviate many constraints on the design of large deployable space structures, enabling more mass and packaging-efficient structures due to the effect of multi-tiered (higher-order structural hierarchy) latticing. In the Phase I SBIR study, ABLE Engineering performed analyses, design studies and testing to successfully demonstrate concept feasibility of the SALT system. The primary technical objective of the proposed Phase II program is to focus on hardware development and system implementation with the design, manufacture and build of a working multiple-bay Engineering Model (EM) of a CoilABLE boom that incorporates the SALT technology. Additionally, system-level analytical models will be developed that leverage off of the validated component-level models generated in Phase 1. These models will be used concurrently during the boom design process to allow system optimization, and will also be used to correlate the prototype performance testing. The EM hardware development and the validated analytic models of its behavior will effectively demonstrate system-level function and stiffness/strength performance, increasing the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) to 5. The successful completion of the proposed Phase II program will ready the SALT CoilABLE system for use on advanced missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed SALT technology is envisioned to have broad applicability for any space mission requiring the capability to deploy stiff, stable and extremely mass and volume efficient structures. The unique configuration of SALT promises to alleviate many constraints on the design of large deployable space structures, increasing the range of application and degree of optimization possible, allowing more mass and packaging-efficient structures to be used for many commercial and NASA missions. The ability to rapidly configure large, single-mission structures capable of being launched from a single vehicle will have commercialization opportunities for a wide variety of future communication and imaging spacecraft. The SALT technology is directly applicable to large sensor array structural platforms, such as the large deployable SAR applications currently being planned by NASA. Potential applications include: large SAR structures and antennas for imaging for weather, land mapping, ecology, natural resource management and other scientific endeavors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential non-NASA commercial and military applications resulting from the proposed SALT hardware development effort span a broad range of large space deployable structure applications. SALT has applicability for any space mission requiring the capability to deploy stiff, stable and extremely mass and volume efficient structures. In particular, the high-resolution SAR imaging data enabled by the application of this technology can be used commercially for city planning, irrigation, mineral exploration and transportation; and for military surveillance and planning.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II E1.06-8160 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023839 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS5-03058
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Passive Infrared - Sub Millimeter
PROPOSAL TITLE: Diamond-Based Sub Millimeter Backward Wave Oscillator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
GENVAC AeroSpace Corp.
110 Alpha Park
Cleveland , OH   44143 - 2215
(440 ) 646 - 9986

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. James A. Dayton
dayton@genvac.com
110 Alpha Park
Cleveland , OH   44143 - 2215
(440 ) 646 - 9986

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The diamond based backward wave oscillator (BWO) proposed here introduces novel slow wave circuit and fabrication concepts and makes use of silicon microfabrication and liquid crystal display technologies that have not previously been applied to the manufacture of vacuum electron devices to provide a miniature, energy efficient, electronically tunable and mass producible signal source in the sub mm wavelength regime. The structure of the BWO is fabricated from a monolithic body of chemically vapor deposited diamond. The technologies of fabrication and design that are proposed here for use in the development of the BWO have been pioneered by the offerors or are readily available from competent vendors. In Phase I a design has been completed for two versions of a 300 GHz oscillator, with 10% and 20% bandwidth, respectively. A fabrication plan has been proposed and a team of credible technical experts has been assembled to carry the work to the demonstration of a prototype oscillator in Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Conventional Backward Wave Oscillators are prohibitively large, and energy inefficient to be space borne. The current design proposed will enable the cost effective incorporation of BWOs on satellites for space-based radio astronomy.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
It has recently been reported that remote detection of spectral signatures from biological warfare agents has been achieved using a differential absorption radar (DAR) technique in the 300 GHz - 1 THz frequency range. Also the detection of hazardous gases in industrial settings is viable. A ?handheld? version of the BWO proposed here could enable the detection and protection against chemical, biological warfare agents and dangerous industrial gases. Such a device dedicated to Homeland Security, Military Defense and safety would have enormous commercial potential.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II E1.07-7551 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024448 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS5-03024
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control and Cryogenic Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Highly Effective Thermoelectric Coolers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sigma Technologies International, Inc.
10960 N. Stallard Place
Tucson , AZ   85737 - 9527
(520 ) 575 - 8013

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ali Boufelfel
boufelfel@sigmalabs.com
10960 N. Stallard Place
Tucson , AZ   85737 - 9527
(520 ) 575 - 8013

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Multilayer thermoelectric coolers offer a great promise in the refrigeration field. These solid state coolers have great advantages over the conventional Peltier coolers and compressed based units, these include compact size, high cooling rates, high power densities, no working fluid, lightweight, and cost effectivness. In Phase I, Sigma developed the technique for making multilayer Peltier. In Phase II, Sigma proposes to scale up the Phase I process. Sigma proposes here a cost effective, vacuum based, solvent free batch process to manufacture the new generation of multilayer coolers in one single pass. An inline monitoring system assures a high reliability. At the end of Phase II, Sigma will produce hundred of parts for field testing. Sigma will collaborate with major refrigeration companies to take the product to the market in record times.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The new multilayer Peltier cooler is expected in a multitude of NASA applications that include the cooling of infrared detectors, laser Ddodes, fiber optics switches, heat sensitive sensors, biosensors, reference sources, imaging devices(CCDs), telescopes, blood analyzer, fiber optics, gyros, guidance systems, and computer processors

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications for the new Peltier include portable coolers, temperature controlled wear, beverage dispensers, small refrigerators , heating and cooling pads, crycoolers, IR imaging (night vision goggles), genomic chips, environmental and medical instrumentation


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II E1.07-8301 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023698 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS5-03059
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control and Cryogenic Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Self-Contained Distributed Cooling Module for High Heat Sources

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
MicroEnergy Technologies, Inc.
2007 E. Fourth Plain Blvd.
Vancouver , WA   98661 - 3957
(360 ) 694 - 3704

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Reza Shekarriz
reza@microet.com
2007 E. Fourth Plain Blvd.
Vancouver , WA   98661 - 3957
(360 ) 694 - 3704

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
MicroEnergy Technologies, Inc. (MicroET) is proposing to develop a self-contained and autonomous thermal management system for distributed cooling of microelectronics. The problem of managing the heat load from multiple discrete heat sources within electronic systems is becoming a growing problem and receiving attention not only at NASA but at DoD and within the commercial sector. In this project, we have demonstrated the feasibility of developing a state-of-the-art autonomous cooling module that could be used in a network for thermal management of discrete and distributed electronics. The cooling module takes advantage of liquid cooling, pumped with a highly efficient built-in micropump integrated within the cooling module, to deliver more than 100 W/cm^2 of cooling. The two critical components, the heat sink and the liquid transport pump, were tested, integrated in a single package and independently for phase I feasibility demonstrations. For Phase II, MicroET is teaming with the University of Washington and Technology Assessment and Transfer (TA&T) to develop and demonstrate a breadboard prototype during the first year followed by a brassboard prototype made of a ceramic monolith structure during year 2 of the project. Our team brings to the table expertise in system engineering and development, fluid dynamics and heat transfer, and ceramic microfabrication. As described in the commercialization section of this proposal we have developed necessary partnerships and intellectual property to successfully manufacture and commercialize our electronics cooling products during phase III.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
MicroET?s mission is to develop an autonomous, highly efficient, hermetically sealed cooling module. Our longer term goal is the development of thermally-actuated autonomous cooling modules that eliminate the use of external power to drive the liquid in the loop. As part of this mission, we are being funded from various sources to develop various components of our technology. However, our product during the NASA SBIR Phase II project will be two different prototypes targeted to meet specific needs within NASA. We expect that our product will have its highest impact in the following NASA programs: FPGA chip, micro/nano spacecraft, high density avionics, expandable and planar lidar/radar arrays, and miniature fuel cells.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proliferation of consumer microelectronics and the relentless progression of Moore?s Law offer numerous market opportunities for advanced thermal management systems. The waste heat fluxes from consumer-grade microprocessors are approaching 100 W/cm^2 and this trend shows no sign of slowing down. A mass-produced version of the MicroET cooling module could be cost-competitive with today?s most advanced cooling solutions, but would exhibit significantly better performance than the current state-of-the-art. There are extensive application opportunities in personal computers, network servers, supercomputers, embedded computing devices, and a wide range of telecommunications equipment.
Wide band gap semiconductors have been the subject of a great deal of research and development work in recent years. The Department of Defense has a number of ongoing programs to use these semiconductors in phase array radar and similar high-energy applications. While wide band gap materials have some distinct advantage, they also generate large quantities of waste heat, with fluxes approaching 1000 W/cm^2. A high-performance distributed cooling system is imperative for the operation of such systems. High power lasers are in use in numerous military, scientific, and industrial applications ? some with extremely large waste heat fluxes (1000 W/cm^2 and greater). As with wide band gap semiconductors, a high-performance thermal management system is absolutely necessary.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II E1.07-8993 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023006 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS5-03025
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control and Cryogenic Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low-Current Superconducting Magnets Operating at up to 10K

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Superconducting Systems, Inc.
90 Rumford Avenue
Waltham , MA   02453 - 3847
(781 ) 642 - 6702

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Shahin Pourrahimi
pourrahimi@superconductingsystems.com
90 Rumford Avenue
Waltham , MA   02453 - 3847
(781 ) 642 - 6702

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Our overall goal for this project is to develop the technologies necessary for fabrication of efficient cryogen-free superconducting magnets that can operate at temperatures of 6-10K. In the Phase I program, we demonstrated that an efficient solenoid magnet system may be built using small diameter Nb3Sn wires employing the react-and-wind approach. In the Phase II program we will fabricate model 3T magnets operating at 10K with currents of 8A, 5A and 3A. The magnet will be tested and then used by NASA in an ongoing R&D in the area of Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigeration.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Highest efficiency adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators useful for achieving very low temperatures in space missions require superconducting magnets with low operating current that workat temperatures in the range of 6-10K. This program is geared toward the development of technologies for manufacturing of such magnets.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This program will establish practical and economical technologies in the areas of superconductor, and superconducting magnet technologies for operation at 6-10K. The results will impact the design, fabrication, and use of superconducting magnets for applications in space, high energy physics, medical, low temperature physics, spectroscopy, imaging, and chemistry.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II E1.07-9079 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022920 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS2-03127
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control and Cryogenic Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Efficiency MEMS Based Cryocooler

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nanohmics, Inc.
6201 East Oltorf St, Suite 100
Austin , TX   78741 - 7511
(512 ) 389 - 9990

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Keith Jamison
kjamison@nanohmics.com
6201 East Oltorf St, Suite 100
Austin , TX   78741 - 7511
(512 ) 389 - 9990

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this SBIR program, Nanohmics is developing an ultrahigh efficiency MicroElectroMechanical System (MEMS) cryogenic cooling system. The cryocooler is based on a Stirling Engine that is operating in reverse mode (mechanical-to-thermal) transduction. These devices show particular promise as MEMS coolers for integrated circuits and other planar detection arrays. This program improves on past work to develop a MEMS-based Stirling cryocooler that will dramatically improve the cryocooler performance and simplify device construction. The improvements to be included in this program are replacing the silicon heat exchanger plates and flexible membranes with high thermal conductivity diamond and monolithically constructing the gas impervious walls and regenerator portion of the device using quartz (SiO2). In Phase I of this program, Nanohmics examined the effects of introducing these materials into Stirling cryocoolers in the MEMS setting. This included thermal modeling of the proposed structure and examination of the operating parameters to produce optimum performance. Nanohmics also developed the process steps necessary to fabricate the device. In Phase II Nanohmics proposes to fabricate and test a prototype device based on the Phase I design.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
To fulfill NASA?s Earth Science Enterprise mission objectives, Nanohmics plans to develop an ultrahigh thermal efficiency MicroElectroMechanical System (MEMS) cryogenic cooling system. The system will be designed to decrease the cost and size of cooling devices for instruments that perform Earth Science measurements and thus lead to compact electromagnetic detection and microelectronics platforms for integration into miniature probe spacecraft. Additional NASA applications include dependable long term cooling for detectors on deep space satellite missions. The proposed MEMS cooler will be highly reliable, light weight, have low vibration, and energy efficient.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Miniaturized coolers have many military and commercial applications. The largest commercial application is cooling of microprocessors and detectors. Currently, speed of microprocessors and the efficiency of detectors are limited by the amount of power that can be removed from the devices. Chip scale heat pumps will allow efficient cooling of devices enabling operation at greater speeds / power densities. A number of examples exist where a MEMS-based cryocooler integrated into compact environments would be useful. These include: IR and other electromagnetic radiation detector cooling and cooling of packaged microelectronic chips.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II E2.01-9200 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022799 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS9-03019
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Structures and Materials
PROPOSAL TITLE: Hierarchial composites comprising continuous carbon nanotube composite fibers in a nanotube-reinforced matrix

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ZYVEX Corporation
1321 N. Plano Road
Richardson , TX   75081 - 2475
(972 ) 235 - 7881

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jian Chen
shachelle@zyvex.com
1321 North Plano Road
Richardson , TX   75081 - 2426
(972 ) 235 - 7881

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA requires dramatic advancements in material properties to improve launch vehicles, spacecraft, and the space station?s performance. Our plan is to provide: 1) Continuous carbon nanotube (CNT) composite fibers stronger than 10 GPa and tougher than any known material. 2) CNT fiber composites stronger than 6 GPa.

We propose to develop hierarchical composites comprising continuous CNT composite fibers in CNT-reinforced matrices (CPMs). We plan to: (1) Produce continuous CNT fibers with tensile strength >10 GPa and toughness >1000 J/g; (2) Develop CPMs optimized for application with CNT composite fibers; (3) Integrate continuous CNT fibers with CPMs to produce CNT fiber/CPM composites with tensile strength of > 6 GPa, twice the specific strength of carbon fiber/epoxy composites, and a toughness higher than any known material.

This program builds on two recent breakthroughs. Zyvex?s CNT solubilization technique dramatically increases organic solubility of CNTs without degrading their properties. A 5% loading of CNTs triples the tensile strength of cast epoxy. The UTD group produced continuous CNT composite fibers having quadruple the specific strength and double the modulus of the best steel wire and 20 times the toughness. These fibers provide a toughness of 600 J/g, much higher than any previously known material.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
*Lightweight, multifunctional structural components for aerospace vehicles that will enable increased strength and longevity, improved energy efficiency, and improved vehicle payload mass to lift-off mass ratios.
*Multifunctional structural components for the space station (examples include skins, struts, and other structural members that combine strength, insulation, and shielding).
*Advanced materials for fabrics and coatings used in space suits and other space applications.
*Coatings and bonding agents for high-value components and equipment (examples include EMI shielding materials, ESD protection, ultra-strong adhesives, and conductive coatings for aerospace systems and components).
*Composites for satellite armor.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
*Advanced materials for medical applications such as fabrication of prostheses and splints.
*Structural components for high-value civilian transportation applications (for example, more extensive use of composites for airframes, helicopter rotors, and skins).
*Lightweight, multifunctional fabrics for soldier uniforms, armor, and helmets. Current technology for soldier armor relies on a combination of Kevlar layers and ceramic inserts. We believe that CNT composite fabrics with strength properties exceeding Kevlar can be exploited to reduce the reliance on ceramic inserts, thereby reducing the overall weight and bulk of soldier armor.
*Professional sports and leisure equipment such as golf clubs, fishing rods, and tennis equipment.
*Advanced flywheels capable of significantly higher rotational speeds
*Materials for competitive yachting and car racing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II E2.02-9627 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022372 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS5-03027
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Guidance, Navigation and Control
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Reconfigurable, Decentralized Framework for Formation Flying Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Princeton Satellite Systems
33 Witherspoon St.
Princeton , NJ   08542 - 3207
(609 ) 279 - 9606

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joe Mueller
jmueller@psatellite.com
33 Witherspoon St.
Princeton , NJ   08542 - 3207
(763 ) 561 - 9613

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The paradigm shift of using a multiple-satellite cluster rather than a large, monolithic spacecraft has been fueled by the objectives of increased robustness, greater flexibility, and reduced cost. It should be understood, however, that these objectives are not automatically met. The operational costs of monitoring and commanding a large fleet of close-orbiting satellites is likely to be unreasonable unless the onboard software is sufficiently autonomous, robust, and reconfigurable. A decentralized, agent-based guidance and control system has been designed in Phase I to help meet these challenging software requirements.

The proposed concept is a decentralized guidance and control system, organized in a multiple-team framework, and implemented within the Princeton Satellite Systems? (PSS) ObjectAgent? architecture. In the ObjectAgent architecture, Agents may be remotely added, removed or replaced post-launch to increase mission flexibility and robustness. This level of reconfigurability exceeds the state-of-the-art in traditional flight software. The reconfigurable, decentralized system will enable the number of spacecraft in the cluster to change post-launch, will be capable of supporting clusters with large numbers of satellites, and will allow significant software modifications to be made on-orbit in a robust manner.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Two potential NASA applications include the MMS and SIRA missions being planned at Goddard Space Flight Center.

The objective of MMS is to identify the basic plasma processes which control the structure and dynamics of the Earth's magnetosphere. The mission involves 4 spacecraft in HEO, with relative distances ranging from 1 km to several earth radii. The formation control objective is to form the spacecraft into a tetrahedron at apogee.

The purpose of SIRA is to obtain high-resolution measurements of transient phenomena in the solar corona. The proposed mission involves 16 close-orbiting spacecraft, placed either in an Earth-centered DRO or at a libration point. The formation control objective is to provide sustained formations in which the cluster fills the u-v plane perpendicular to the sun-line. Because this mission involves a large number of spacecraft, it seems an ideal candidate for the Decentralized Formation Flying system.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Any mission involving formation flying of cooperative spacecraft is a potential application for this product. While most of the planned formation flying missions known to the public today are research related, the Department of Defense has shown a continued effort to advance formation flying technologies. Potential military applications include stereoscopic imaging of space-based targets and redundant multiple-satellite architectures for missile defense.

A specific example is the TechSat 21 mission, for which PSS has developed a centralized formation flying control system under SBIR funding. Although this program was recently cancelled due to budget issues, the inherent benefits of distributed satellite systems continue to fuel the military interests in formation flying.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II E2.04-8267 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023732 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS3-03019
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Communication Technologies for Near-Earth Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: High-Frequency, Low-Noise Nitride-Based Power Transistors Grown on Bulk III-N

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SVT Associates
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie , MN   55344 - 3677
(952 ) 934 - 2100

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Amir Dabiran
dabiran@svta.com
7620 Executive Drive
Eden Prairie , MN   55344 - 3677
(952 ) 934 - 2100

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Electronics circuits that can function in very high temperatures (> 450?C) are needed for a number of applications including automotive and turbine engine control, industrial high-temperature processing, geothermal and deep-well oil drilling, satellite power management systems, and future planetary missions to Venus and Mercury. The key electronic components for these applications include 1) an instrumentation amplifier to be used in conjunction with different probes and transducers, and 2) a power amplifier for driving motors and actuators. We propose to develop AlGaN-based electronics grown on low-defect substrates for operations at temperatures > 450?C and pressures > 100 atmospheres.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has been pursuing the development of electronic systems for operation under severe conditions, from the extreme cold of deep space to searing heat at the surface of Venus and Mercury. The proposed GaN-based high-temperature amplifier can provide the required power for different actuators on future NASA landing-vehicles for exploring the surface of these planets. The high-temperature electronics will also benefit NASA in space based power management systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed wide-bandgap high-temperature amplifier, in combination with high-temperature transducers, light emitting devices, and actuators, will have great impact on many industries including, automotive, avionics, nuclear power plants, combustion system, and oil and geothermal well drilling.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II E2.05-7736 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024263 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS3-03009
SUBTOPIC TITLE: On-Board Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Pulsed Plasma Thruster Piezo-Igniter for Small Satellite

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Face Electronics, LC
427 West 35th Street
Norfolk , VA   23508 - 3201
(757 ) 624 - 2121

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ALFREDO VAZQUEZ CARAZO
alfredo@faceco.com
427 West 35th Street
Norfolk , VA   23508 - 3201
(757 ) 624 - 2121

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposal addressed the development of a novel discharge initiation (DI) system for application in small satellites (<40kg). Phase I has successfully demonstrated the potential of the technology for reducing onboard propulsion system mass and volume compared to current DI systems. The design eliminates, for the first time, the conventional discharge capacitor and the magnetic-transformer (bulky and EMI noisy) with a compact and highly efficient technology based on Face piezoelectric transformers, Transoner?. The proposal has particular relevance for micro and nano-spacecraft because of their need for advanced propulsion technologies that emphasize system simplicity, integration, low power requirements and minimal mass. The novel system, IGNIT-SONERTM, uses a high frequency (~60kHz) multispark rather than a single DC-capacitive discharge to achieve ignition conditions. This allows optimization of power consumption as well as increasing the reliability of the system. Phase II will integrate and adapt the technology to the specifications of the current PPTs. The piezo-igniter will be directly integrated inside the spark plug housing thus reducing further the final system package size as well as eliminating the high-voltage wiring. The resulting package will be much less complex and less expensive. This package will be flight-qualified in Phase III.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The resulting revolutionary PPT piezo-igniter concept offers unique benefits for the the current programs pursued by NASA. It will help provide critical advanced power technology and space propulsion systems that meet the needs of all NASA Enterprises and Strategic Technology areas, including significant reductions in launch vehicle and spacecraft cost, increased mission capabilities and flexibility, while enabling cost effective utilization and/or exploration. Specifically, the resulting revolutionary PPT piezo-igniter concept offers unique benefits to the current NASA missions for tightly controlled interferometry constellations. Fine impulse bit control achievable with small satellites enhances spacecraft attitude and positional control capabilities, providing enabling technology for optical interferometer spacecraft constellations envisioned for the future. The results of this R&D effort will improve system simplicity, reduce subsystem components, cost and weight, and increase overall thruster efficiency. In addition, the technology is expected to apply to other propulsion systems of interest for NASA requiring ignition systems such as chemical propulsion.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Interest in small satellites is growing fast worldwide. Businesses, governments, universities and other organizations around the world are starting their own small satellite programs. Smaller satellites offer shorter development times, on smaller budgets and can fulfill many of the functions of their larger counterparts. Consequently, small satellites can complement the services provided by the existing larger satellites, by providing cost effective solutions to specialist communications, remote sensing, rapid response science and military missions and technology demonstrators. Additionally, the results of this R&D will garner interest in many other commercial applications involving high voltage ignition systems. Ignition systems for small engines, automobiles, and aircraft propulsion are some of the examples.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II E2.06-7673 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024326 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS3-03027
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Storage and Energy Conversion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Proton Energy Systems, Inc.
10 Technology Drive
Wallingford , CT   06492 - 1955
(203 ) 678 - 2338

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Frano Barbir
fbarbir@protonenergy.com
10 Technology Drive
Wallingford , CT   06492 - 1955
(203 ) 678 - 2112

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Small Business Innovation Research Phase II program addresses the development of a Proton Exchange Membrane Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell (PEM URFC) stack and system for energy storage. The concepts of reduced cell stack weight, developed in Phase I, will be applied to the concept of static water feed/removal being developed by Proton Energy Systems in another program. The Phase II will result in a working 0.5-1 kW brassboard prototype unitized regenerative fuel cell system with significantly reduced weight of the major system components.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Energy storage and conversion for Earth Science platforms, such as airborne platforms (piloted or unpiloted aircraft and balloons), terrestrial platforms, sea surface and subsurface platforms. Energy storage and conversion for space program (spacecraft, vehicles, bases, stations)

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Back-up power for telecommunications, computer systems, individual homes, yachts Uninterrupted power supply for remote locations Various vehicles (particularly airborne and underwater)


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II E2.06-8468 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023531 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS5-03060
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Storage and Energy Conversion
PROPOSAL TITLE: High energy density Li-ion polymer batteries with nanocomposite cathodes

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NEI Corporation
201 Circle Drive North, Suite 102-103
Piscataway , NJ   08854 - 3908
(732 ) 868 - 1906

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Amit Singhal
asinghal@neicorporation.com
201 Circle Drive, Suite 102-103
Piscataway , NJ   08854 - 3908
(732 ) 868 - 1906

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The energy density and the average operating voltage of Li-ion batteries can be enhanced by utilizing new cathode chemistries that have significantly higher capacity and higher open circuit voltage than those of start-of-the-art LiCoO2 cathode. The proposed program focuses on developing novel nanocomposites with a theoretical energy density of ~ 800 Wh/kg, which is more than 60% higher than that of the practical energy density of LiCoO2. In Phase I, we developed a process of producing nanocomposite cathode powders. The crystallite size of particles was in the range of 50 ? 300 nm. It was demonstrated that cathodes made of the nanocomposite powder were electrochemically active and exhibited high first charge capacity, > 85% of the theoretical capacity. Working with rechargeable Li-ion battery manufacturers and leading researchers, we will demonstrate that it is possible to produce stable and high energy density nanocomposite cathodes by manipulating the structure and the composition. Additionally, we will fabricate prototype Li-ion polymer cells consisting of cathodes made of the nanocomposite powders. Processing methods will be developed for producing large cathode tapes with nanostructured powders. The powder synthesis process will be optimized for producing kilogram quantities. The overall goal of the Phase II program is to achieve Li-ion polymer cells with an energy density of ~ 200 Wh/kg for a large number of discharge-charge cycles (~ 1000) and an average voltage of > 4.4 V.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Rechargeable Li-ion polymer batteries are becoming attractive for several military and space applications. These batteries can potentially replace Ni-MH batteries, which are being used for several space applications, including supplement battery pack (called Areba rechargeable battery pack) to power astronaut?s various accessories during Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), and Avionic batteries for the Crew Return Vehicle, X-38. Replacing Ni-MH batteries with high energy density Li-ion batteries will reduce the total number of cells that need to be connected in series as well as in parallel in order to produce a battery pack with a specific output voltage and capacity (Ah). This will reduce the weight of the battery pack. Further, high energy density Li-ion batteries (270V, 200 Ah) can also be used to power the pump for the hydraulic system in a space shuttle. Presently, a hydrogen turbine is used to power the pump; and high voltage battery technologies are being sought to replace the hydrogen turbine.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Secondary Li-ion polymer batteries are also the system of choice for several consumer applications, such as portable consumer electronics, wireless communication devices and implantable medical devices as well. Smaller and thinner cellular telephones and notebook computers, and emerging portable products such as, personal data assistants and palmtop computers, have created an immediate need for developing advanced rechargeable Li-ion batteries with high energy densities and longer run times. Because of their high current drain requirement, several implantable devices such as, ventricular assist devices (LVAD), implantable hearing assist devices, and some neurostimulators, need secondary batteries. Li?ion rechargeable batteries are being developed for use in both the implantable and the external battery systems for these devices. Therefore, there is an immediate need to significantly increase the energy density of Li-ion batteries.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II E2.06-8754 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023245 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS5-03030
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Storage and Energy Conversion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Low Cost/Mass Electrostatically Clean Solar Array (ESCA) System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AEC-Able Engineering Company, Inc.
7200 Hollister Ave.
Goleta , CA   93117 - 2807
(805 ) 690 - 2447

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mike Eskenazi
meskenazi@aec-able.com
7200 Hollister Ave.
Goleta , CA   93117 - 2807
(805 ) 690 - 2434

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The ABLE ESCA designs use flight proven materials/processes to create an ideal ESCA system that yields low cost, low mass, high reliability, high power density, and is adaptable to any cell type, coverglass thickness, and panel contour. The successfully completed Phase 1 program has proven concept feasibility for two ABLE ESCA designs (baseline and optional technologies). These ESCA designs have been successfully demonstrated at a coupon level in a relevant environment and have achieved a TRL 3-4 classification. The next challenge for our team, and the primary technical objective of the proposed Phase 2 program, is to increase the baseline and optional ESCA technologies to a TRL 6 classification and accelerate their insertion into a flight program, such as the upcoming NASA GED and MMS missions (or other commercial missions). During the proposed Phase 2 program, high fidelity flight-like engineering model ESCA panels (of the baseline and alternative designs) will be engineered, produced, and tested. The ESCA designs will be demonstrated and validated within radiation (UV, e- & p+), plasma, LEO thermal life cycling, and GEO thermal life cycling environments, and will achieve a TRL 6 classification.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential NASA applications resulting from the successful development of the proposed ABLE ESCA technology are primarily for advanced spacecraft of NASA?s Sun-Earth Connection Initiative, such as the NASA GSFC MMS and GED spacecraft, and high voltage/power solar array applications (for LEO, MEO and GEO). Many future NASA Sun-Earth Connection missions, and other missions that measure charged fields and particles or require high voltage/power, will need ESCA systems in order to pursue mission objectives. An ideal ESCA system, as proposed by ABLE, will enable these missions to be achieved.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential non-NASA commercial applications resulting from the proposed ABLE ESCA technology span a broad range of high voltage/power applications (in LEO, MEO and GEO), particularly for GEO ?Comsat? missions. Electrostatic interaction and discharge (ESD) as it relates to array performance is of great concern for these applications and for the survivability of the solar array system. Features and/or the entire solution of ABLE?s ESCA design developed for NASA applications are easily implemented to achieve electrostatic and magnetic cleanliness for use on these non-NASA applications. As such, development of ABLE?s ESCA technology serves the non-NASA (i.e., commercial and military) markets as well.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II E2.08-9561 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022438 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS3-03016
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Power Management and Distribution
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Temperature Capacitors for Power Converters

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TRS Ceramics, Inc.
2820 East College Avenue
State College , PA   16801 - 7548
(814 ) 238 - 7485

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chris Walk
contracts@trsceramics.com
2820 East College Avenue
State College , PA   16801 - 7548
(814 ) 238 - 7485

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this SBIR program, TRS Technologies and its subsidiary, Centre Capacitor, will develop a new family of high volumetric efficiency, high temperature capacitors based on high Curie temperature relaxor-ferroelectric ceramics that operate at temperatures far beyond conventional X7R and X8R dielectric formulations (125C to 150C). These new higher temperature (>300oC) materials will be suited for advanced power electronics based on emerging solid state switching technologies such as IGBT?s and SiC. Capacitors used in these circuits must operate at high frequency (10?s to 100 kHz) with voltages ranging from 200 to 600V. They must be able to handle high AC ripple currents implying low dielectric loss, low equivalent series resistance (ESR), and high insulation resistance. For applications on spacecraft, electric automobiles, supersonic aircraft, and ships the capacitors must have a high volumetric efficiency to minimize volume and weight. This implies a high dielectric constant and/or very low dielectric layer thickness.
In the Phase I program TRS? approach to this problem was to develop a unique high temperature relaxor ferroelectric with a dielectric constant >10,000 @ 300?C and dielectric loss <2%. Feasibility was demonstrated by constructing 70 to 100nF capacitors. The capacitors exhibited less than a 2% change in capacitance on application of 500V (20 kV/cm or 50 V/mil) and an insulation resistance of >109 W-cm at 300oC. Our strategy was to develop a high dielectric constant material so that the layer thickness in a multilayer capacitor could be kept relatively thick (100?s of microns) to ensure capacitor reliability. Capacitor lifetime has been shown to degrade significantly as dielectric layer thickness decreases and temperature increases.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) electronics located in automotive and avionics engine compartments
2) Snubber, filter, and DC bus capacitors in high frequency, solid state power electronics
3) Electric motor and actuator controller electronics for distributed control systems on electric vehicles and aircraft (e.g. the Air Force?s More Electric Aircraft).
4) Decoupling capacitors for next-generation, multi-gigahertz clock speed CPU?s

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) down-hole electronics for oil and geothermal well drilling
2) electronics located in automotive and avionics engine compartments
3) electronic ballast and igniters for lighting


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II E3.03-8041 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023958 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS2-03130
SUBTOPIC TITLE: High Performance Computing and Networking
PROPOSAL TITLE: Grid Computing for Commercial Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
3DGeo Development Inc.
4633 Old Ironsides Drive, Suite 401
Santa Clara , CA   95054 - 2251
(650 ) 969 - 3886

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dimitri Bevc
dimitri@3dgeo.com
4633 Old Ironsides Drive, Suite 401
Santa Clara , CA   95054 - 2251
(408 ) 450 - 7840

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
3DGeo will implement a graphical user interface (GUI) built on top of the Globus Toolkit 3.0 (GT3) middleware and complying with the Open Grid Services Infrastructure (OGSI) standard. This GUI will be a convenient interface for computational resource discovery, computational resource monitoring, and workflow submission to the Grid. These features will be built into 3DGeo?s Java-based INSP system - a generic interface for scientific computing, applicable to any compute task. With this innovation, INSP Explorer will become a window to the Grid, allowing transparent submission of computationally intensive jobs to the Grid rather than to individual compute servers. This essential productivity tool will free the end-user from the burden of searching for compute resources or from explicitly splitting up large computational tasks between compute servers, thereby allowing the user to focus on the scientific aspects of his task.

3DGeo?s first commercial application of this technology will be in the seismic imaging market, an industry that is a natural fit for Grid usage because of its specific requirements for large processing capacity and large data storage requirements ? which is exactly what the Grid (and OGSI) are designed for.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Specific to NASA?s technology requirements, the proposed Grid-enabled processing system will provide a convenient graphical user interface for the detection of available remote resources, for workflow submission and application execution, and for the continuous monitoring of those resources being used. The Phase II product will offer an infrastructure which will allow NASA scientists and engineers to easily and efficiently harness system-wide and third party resources in order to accomplish their computational tasks.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed implementation will be dedicated initially to one of the most computationally demanding commercial endeavors that exist: the 2 billion dollar seismic imaging market for energy exploration and development. This constitutes one of the largest private-sector compute and data intensive marketplaces, and a perfect fit for Grid technology. The proposed project, however, has a wider range of applicability and is not limited to seismic imaging alone. It has relevance to resource-demanding applications, for example: the numerical simulation of wind-tunnels (CFD), the design of new pharmaceuticals (Computational Chemistry), DNA sequencing, the modeling of world economies, high-energy physics, and many others.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II E3.04-7675 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024324 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS13-03010
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Geospatial Data Analysis Processing and Visualization Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: BasinTools Module 1, Online Remote Sensing Interface

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NVision Solutions, Inc.
Suite 146J, Bldg 1103, SSC
Stennis Space Center , MS   39529 - 6000
(228 ) 688 - 2205

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Craig Harvey
charvey@nvisionsolutions.com
Suite 146J, Bldg 1103, SSC
Stennis Space Center , MS   39529 - 6000
(228 ) 688 - 2205

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
BasinTools is designed to facilitate the use of remotely sensed data by users who are not remote sensing specialist. Information from remotely sensed data would be used by a wide variety of engineers, planners, and scientist except they lack the expertise, sophisticated software, or high-end hardware to make use of the data. Federal, State, and Local Governments all have need of information derived from remotely sensed data, yet when faced with the overwhelming cost of implementation they invariably opt for more affordable, less accurate alternatives.

The proposed study prototypes the implementation of a Web-based application that is user friendly, affordable, and accurate. The prototype will provide ?canned? push button analysis of imagery a user is viewing through the Web portal and viewing results of the analyses on the fly through the custom online viewing tools.

This Web based approach limits the amount of requisite user expertise, software, hardware, and computing power necessary to perform these analyses. Commercial manufacturers have employed the use of just-in-time inventory control for decades, this innovation applies the same cost saving

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Users of the system will be able to view and analyze remotely sensed data and download the derivative products they produce. All through a Web site that does not require downloads plug-ins, nor access to expensive, sophisticated software or hardware. Users need only have access to the Web to make use of this system. Standardized algorithms available via push buttons on a Web-based graphical user interface (GUI) provide access to remotely sensed information in support of BasinTools or any other Geospatial software regardless of a users experience level. This Web based approach limits the amount of requisite user expertise, software, hardware, and computing power necessary to perform these analyses. Commercial manufacturers have employed the use of just-in-time inventory control for decades, this innovation applies the same cost saving logic to remotely sensed data; products are created and delivered on the fly with no human intervention via the Web. Data vendors will need to store only the source data; derivative products will be produced on the fly as they ordered by on-line clients and delivered in near real time via the Web.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are three areas where this prototype may have immediate impact on markets.
? Education
? Commercial data vendors
? Application Services (Precision Ag, facility management, forestry)


Commercial data vendors will be able to provide per kilometer sales with no minimum order using automated sub-setting and customized data delivery systems. Custom derivative products will be created and delivered in real time with little or no additional overhead cost to the vendor.

This system will enable profitable application services to fully mature, Precision Ag in particular stands to advance substantially, where the time between data acquisition and delivery of custom derivative products is reduced or eliminated entirely. Forestry is another market where real-time availability of processed or value added imagery is of great importance. The need for producers to maintain additional high-tech staff to interpret or process data is reduced or eliminated entirely. No need to store large data files, or maintain on-site geo-spatial information. No need to wait 24 hours for data to post. Value added data can be processed inline and can be available immediately after the data are downloaded. High resolution aerial or satellite data vendors will be able to produce regional data sets and market to large groups rather than to large commercial farms alone. In addition to the commercial farms, Precision Ag will become viable for moderate sized farms as well.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II E3.04-7981 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024018 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS13-03011
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Geospatial Data Analysis Processing and Visualization Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Automated, Universal Software for Cloud and Cloud Shadow Detection in RS Data

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SMH Consulting
2664 Wild Turkey Lane
Alexandria , VA   22314 - 5814
(703 ) 567 - 2411

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stephanie Hulina
smhulina@yahoo.com
2664 Wild Turkey Lane
Alexandria , VA   22314 - 5814
(703 ) 567 - 2411

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Limitations with existing cloud cover detection techniques for large dataset processing and new challenges presented by the increase in the quantity and quality of data in the commercial realm, offer an opportunity for R&D into new and improved methods for the detection of clouds and cloud shadows in acquired imagery. We propose to develop innovative system for automated pixel-based cloud and cloud shadow detection. The novel, iterative, self-guided approach will rely on spectral, spatial, and contextual information from a limited number of bands (R-G-B or R-G-B-NIR) and will be applicable to large datasets of a wide range of commercial and government space- and air-borne imagery. Phase II will continue the algorithm development and refinement, and include formal algorithm validation and optimization. Further, a prototype turn-key system will be developed.

Our innovative algorithms address the need for streamlined acquisition and automated processing of very large volumes of RS data. They fill NASA?s technology needs and fit into the overall NASA mission by:
? Employing rapid analysis methodologies and algorithms,
? Improving the automated process of quality assurance /quality control for science data products, and
? Facilitating the efficient collection of data.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The LDCM, the next generation Landsat sensor will be operational by late 2006 / early 2007. It will contain no thermal bands. Therefore, the existing Landsat ACCA algorithms, which utilize thermal data to identify clouds, cannot be extended to LDCM. Because our automated algorithms require only visible and infrared bands and were extensively tested on Landsat imagery, they will be readily applicable to the LDCM data. The output from our system can also be used as part of the Landsat Long-term Acquisition Plan (LTAP). It can be conveyed back to the scheduling system as an indicator of past success.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Based on a thorough understanding of the industry, in-depth literature reviews, and in-person meetings with several companies and agencies that provide space- or aerial-based data to the industry, we are confident that our cloud and cloud shadow detection system will have numerous NASA and non-NASA commercial applications. The results of our system can be used to:
? Automatically update the cloud cover percentage metadata tag (QA/QC)
? Generate a cloud and cloud shadow mask as an additional layer sold to the end-user
? Reschedule failed acquisitions
? Assess cloud cover contamination in real-time mode, i.e. on board, during the data acquisition
? Substitute cloud and cloud shadow pixels representing data loss
? Develop historic cloud cover dataset with spatial and temporal resolutions higher then those currently available
? Monitor cloud cover in near-real time mode and assess its trend
? Forecast cloud cover from historic and actual cloud data
? Formulate reliable cloud avoidance strategies through complimentary use of historical and actual cloud data


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II E3.05-9615 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022384 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS5-03032
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Data Management and Visualization
PROPOSAL TITLE: Commercial GIS extension for visualization of large unstructured geospatial data

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
ProLogic, Inc.
1000 Technology Drive
Fairmont , WV   26554 - 8824
(304 ) 363 - 1157

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chetan Desai
chetan@prologic-inc.com
1000 Technology Drive, Suite 3140
Fairmont , WV   26554 - 8824
(304 ) 333 - 2680

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The proposed innovation is new technology to enable the visualization of large unstructured geospatial datasets, such as LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) data, within a commercial desktop Geographic Information System (GIS). The architecture first converts the raw LIDAR datasets into the newly approved LAS LIDAR data standard. The system then creates efficient spatial indexing mechanisms to easily visualize high-fidelity models interactively within a 3D GIS environment. The efficient data model is also used to support high-performance raster and TIN creation. All three data models (raw point cloud, raster, and TIN) are integrated with the native capabilities of ArcGIS for visualization, query, filtering, and analysis. The technology also provides extensibility through APIs to enable third-party developers to implement algorithms for image analysis and feature extraction. The proposed architecture also supports the use of high performance computing (HPC) platforms for resource intensive processing that may not be appropriate for a single desktop system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High-resolution DTM Generation ? NASA products including microaltimeter (ATM) and Mars (MOLA) datasets can be used to create high-accuracy terrain mapping applications.

Planetary Applications ? Future space-based LIDAR systems will provide mapping and understanding of other planets in the future. Integrated support for LIDAR within a GIS system also provides opportunity for overlaying imagery data over the high resolution terrain to further explore and understand the planets.

Earth Science Applications ?Integration of LIDAR will enhance workflows for earth science applications such as change detection, vegetation characterization, feature extraction.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
DTM Generation for a Variety of GIS/Mapping Related Products ? Urban modeling, urban visualization and simulation, telecommunication and cell phone coverage planning

Forestry management - Tree heights and density determination, biomass estimation

Mapping change ? Active mining operations, coastal areas, urban environments, battlefield changes

Corridor or Right-of-Way Mapping ? Linear corridors such as power utility right-of-ways, gas pipelines, stream banks, or highways

Flood Plain Mapping - disaster planning and response for flood insurance purposes

Disaster Damage Assessment - Floods, hurricanes, or earthquakes

Weather Integration - The 3D point cloud model (such as LIDAR) is often used to represent weather data and the visualization techniques will be useful for weather investigations

Similar Non-LIDAR data - Other large unstructured data sources such as medical imaging, SONAR, and computational fluid dynamics face similar visualization limitations


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II E4.01-8282 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023717 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS13-03013
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Innovative Tools and Techniques Supporting the Practical Uses of Earth Science Observations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultra Wide band Water Sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville , MD   20855 - 2785
(301 ) 294 - 5200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Eric van Doorn
evandoorn@i-a-i.com
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville , MD   20855 - 2785
(301 ) 294 - 5229

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This proposal details an innovative water sensor system based on Ultra Wide Band (UWB) technology. We propose to mount UWB hardware on a remote controlled or autonomous Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) for both remote soil measurements, and measurements of snowpack depth and density. IAI has been doing independent work on UWB for several years, and is currently working on 15 contracts for different applications of UWB. Because of this extensive experience with UWB hardware, we built a functioning prototype sensing system that will meet many of NASA?s requirements in Phase I. Recent experimental results obtained in collaboration with NIST, and detailed simulations during Phase I, demonstrate the feasibility of our approach. In addition, the recent ruling by the FCC to allow for commercial use of UWB has opened the door for mass-produced, reliable UWB hardware available at low cost in the very near future, making our approach also economically very much feasible.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA application of the technology developed during the subject contract is for earth science studies. More specifically the goal is to be able to measure the depth and density of snow from a small low cost micro-air vehicle. This can be extended to measuring the moisture content of terrain and of vegetation from a low cost micro-air vehicle, and use of small low cost micro-air vehicles as platforms for other sensors.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary non-NASA commercial application for the moisture imaging system is for detecting and imaging moisture in walls. This has a direct benefit to NASA in terms of measuring the moisture content in the walls of NASA facilities. Moisture in walls leads directly to growth of mold and mildew that can have severe health consequences for the employees in such buildings. The problem of mold and mildew inside buildings has greatly increased as modern building codes require increasingly ?tight? buildings.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II E4.02-9815 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022184 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS2-03131
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Educational Processes and Tools
PROPOSAL TITLE: EarthTutor: An Earth Science Satellite Imagery Tutor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd. Ste. 350
San Mateo , CA   94402 - 2526
(650 ) 655 - 7242

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Carolyn Maxwell
maxwell@stottlerhenke.com
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd. Ste. 350
San Mateo , CA   94402 - 2526
(650 ) 655 - 7246

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop EarthTutor, an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) that extends NASA Image2000, and an accompanying authoring tool used to create new tutorials. The system will be innovative in that it delivers a learning experience that is more visual, interactive and adaptive than experiences offered by current remote sensing learning materials. EarthTutor aims to offer the benefits of a one-on-one human instructor. EarthTutor will demonstrate image processing and earth science skills and concepts, ask questions, offer challenges, monitor and assess the student, and provide contextual guidance. EarthTutor will run tutorials created with a separate authoring tool. The tool will be basic enough to allow teachers to construct tutorials to fit one's curriculum, but also powerful enough to allow advanced authors to create highly-interactive tutorials that engage students in unprecedented ways. During Phase I, Stottler Henke developed a prototype of the EarthTutor ITS, authoring tool and sample content. The deliverables have been evaluated by remote sensing instructors and students; the resulting trials demonstrate that EarthTutor is an effective and stimulating means of teaching remote sensing. During Phase II, Stottler Henke will work with researchers and educators to develop four earth science modules intended for advanced high school and undergraduate students.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
EarthTutor will provide NASA Image2000 with a cutting-edge educational component. As EarthTutor finds a place in America's classrooms, the technologies introduced will advance the sophistication of NASA's educational products, help promote existing education tools, and incorporate earth science and NASA satellite imagery into classrooms. New NASA satellite research can be passed along to students through EarthTutor tutorials. Remote sensing tutoring technology can also be applied to other image processing tools used by NASA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
EarthTutor will be site-licensed to schools through education catalogs. In addition, we will apply our technology to other image processing tools used for civic and industrial purposes. Remote sensing plays an increasingly important role in city planning (roads, dams, reservoirs, utilities, pipelines), agriculture, resource exploration, and many other areas, and we will approach established GIS and remote sensing training institutes to incorporate our technology with their software. The military is another audience for EarthTutor. Finally, we will extend the reach of our tutor to other image processing domains such as medical imaging, chemical imaging and homeland security screening.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II H1.01-9980 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022019 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS10-03012
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Process and Human Factors Engineering Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: A Discrete Event Simulation Model for Spaceport Operations (SPACESIM)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nevins Software, Inc.
P.O. Box 308
Morris , IL   60450 - 8462
(815 ) 941 - 2406

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mike Nevins
mnevins@nevinssoftware.com
P.O. Box 308
Morris , IL   60450 - 8462
(815 ) 941 - 2406

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The NASA vision for the spaceport of the future entails the transition over time from very high-cost, research oriented space launches with a relatively low frequency of launches to an environment where spaceports are commercialized for the space transportation industry and are required to support multiple launches per day in a safe, cost-effective manner. The spaceport of the future may resemble, from an operational perspective, our current airports and seaports of today and will need to resolve many similar issues to these transportation hubs. These issues include (1) safe and secure spaceport operations, (2) efficient movement of machinery and people through the spaceport, and (3) cost-efficient, affordable, and timely spaceport operations. Discrete event simulation has been used to assess detailed processes at modern day seaports. Like seaports, spaceport operations are labor intensive and require extensive use of personnel and machinery. The ability to conduct seaport operations efficiently has been improved significantly through proper utilization of seaport assets. This foundation provides a solid footing from which research for efficient spaceport operations can be based. An object-oriented discrete event simulation system is proposed that will address spaceport operations in the context of aerospace safety, mobility, and efficiency. The simulation system will be built upon the Java programming language to provide for maximum portability and will utilize XML for standards-based data interchange. Development of the simulation model will provide the underlying basis for follow-on activities such as 2D and 3D animation and visualization capabilities. Technology transfer of lessons learned in the development of seaport simulation models will be utilized. The overall goal of the spaceport simulation model is to maximize throughput, operational safety, and resource utilization and minimize overall cost of operations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The results of the Phase I and Phase II research activities will be a powerful, flexible, object-oriented discrete event simulation system for spaceport operations. The simulation model will provide spaceport planners with the necessary tools to conduct ?what-if? scenarios to facilitate decision-making and to improve throughput, minimize operational bottlenecks and delays, and maximize resource utilization.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential commercial applications for the SPACESIM model are limitless. As the spaceport industry is commercialized and our society accepts space transportation as a common mode of transportation, SPACESIM will be able to be used at spaceports worldwide to ensure that operations are conducted in a cost-efficient manner. In addition, the SPACESIM model has potential integration possibilities with other transportation simulations to provide macro level ?end-to-end? simulations of an entire transportation grid including all modes of transportation. The benefits to society are that cost will be driven down over time to the point that space transportation is affordable to the overall at-large population.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II H2.02-8945 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023054 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS2-03133
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human Centered Computing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Crew Activity Analyzer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Foster-Miller, Inc.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham , MA   02451 - 1196
(781 ) 684 - 4000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rajesh Kumar
rkumar@foster-miller.com
350 Second Ave.
Waltham , MA   02451 - 1196
(781 ) 684 - 4320

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Foster-Miller proposes to develop the Crew Activity Analyzer (CAA) to provide NASA with an innovative and cost-effective method for efficiently analyzing individual and group crew activities, space usage, and other events of interest to NASA human factors analysts. The CAA consists of a compact and portable data acquisition system providing the ability to systematically capture video and other sensor data from a field site, (both IVA and EVA) for long durations, and an offline processing component that analyzes the acquired data. The CAA uses vision and sensing technology to identify user selected crew activities and spatiotemporal events from other detected events. These events are specified according to people, and spatial features (objects, and fixtures), time of day, etc. Events are recognized by temporal modeling of the observed motion and maintaining models of the expected motion associated with the user selected events. Phase II research will extend the successful Phase I work on image data to development of a full multi-sensor prototype, including system integration, and extensive testing. Key Phase II research objectives are: Design and Development of the CAA prototype, Development of video analysis methods, Design and development of processing and analysis methods, and Validation experiments. (P-030531)

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Planning for future space and planetary missions employs earth analogs and simulator facilities to gather data on human interaction in these confined environments. The Crew Activity Analyzer (CAA) will provide the means to accurately and quickly determine patterns of group activity in these environments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed Crew Activity Analyzer (CAA) has potential interesting applications in the security and surveillance areas that have become increasingly important in the changed security environment. A modified CAA can server to effectively detect abnormal behavior (e.g. boxes or vehicles abandoned, illegal access to secure areas) that have security implications. Image data has been used by behavior researchers using video or other image data to document the behavior of individuals and groups. The military, the airline industry, university researchers, the Federal Aviation Administration, and the Federal Railroad Administration all are concerned about group interaction and team performance, and employ imaging in their research. The CAA might also be used for analyzing the activity of animals in a zoo or research environment.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II H2.02-8957 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023042 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS2-03134
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Human Centered Computing
PROPOSAL TITLE: BrahmsVE: Proof of Concept for Human/Agent Intelligent Augmentation

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
The Digital Space Commons
343 Soquel Avenue, Suite 70
Santa Cruz , CA   95062 - 2305
(831 ) 338 - 9400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bruce Damer
damer@digitalspace.com
343 Soquel Avenue, Suite 70
Santa Cruz , CA   95062 - 2305
(831 ) 338 - 9400

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Space systems involving people working with machines are becoming increasing complex to design, test, train for, and support during flight. This complexity is affecting all aspects of NASA?s programs and impacts mission viability in the critical areas of safety, cost, timeliness and effectiveness. Under development since 2000, BrahmsVE is a model-based agent architecture together with a web-based multi-user realistic 3D interactive visualization environment designed to allow NASA and other government agencies and commercial enterprises to design, train for and operate complex human-machine environments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Some NASA applications of BrahmsVE include: simulation for research of mission hardware and work practices, design of augmentation through agents, just in time training, VR for tele-operations, FMARS/MDRS activities modeling and re-creation, PSA/ISS design simulation, realistic rendering for Sim-Station or Sim-Shuttle, Mars MSL ?09 and Titan mission design, Virtual Digital Human project support, education/outreach.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Some non-NASA Federal Government applications of BrahmsVE include: wind farm and alternative energy production modeling for DOD and DOE, mobile agents and human augmented system conceptualization and simulation for military and security applications. Commercial applications for BrahmsVE include: design, training and operation of automated factories, multiplayer robot games, educational spacecraft/habitat simulators for student distance team-based learning, museum installations for spacecraft mission simulations, and concept design and test of wireless and mobile devices with human users.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II H3.01-7506 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024493 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS9-03022
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control Systems for Human Space Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nanostructured Aerogel Systems for Cold Volume Enclosures

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aspen Aerogels, Inc.
184 Cedar Hill St.
Marlborough , MA   01752 - 3017
(508 ) 481 - 5058

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher Stepanian
cstep@aerogel.com
184 Cedar Hill St.
Marlborough , MA   01752 - 3017
(508 ) 481 - 5058

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The project will investigate and develop a seamless vacuum insulated box (VIB) technology based on Aspen?s unique polymeric/silica aerogel alloy blanket technology. This new blanket material is ideally suited for VIP and VIB use with low density, high compression modulus, low thermal conductivity, and flexibility sufficient to form tight corners without failure. Two sets of prototypes will be developed in the project. The first will focus on a passive, seamless insulated box. The second will focus on a patent-pending technology that will allow for active cooling without the need to perforate the inner wall of the VIB. The resulting product will fit well into Aspen?s existing aerogel blanket manufacturing process. Its unique qualities will increase the number of markets Aspen can address with its aerogel composite insulation materials.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In order to perform on-orbit scientific research, NASA utilizes cryogenic freezers to maintain the specimens at the required temperatures. As such, NASA is continually searching for lighter, more durable, and more efficient means for space vehicle refrigeration systems. Rectangular enclosures provide more efficient packing within the vehicle payload than round enclosures. Success of the current effort will enable highly thermally efficient and space efficient cryogenic freezers for NASA missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The rectangular refrigerator/freezer enclosure technology can easily be applied to refrigerated transportation (via truck, train, etc.), as well as household refrigerators and cryogenic dewar insulators for hospitals. Similarly, the insulator technology will equally act to keep internal items warm, such as is the case for bread proofing ovens or pizza delivery bags.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II H3.01-7556 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024443 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS8-03025
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control Systems for Human Space Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: Transparent Integration of SINDA/G into Patran

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Network Analysis, Inc.
4151 W. Lindbergh Way
Chandler , AZ   85226 - 1825
(480 ) 756 - 0512

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ron Behee
ron@sinda.com
4151 W. Lindbergh Way
Chandler , AZ   85226 - 1825
(480 ) 756 - 0512

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The purpose of this Phase II SBIR is to design a software product that transparently integrates SINDA/G into the MSC.Patran FEA modeling system. This product is oriented towards both the beginning thermal analyst and the advanced SINDA user. The transparent integration allows a new user to use advanced features involving convection, surface-to-surface radiation, heaters, and other advanced thermal features without knowing the format of SINDA/G or thermal radiation codes. Experienced SINDA users will not be limited by the simple boundary conditions typically associated with FEA thermal codes, but will have the full power of SINDA/G. Because of the popularity of MSC.Patran in the aerospace world for building MSC.Nastran structural models, this graphical modeling environment is ideal for producing SINDA/G thermal models in order to enhance the concurrent engineering processes of aerospace hardware design.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Because of the widespread use of Patran at NASA centers and the popularity of SINDA as a thermal design tool a combined product should be well received.
Some potential applications at NASA centers are as follows.
? Modeling turbo machinery associated with rocket motors
? Ablation of rocket nozzles and components
? Modeling of a solid rocket motor and it?s casing
? Modeling of reentry ablation and non ablative tiles
? Spacecraft thermal design using traditional radiation and orbital heating codes
? Thermal modeling of electronic components, PC boards and entire electronic systems including those with thermoelectric cooler?s (TED?s)
? Coupling GFSSP fluid code to graphically build thermal models
? Utilizing CAD geometry from common CAD systems in thermal models at both the part and assembly level.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are 1000?s of thermal engineers who have access to Patran and use more entry level products such as Nastran for thermal design. By making this product fully compatible with NASTRAN thermal, these engineers can transition to a SINDA based product that has more capabilities without significant training or downtime. Not only does the SINDA/G solver have more capabilities, but it is extensible via programming logic or subroutines allowing the end user to add custom features and reports.
In addition to the above potential applications, the following applications are encountered by non-NASA customers.
? Industrial furnaces
? Manufacturing processes such as heated injection molds
? Commercial aircraft
? Avionics
? Nuclear reactor cooling
? Nuclear waste disposal
? Food processing equipment
? Automotive applications, including exhaust systems, radiators and engine components
? Air Conditioning equipment
? Military missiles and munitions
? Thermal design of consumer electronics such as copy machines and laptop computers with integrated heat pipes


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II H3.02-8774 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023225 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS9-03024
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spaceport and In-Space Cryogenic Fluids, Handling, and Storage Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: A 20K Cooler for the Spaceport of Liquid Hydrogen

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Atlas Scientific
1367 Camino Robles Way
San Jose , CA   95120 - 4925
(408 ) 507 - 0906

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ali Kashani
akashani@atlasscientific.com
1367 Camino Robles Way
San Jose , CA   95120 - 4925
(408 ) 507 - 0906

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
For the future spaceport and storage of liquid hydrogen NASA requires cryocoolers that can provide more than 10W of cooling at 20K. The closed-cycle cooling alternatives currently available for such applications are not well suited to their requirements. In many cases reliability is low and vibration high. In other cases coolers are too massive and inefficient. This proposal describes a two-stage pulse tube cooler (PTC) that combines a bootstrap staging configuration with an innovative second-stage regenerator design and a unique load-interface. The proposed cooler contains three innovative concepts that together will overcome the limitations of current cryocooler technologies: (1) the matrix for the second stage regenerator will be made from a newly-patented material having a heat capacity in excess of all other known materials, including lead (Pb), over a wide range of low temperatures (85K down to 15K), (2) the material for the second-stage regenerator will be formed into a novel matrix geometry, and (3) a unique load-interface will be an integral part of the cooler giving it the capability to cool distributed loads efficiently. The proposed pulse tube will be lightweight, efficient, reliable, vibration free, and easy to integrate into cryogenic dewars.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Missions to Mars that involve the in-situ manufacture of propellant which will require the capability to store seed hydrogen for long periods of time. To accomplish this, a small lightweight cryocooler mounted on the storage vessel that is capable of sub-cooling the liquid, intercepting parasitic heat leaks, and re-liquefying hydrogen vapor will be required. The proposed two-stage pulse-tube cooler is ideally suited to such applications. For missions that will involve transportation or in-situ liquefaction of liquid cryogens such as hydrogen, neon, and oxygen, the proposed two-stage pulse-tube cooler is again ideally suited. The presence of two stages allows cooling at two temperatures. The proposed cooler is easily modified to liquefy both hydrogen and neon at the low temperaturestage, and oxygen, for example, at the higher temperature stage. To improve the ultimate signal to noise ratio obtainable from cryogenic IR focal plane arrays (FPA), it is desirable to have on-focal plane, high-resolution, analog-to-digital (A/D) data converters. Such A/D converters, based on the Josephson effect, together with supporting technology, are currently in various stages of development. The proposed two-stage pulse-tube cooler is ideally suited to these applications as well.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a number of commercial applications. A partial list includes: ?Superconducting electronics ?Superconducting magnets for MRI systems ?Superconducting magnets for power generation and energy storage ?SQUID magnetometers for heart and brain studies ?HTS filters for the communication industry ?Liquefaction of industrial gases ?Cryopumps for semiconductor manufacturing ?Radio astronomy As an example, a market of about $100 million/year currently exists for G-M cooler-based cryopumps for sputtering systems used in the semiconductor industry. Sputtering systems normally have several cryopumps per unit with each cryopump costing $20-25,000. The more reliable PTC package will cost about the same as current G-M units and will be less expensive to maintain due to the lack of oil and rubbing surfaces.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II H3.02-9543 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022456 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS10-03014
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spaceport and In-Space Cryogenic Fluids, Handling, and Storage Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Highly Reliable LOX Pump for Vehicle Loading Operations

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Barber-Nichols Inc.
6325 W. 55th Ave
Arvada , CO   80002 - 2777
(303 ) 421 - 8111

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bill Batton
bbatton@barber-nichols.com
6325 W. 55th Ave
Arvada , CO   80002 - 2777
(303 ) 421 - 8111

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The current Shuttle LOX loading pumps have several issues requiring high-maintenance and resulting in low reliability. The proposed pump system would mitigate NASA's concerns on reliability in this critical application by virtue of the seal arrangement tested in Phase 1 and the design of each pump to be able to meet the current fill rates in the event of one unit's failure. Phase I focussed on the reliability issues surrounding the primary sealing arrangement in the LOX pumps and demonstrated the feasibility of a non-contacting combination of a dynamic seal and a purged labyrinth seal set as a highly reliable sealing solution for the primary seal for Liquid Oxygen (LOX) transfer pumps. Additionally, Phase I efforts produced a unique concept for a new LOX pumping system for vehicle loading operations. In the proposed system, two pumps would work in parallel to provide an increase in LOX transfer rate of 50%. The scope of work in Phase 2 will include the design and manufacture of this complete pump system composed of 2 pumps, pump performance testing on water, and cryogenic testing at KSC's ATDC facility.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed pumping system (incorporating the new seal arrangement) can be immediately applied to retrofit the existing Shuttle LOX loading pumps at KSC. The system was designed to have minimal impact to existing mechanical, piping, and electrical infrastructres used for vehicle loading. Furthermore, there are a great number of LOX transfer pumps currently employed at Stennis Space Center which could be replaced by this more reliable pump. With some modifications, the pump concept could also be used by NASA for the transfer of Liquid Hydrogen or other propellants.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology developed in the Phase 2 effort can be applied to any low viscosity, hazardous fluid pumping application. Potential markets include chemical and petrochemical industry where nearly all pumped fluids meet these criteria. Another large market for this pump technology would be in LNG for transfer and ship offloading. By not being submersible, a large pump would be more efficient and cost less for installation and maintenance. This large pump would offer an attractive alternative to submersible pumps and would be cost-competitive in this growing market. A smaller market which perhaps should be counted in long-term plans is that of commercial space vehicles. As more private firms achieve greater success, this pump could be marketed for the support and launch facilities of private space industry.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II H3.02-9617 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022382 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS10-03015
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spaceport and In-Space Cryogenic Fluids, Handling, and Storage Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: System for Helium Recovery from Waste Gas Streams

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
PHPK Technologies, Inc.
535 Enterprise Drive
Westerville , OH   43081 - 8846
(614 ) 436 - 9114

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ken Kreinbrink
kkreinbrink_phpk@ameritech.net
535 Enterprise Drive
Westerville , OH   43081 - 8846
(614 ) 436 - 9114

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The continuing rising costs of helium justifies the construction of an economic system that will separate helium gas from gas streams that would normally be considered waste gas. These waste gas streams are typically generated from operations where helium purging of hydrogen storage or propellant equipment is performed. As a result of these operations, helium contaminated with hydrogen, nitrogen, and small amounts of air is vented to the atmosphere where it is not recoverable in a practical or economic manner. The system proposed will recover helium and could be designed to also recover hydrogen from these waste gas streams and purify it to a level where it can be recycled for usage. Cryogenic processes as well as other gas separation techniques will be incorporated into a complete integrated system to accomplish this gas recovery. The Phase II system will be a practical system for helium recovery in both commercial and NASA related programs where helium is routinely used and vented in significant quantities. The Phase II unit could be made to handle the full scale helium separation for recovery for some specific helium use applications at NASA/KSC.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Since almost all of NASA's launch and other propellant related test operations use helium and hydrogen, this system would be capable of recovering these valuable gases to the point that they could be separated and recycled for the next operation. Since some propellant densification operations will exhaust waste streams comprised of helium and hydrogen, this gas separation system would be a major economic benefit in these operations. The use of this gas recovery system operating in conjunction with the NASA's gas usage operations could result in substantial cost savings that is realized over a relatively short period of time.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Companies that develop and test hydrogen fueled rocket engines at large testing complexes have large quantities of cryogenic storage and other volumes that require helium as a purge gas or pressurizing gas for the high pressure liquid hydrogen propellant supply vessels. The helium gas used in these applications becomes mixed with hydrogen and possibly other gases and is typically expelled as waste gas to atmosphere after use. The proposed system would be capable of separating the helium or hydrogen from waste gas streams instead of venting these two gases to atmosphere. Substantial cost saving could be realized by recycling these expensive gases in the test facility instead of buying additional helium.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II H3.02-9883 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022116 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS10-03016
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spaceport and In-Space Cryogenic Fluids, Handling, and Storage Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Cryogenic Propellant Insulation Program

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Technology Applications, Inc.
5445 Conestoga Court, #2A
Boulder , CO   80301 - 2724
(303 ) 443 - 2262

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rolf Baumgartner
rbaumga@techapps.com
5445 Conestoga Court, #2A
Boulder , CO   80301 - 2747
(303 ) 443 - 2262

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Technology Applications, Inc. is proposing to demonstrate a high thermal performance microsphere-based insulation to enable reliable energy-efficient, cost-effective cryogenic distribution over long distances for earth, space, and extraterrestrial environments. The new technology, which employs a lightweight microsphere-based insulating medium, provides for robust, low-maintenance storage and distribution systems. Well suited for the on/off operation that is typical for space launch operations, microsphere insulation minimizes losses in stored propellants at spaceports and for commercial liquefied gases. Microsphere insulation?s inherent properties of high crush strength and ability to flow combine to form a tough, resilient insulation system that withstands exposure to harsh launch/landing environments and ambient /vacuum pressure cycles. Based on extensive thermal testing, including recent measurements made at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory, microspheres perform 1.5 to 3.3 times better than perlite and limit heat leak to less than most insulation materials, particularly multilayer insulation (MLI), in a soft or lost vacuum condition. At 10-1 torr vacuum, microspheres outperform MLI by a factor of two. This means significantly reduced lifecycle costs from maintenance, lost cryogen, and reinsulation. Microsphere-insulated transfer line and storage tank prototypes will be extensively tested to optimize performance, address microsphere handling and containment methods, and validate long-term performance benefits.


POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA/KSC needs new insulation technology for future spaceports that require thermally efficient energy-integrated launch pads. Low-cost, durable, high-efficiency transfer lines will be needed for long-distance cryogen transport. Improvements are needed for existing LC-39 cryogenic loading systems. NASA/SSC is the lead center for rocket propulsion. Many NASA/SSC storage vessels are plagued by perlite compaction problems or poor vacuum retention from adsorbed moisture. Vacuum-jacketing does not exist on many transfer and vent lines, which present safety hazards, including formation of enriched oxygen, and substantial economic losses from steady-state heat loads and cool-down losses.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Primary commercial applications include transfer lines and storage vessels for the medical, liquefied natural gas, industrial gas air separation, superconductor, semi-conductor, food-freezing, and aircraft industries. Industrial cryogenic tank fabricators have expressed strong interest in microspheres as a higher performance substitute for perlite insulation that precludes the inevitable compaction problems and also recognize potential for microsphere-insulated vacuum-jacketed transfer lines. The domestic industrial cryogenic storage and transfer line markets are over $100M per year, with the global market about three times greater. Once microsphere insulation systems have been developed and proven by early adopters, other commercial customers will be attracted.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II H3.03-9396 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022603 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS10-03017
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spaceport/Range Instrumentation and Control Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Circular Mass Spectrometer for High Speed Gas Analysis

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Monitor Instruments Company, LLC
290 East Union Road
Cheswick , PA   15024 - 2107
(724 ) 265 - 1212

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Guenter Voss
monitor1@nauticom.net
290 East Union Road
Cheswick , PA   15024 - 2107
(724 ) 265 - 1212

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Phase I it was shown that a combination of a circular cycloidal mass spectrometer with a new type of a linear cycloidal for the light gases allows the simultaneous monitoring of the five constituents H2, He, N2, O2, and Ar. A laminar/molecular standard inlet is supported by a membrane inlet, which is particularly selective for helium and hydrogen. Thus the low ionization probability of these gases is compensated by enrichment to achieve the required detection limits without using an electron multiplier. The high vacuum is sustained by a small 2 l/s ion getter pump. To increase the time of operation for the ion pump a non-evaporable getter pump will capture most of the nitrogen and oxygen load from air by this getter material. The software developed provides spectra at the site (graphics display) and transmission of data via an RS 232/485 interface.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
-Leak detection during the fueling process and launching of the space shuttle
-Miniature mass spec for hazardous gas detection
-Gas chromatograph mass spec in harsh environments
-Miniaturized mass spec for N2, CO2, NH4, O2, and hydrazine
-Onboard gas monitor for the space shuttles

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)

-Helium and hydrogen leak detection
-Fast process control in petrochemical and chemical plants
-Portable instruments for onsite analysis
-Isotope ratio analyzer for medical and biological investigations
-Security control, portable detector for explosives and toxics
-Environmental monitor


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II H3.03-9695 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022304 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS10-03019
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spaceport/Range Instrumentation and Control Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ka-Band PAA for Satellite Telemetry System for RLVs & Aircraft

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Paratek Microwave, Inc.
6935N Oakland Mills Road
Columbia , MD   21045 - 4719
(443 ) 259 - 0140

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Cornelis du Toit
cdutoit@paratek.com
6935G Oakland Mills Road
Columbia , MD   21045 - 4719
(443 ) 259 - 0140

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The development and implementation of passive phased array antennas (PAAs) offers significant performance benefits over the current active arrays. The keys to successful development are the low-loss phase shifters and the integration of these phase shifters into a modular and scaleable antenna architecture for broad utilization for high data rate communications. The Phase 1 effort demonstrated a 3.0 dB 360-degree finline phase shifter at 25.25 to 27.5 GHz. The proposed effort will build on this Phase I phase shifter development and include the design, simulation, testing and integration of the rest of the antenna design and packaging for ease of manufacturing and scalability such that ~15dBi gain antenna is built and delivered to NASA for evaluation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed application is for reusable launch vehicles (shuttle), international space station (ISS) and specialized spaced-based scientific platforms. When the aperture is integrated with the platform, it will enable high data rate connectivity with the TDRS Satellite system for retransmission to NASA via their earth stations.

Alternatively, the aperture can be integrated with NASA and other government aircraft (including balloons & lighter-than-air craft) for air-to-ground or air-to-air broadband communications as well as the TDRS network.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The antenna, as designed and prototyped in this Phase 2 effort, will provide sufficient performance to support the fixed broadband wireless access (FBBWA) market, specifically the LMDS systems at the 28 GHz band. The 2-D scanning with gain of ~15 dBi, will support point to multipoint (PMP) and mesh networks on both sides of the link (hub and client).

The Phase 3 scale-up and commercialization effort to large arrays (~22 dBi and ~27 dBi) would also meet the needs of the FBBWA market but also provide a means to continuously transmit flight recorder data from the commercial air fleet in real-time and as well as provide broadband access to/from the aircraft for passenger connectivity, much like the Boeing?s Connexion system at Ku-band. The array could also be scale-designed to the Ku-band for DBS and 2-way applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II H3.04-8592 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023407 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS10-03020
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Electromagnetic Physics Measurements, Control, and Simulation Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Differencing Electrostatic Optical Sensor (DEOS)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Physical Optics Corporation, EP Division
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance , CA   90501 - 1821
(310 ) 320 - 3088

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Michael Reznikov
sutama@poc.com
20600 Gramercy Place, Bldg 100
Torrance , CA   90501 - 1821
(310 ) 320 - 3088

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In response to NASA?s need for miniature sensors to detect and measure electrostatic potential and charge distribution on payloads, spacecraft, and landers, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) in Phase I developed and demonstrated an innovative Differential Electrostatic Optical Sensor (DEOS) to overcome the current sensor problems of electrostatic shock and EMI vulnerability. POC proved the feasibility of the DEOS concept, and demonstrated sensitivity to an induced charge of ~15 mV/nC, which not only meets but exceeds the NASA requirement. This sensitivity to charge enables DEOS, to remotely measure voltage with a sensitivity of 40 V per mV of output signal at a distance of 4 in., exceeding the sensitivity of commercially available sensors by a factor of 2.5. In Phase II, we will optimize the DEOS design and complete the development of DEOS, greatly advancing the accuracy and reliability of electrostatic charge and field measurements for many NASA applications. In the process, we will develop two key components: the photo-acoustic modulator (PAM), which will transform induced charge to alternating electric current; and the electro-optical converter (EOC) which will transform that electric current into an alternating optical signal. Phase II will culminate in testing, demonstration and delivery of a prototype.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The successful Phase II DEOS project will produce a device that will find a number of applications in NASA facilities and NASA missions. It will be used in NASA spacecraft assembly and testing facilities, and during fueling to prevent electrostatic discharge. It will continuously measure electrostatic potential during spacecraft docking and during planetary exploration. It will be used in electromagnetic physics measurements in the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise, and will contribute to the JPL New Millennium Program, notably ?Geospace Electrodynamic Connections (GEC).?



POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The DEOS sensor will be useful for preventing electrostatic discharge in the semiconductor industry, in the printing industries and in chemical plants. DEOS can also be used for mapping electrostatic fields and for measuring ionization and triboelectric charges in the transportation and power industries.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II H3.07-8994 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023005 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS3-03010
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Nuclear Power For Human Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Ultra-Lightweight, High Performance Carbon-Carbon Space Radiator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Allcomp, Inc.
209 Puente Ave.
City of Industry , CA   91746 - 2304
(626 ) 369 - 1273

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Miller
bill.miller@allcomp.net
209 Puente Ave.
City of Industry , CA   91746 - 2304
(626 ) 369 - 1273

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Our research program is focused on achieving high thermal performance in a high temperature carbon-carbon (C-C) radiator especially designed to fulfill present and future challenges in outer space applications. The radiator is one of the key parts in heat rejection systems, in both power conversion technologies for solar and space nuclear electric propulsion. An advanced radiator must provide high thermal performance with minimum mass while satisfying launch and deployment considerations. Traditional metal based radiators and single phase pumped heat transport loops are inadequate for the emerging demands; metal based high temperature radiators usually are over 8 ~ 10kg/m2. C-C composite materials are ideal candidates to solve this challenge because of their series of advantages, such as very low density, high thermal conductivity, good mechanical properties, high flexibility and variability in thermal and structural properties by tailoring their composite constituents. In combination with heat pipes, two-phase Capillary Pumped Loops (CPL) and Loop Heat Pipes (LHP) or other two-phase heat transport loops, overall thermal performance and reliability of the space radiators can be significantly improved and realized by reducing radiator mass, which is a big portion of overall spacecraft mass.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Power systems currently under development for deep space exploration are a prime example of an application that would benefit significantly by this research and development. A five fold reduction in radiator specific mass is achievable and needed to meet the demanding challenge of space exploration. The proposed C-C radiator design has wide ranging application in both low and high-radiated temperatures, as well as for small and large power conversion systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Carbon-carbon radiators in the form of heat exchangers are expected to emerge in aerospace applications, particularly in high performance military aircraft, and hypersonic vehicles where high temperatures pose severe design issues.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II H3.07-9957 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022042 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS3-03036
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Nuclear Power For Human Missions
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Advanced SiC Power Switch for Deep Space Power Systems

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
United Silicon Carbide, Inc.
New Brunswick Technology Center 100 Jersey Ave. Building A
New Brunswick , NJ   08901 - 3200
(732 ) 565 - 9500

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Petre Alexandrov
uscglin@unitedsic.com
100 Jersey Ave., Building A
New Brunswick , NJ   08901 - 3200
(732 ) 565 - 9500

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to design and fabricate advanced SiC power switch aimed at up to several kilowatt power system applications. The power switch is expected to lead to (i) substantially reduced volume and weight of space power systems, (ii) greatly expanded operating temperature range, and (iii) drastically improved power efficiency and enhanced radiation tolerance. Based on the success of Phase I program, we plan to push the SiC power switches to higher voltages and substantially increase the total current capability. We plan to optimize the power switch structures in three categories. We plan to fully develop the fabrication processes and apply the processes to fabricate the optimized power switches. DC and high-speed transient characteristics will be systematically studied over a wide temperature range. Concentration will be focused on achieving operations with highest possible power density, efficiency, and speed over a wide temperature range. We plan to quantify the ranges of operating temperature and frequency, and power. We also plan to demonstrate system applications of the SiC power switches up to 5 kW. Privately funded Phase III will be concentrating on solving any remaining issues identified in Phase II so that prototype devices can be commercialized within one year after the completion of Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA deep space power electronic applications including compact, light and high efficiency energy conditioning and conversion systems; Compact, high speed, and high efficiency power supply systems; Propulsion and space vehicle power systems capable of high power density, wide operating temperature range (70-600K) and light (up to 75% reduction in weight) and compact (up to 75% reduction in size)in comparison to Si sota.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are numerous applications for the advanced power switch including the mass market of switch-mode power supplies (SMPSs), power factor correctors (PFCs), power converters, and motor controllers. The power switch is ideal for all the medium power level systems where volume, mass, minimum passive cooling, high frequency (smaller capacitor/ inductor) with dramatically improved power efficiency are important for order-of-magnitude improvements in system level performance. It also has important applications for deep oil drilling due to its high temperature capability. At higher frequencies, the device would find additional industrial and commercial applications in semiconductor IC fabrication instruments, RF heating, wireless communication base stations, TV station transmitters and satellite links.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II H3.09-9224 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022775 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS10-03022
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spaceport Command, Control, and Monitor Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: New and Improved Classifiers for Fault Diagnosis

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Automation, Inc.
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville , MD   20855 - 2785
(301 ) 294 - 5200

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Chiman Kwan
ckwan@i-a-i.com
7519 Standish Place, Suite 200
Rockville , MD   20855 - 2785
(301 ) 222 - 0421

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Pattern classifiers are useful for many commercial and military applications such as target recognition, fault diagnostics, pattern recognition, etc. The main goal of this research is to improve the classification performance of existing classifiers. Our proposed architecture consists of two major parts. One is to improve the individual classification performance of each classifier. We propose to apply the latest development in classification theory known as Support Vector Machines (SVM) to improve the accuracy of classifiers. SVM has many attractive advantages. Recent applications include automatic target recognition, breast cancer prognosis, particle identification in high energy physics, etc. Another is to use a robust fusion algorithm called Dempster-Shafer theory to fuse the decisions from different classifiers so that the overall classification performance can be further improved.

During Phase II we will further refine our techniques and take on more challenging problems in chemical vapor concentration estimation and mixture component estimation. We will build a real-time version of our classifier for the e-nose application. We will also work with Boeing engineers to prototype a solenoid valve health monitoring system. Besides, we will extend these applications to a number of additional shuttle components and subsystems, and/or other NASA systems of interest.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed algorithm will be useful for equipment diagnostics. The market for military applications such as Future Combat Systems and Joint Strike Fighters is quite large. It is impossible to determine precisely a market price for the unit we envision, but we expect to market equipment and related services, as well as integration and follow-on consulting. This has been IAI?s preferred business model. In addition, out evolving expertise in this area will lead us to team with other companies eager to apply out skills and technology to their programs and systems.

We also believe that e-noses can be used for mine detection for Army and Marine because explosives are chemicals, too, and can be sniffed and identified by the e-noses.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Other potential applications include NASA systems such as e-nose application for NASA, Main Propulsion System, Thermal Control System, etc. It should be noted the classification and fusion algorithms can be used for target and pattern recognition for geology, law enforcement agency, agriculture, medical applications, fingerprint recognition, face recognition, border and coast patrol. The size of this market is not small and hard to estimate. We expect the aggregate market size will be similar to that of military applications.

In addition, we believe the e-noses can find wide applications such as drug detection and disease diagnosis. Drug detection using e-noses will be certainly beneficial to police while e-nose can provide good assistance to doctors in correctly diagnose some diseases.

As shown in the support letter, Mr. James Engle?s division at Boeing has many systems related NASA. We expect to commercialize directly many NASA systems through Boeing.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II H3.10-7616 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024383 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS3-03017
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Solar Power Generation and Power Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Power Platform for the Stretched Lens Array

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AEC-Able Engineering Company, Inc.
7200 Hollister Ave.
Goleta , CA   93117 - 2807
(805 ) 690 - 2447

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Mike Eskenazi
meskenazi@aec-able.com
7200 Hollister Ave.
Goleta , CA   93117 - 2807
(805 ) 690 - 2434

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Stretched Lens Array SquareRigger (SLA-SR) solar array is based on the combination of two cutting edge technologies, the SquareRigger solar array structure and the SLA optics/PV-blanket assembly. The combined SLA-SR system produces an extremely lightweight (>330 W/kg BOL near term and ~500 W/kg BOL mid term), high efficiency, high power (10kW to 100kW+), high voltage (100VDC to 1000VDC) and low stowed volume (80 kW/m3 BOL near term and ~120 kW/m3 BOL mid term) solar array suitable for very high power applications. The concept feasibility of the SLA-SR system has been successfully demonstrated and has achieved a TRL 3 classification during the recently completed Phase 1 program. The primary technical objective of the proposed Phase 2 program is to increase the maturity of the SLA-SR technology to a TRL 5 classification. This will be achieved by producing a deployable 1-Bay SLA-SR engineering model (measuring approximately 9ft X 17ft) and demonstrating/validating its performance through ground tests. The successful completion of the proposed Phase 2 program will ready the ABLE SLA-SR system for use on advanced missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SLA SquareRigger (SLA-SR) is potentially applicable to all earth-orbiting commercial high power satellites providing the benefits of high voltage operation and reduced cost, mass, and stowed volume. The potential NASA applications resulting from the successful development of the proposed SLA SR technology primarily consists of the Space Solar Power Initiative (which is proposing to deploy mega-watts of power in space), the NASA GRC SEP-Tug, and future high power/voltage interplanetary missions (15kW to 50kW+, and >100VDC). Other NASA missions (LEO, GEO, interplanetary, and planetary) requiring extremely high power and high voltage also represent potential applications. Emerging applications such as future/advanced missions requiring extremely high power and high voltage operation may be enabled because of the SLA-SR technology.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The potential non-NASA commercial applications resulting from the proposed SLA-SR technology span a broad range of high power and high voltage applications (in LEO, MEO & GEO). Two particular applications include the Air Force?s PowerSail program, which requires a low cost/mass extremely high power solar array system (50kW to 100kW), and the large GEO Comsat missions. The projected near term doubling of high power GEO Comsats from the current range of 15 kW to over 30kW provides a very likely application for SLA SquareRigger.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II H4.01-7827 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024172 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS9-03027
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extravehicular Activity Productivity
PROPOSAL TITLE: Nitrous Oxide Propulsion System

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pioneer Astronautics
11111 W. 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood , CO   80215 - 5516
(303 ) 980 - 0890

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Zubrin
zubrin@aol.com
11111 W. 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood , CO   80215 - 5516
(303 ) 980 - 0890

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Nitrous Oxide Propulsion System (NOPS) is a new Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) thruster concept using nitrous oxide as a monopropellant. Liquid monopropellants are often used in propulsion systems where simplicity of design, restartable/control on demand, and repeatability is desired. Unfortunately, many monopropellants are toxic and dangerous, ruling them out for EMU thruster application. Thus, EMU thrusters have relied upon cold gaseous nitrogen, which offers very low specific impulse and propellant mass fraction. A NOPS, however, uses nitrous oxide, a readily available safe and storable propellant which is not toxic, has performance comparable to hydrazine, and does not decompose spontaneously like hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, Pioneer Astronautics has demonstrated a system that decomposes N2O into a breathable mix of oxygen and nitrogen. Thus, for example, an EMU propelled by a NOPS system would provide an astronaut with a large emergency backup supply of oxygen. Such a dual use system could also have great utility as the propulsion system for manned spacecraft, such as the International Space Station or the Space Shuttle, where safety is paramount and breathing gas reserves are desired. Replacing current liquid monopropellant thrusters with NOPS units would greatly reduce ground processing time and costs, while providing comparable performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The NOPS propulsion system concept, due to its inherent safety, is an attractive propulsion system for a Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) or SAFER system, as the N2O monopropellant greatly out performs cold N2 thrusters used on current MMUs in both specific impulse and propellant storability, because its 5 times as dense at ? the pressure as compressed N2. In addition, Pioneer Astronautics has also demonstrated that N2O can be decomposed into a breathable mixture of N2 and O2, offering the potential for a combined spacesuit breathing/MMU propulsion system, with greatly increased endurance and mobility compared to current systems. If manned spacecraft were to use a NOPS it would allow the propellant aboard the Space Station or interplanetary spacecraft to be used as a backup to the life support system. Transporting air reserves to the Space Station as N2O would significantly reduce logistics costs by drastically cutting transport tankage mass.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Nitrous Oxide Propulsion System has the potential of promoting use of liquid monopropellant rockets. Currently, the difficulty and cost in safely handling and storing conventional liquid monopropellants has hindered their use. The NOPS would not have these limitations. Hydrazine is commonly used as a monopropellant in attitude control thrusters in spacecraft. Unfortunately, hydrazine is extremely toxic. NOPSs, however, use a benign monopropellant, and so much less care and expense is necessary. NOPSs would be much more profitable and attractive to use than current common monopropellant rockets systems, and should be able to dominate the market for liquid monopropellant propulsion systems, such as are used in attitude control of spacecraft. Currently, some 1000 satellites are planned for launch in the next 10 years, and all will need attitude control systems. These satellites and their necessary replacements thus guarantee the NOPS a large and highly lucrative commercial market. NOPS is also promising for upper stage tank settling during long LEO-GEO coast, as it eliminates hydrazine handling from launch operations.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II H4.01-8164 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023835 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS9-03028
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extravehicular Activity Productivity
PROPOSAL TITLE: Organic Rubber Aerogel as Thermal Insulation and Radiation Shield

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aspen Aerogels, Inc.
184 Cedar Hill St.
Marlborough , MA   01752 - 3017
(508 ) 481 - 5058

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jekyun Lee
jlee@aerogel.com
184 Cedar Hill St.
Marlborough , MA   01752 - 3017
(508 ) 481 - 5058

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Polyurethane and polybutadiene rubber aerogel composite materials are being developed for thermal insulation and radiation shielding materials for extravehicular activity (EVA) systems. The new flexible, resilient aerogel composite materials will offer significant system design and performance advantages over Multi-layer Insulation (MLI) in low ambient pressure environments. During Phase I of SBIR contract NAS9-03028, Aspen Aerogels synthesized prototype rubbery aerogel composites with excellent flexibility and low thermal conductivity. The relatively large hydrogen content of the new rubber aerogels will provide some radiation protection for EVA mission applications. The new aerogel composites do not generate dust and exhibit the flexibility, resiliency, toughness and durability typical of the parent polymers. The proposed Phase II research program will initially focus on iteratively improving the physical and mechanical properties of the two new classes of rubber aerogels via Design of Experiments methods and intensive testing and measurement. Project partner Hamilton Sundstrand will participate in a design conceptualization study in the last trimester of the project. The study will identify a potential path for integrating the new materials into EVA suit designs using characterization and testing data for the optimized candidate material and generate a design plan to guide a Phase III effort.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Flexible organic rubber aerogel composites will improve thermal insulation performance and radiation shielding at a reduced cost for Thermal Micrometeorite Garment (TMG) applications in next generation EVA suits. Insulation layers in EVA suit gloves, footwear, and helmets could also potentially utilize the new insulation materials. The rubber aerogels are air, water and vacuum capable and thus could be incorporated into new single suit designs for a broad spectrum of astronaut mission functions, including launch. The excellent durability and toughness of the rubber aerogels might facilitate use in cryogenic insulation applications in difficult vibrational and acoustic (e.g. launch) environments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Organic rubber based aerogels will be used for thermal insulation in cold weather garments, gloves, and footwear. Other potential applications include use as insulation in commercial and military aircraft, cryogenic tanks, liquefied gas transport, footwear, systems for warming, storing, and/or transporting food and medicine, sleeping bags and pads, military and recreational tents, etc. The new rubber aerogels can be recycled for use as impact modifiers and/or filler materials for conventional plastics.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II H4.01-8659 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023340 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS9-03029
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Extravehicular Activity Productivity
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fuel Cell/Li-ion Battery Hybrid Power System for Space Suits

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station , TX   77840 - 4024
(979 ) 639 - 0017

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeremy Steinshnider
jeremy.steinshnider@lynntech.com
7607 Eastmark Drive, Suite 102
College Station , TX   77840 - 4027
(979 ) 693 - 0017

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
With the ongoing construction of the international space station (ISS), as well as the ever-growing desire for manned missions to Mars, the duration and complexity of extravehicular activity (EVA) periods will increase. As a result, electrical power systems with higher capacities and broader capabilities necessary for extended EVA missions are urgently needed. Currently, electrical power is supplied by a variety of secondary (rechargeable) batteries, all with relatively low energy densities (30 ? 90 Wh/kg) and capable of fewer charge/discharge cycles than desired. This contributes to a substantial monetary cost. Achieving the increased capacity required for extended EVA periods will be difficult, if not impossible, with secondary batteries. A proton exchange membrane (PEM) Flatstack? Fuel Cell/Li-ion battery hybrid system, utilizing a rechargeable hydrogen storage unit, has both high efficiency and high power?to?weight and ?volume ratios. Lynntech Inc.?s patented PEM Flatstack? Fuel Cell technology is easily integrated with commercially-available hydrogen storage, Li-ion batteries, and power management controllers, making it ideally suited for the ever increasing demands of NASA and other aerospace applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lynntech?s patented PEM Flatstack? Fuel Cell, when coupled with a Li-ion battery in a hybrid configuration, has both the high efficiency and high power to weight and volume ratios required for current and future EVA applications. With this hybrid power system, the multiple batteries currently used for space suit operations can be replaced with a single, centralized unit. The hybrid power system has the potential for much longer operating times than current rechargeable batteries alone. The components of a hybrid power system can be made lightweight at low cost, making it ideally suited for NASA and other aerospace applications.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lynntech is heavily committed to developing hybrid power supplies utilizing Flatstack? Fuel Cells for portable electronics for both the government and commercially. With worldwide sales of portable electronics power packs at 620 million units in 2002 and projections approaching 1 billion units by 2007, Lynntech is receiving interest from industry and will pursue licensing opportunities in this market. With the move to wireless capability, portable electronics have dramatically increased power consumption and reduced battery operation time. Rechargeable batteries such as lithium ion can not keep up with the power demands of mobile phones, PDAs, or notebook computers.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II H5.02-9559 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022440 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS9-03032
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Robotics Assistance, Assembly, Maintenance, and Servicing
PROPOSAL TITLE: A High Resolution Ultra-wide FOV Telepresence Display

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sensics, Inc.
2400 Boston Street Suite 350, Factory Building
Baltimore , MD   21224 - 3071
(443 ) 226 - 2967

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lawrence Brown
larry@sensics.com
10706 Cardington Way #202
Cockeysville , MD   21030 - 3071
(443 ) 226 - 2967

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA has embarked on an ever more ambitious path of developing modular space exploration systems, and human exploration missions. To enable missions that are envisioned for the future, advances in the human/robotic interface are required. This proposal provides a new telepresence interface, based on an ultra-wide field-of-view (FOV) HMD. This fully immersive HMD has a FOV which nearly matches the unobstructed human visual field, and maintains high resolution throughout. By combining this immersive display with a custom camera system and appropriate software, a telepresence system capable of high-fidelity depth perception, FOV and resolution is possible. This tool would be a significant benefit to human operators of robotic systems. In Phase 1 we designed a tiled, wide FOV camera array and appropriate 3D software to interface between this array and the HMD. The product of Phase 2 will be a complete working telepresence system with custom camera array and HMD. This system will be integrated into the NASA telerobotic system called Robonaut. There are strong commercialization opportunities in the engineering services industry and various government agencies, as they are known users of telepresence systems for remote operation of robots and vehicles.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed ultra-wide FOV telepresence system will enable a new level of operator control over robotic systems for payload manipulation, docking and similar tasks. The enhanced FOV and depth perception will also allow operators of exploration vehicles greater understanding of the remote terrain---leading to more efficient exploration and faster, safer navigation for the remote vehicle. Finally, playing back the immersive visual experience recorded on a distant planet for non-NASA personnel may provide a dramatic marketing tool for the agency.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The ultra-wide field of view of the proposed system will allow users a much greater sense of immersion in the displayed enviroment--be it virtual or remote. The new level of telepresence immersion will enable much more practical police, rescue and hazmat applications to emerge. It is also well known that the US military is increasing its reliance on remotely piloted vehicles and this system would work equally well in the battlefield environment. Entertainment applications will also emerge: for example, allowing individuals to "step on the field" during a professional sporting event via telepresence.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II H5.02-9632 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022367 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS9-03033
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Robotics Assistance, Assembly, Maintenance, and Servicing
PROPOSAL TITLE: Novel Force Sensor for Robotics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Sensortex, Inc.
515 Schoolhouse Road
Kennett Square , PA   19375 - 0644
(610 ) 444 - 2383

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Kelly Reuter
KReuter@sensortex.com
515 Schoolhouse Road
Kennett Square , PA   19375 - 0644
(610 ) 444 - 2383

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Improvements in force/stress sensors are required for a variety of robotic applications, especially for finger/hand operation, which requires very small and sensitive sensors which are not available in the current generation of commercial sensors.
During the Phase I program, the potential utility of a new type of sensor was demonstrated in a variety of configurations; ranging from a low level load cell suitable for small cables to a non-contact strain and torque system. Both a low-level load cell and a high-level load cells were fabricated and measured, including devices using inductive (non-contact) coupling.
This Phase II program will produce such cable load cells in a variety of configurations suitable for robotics applications. The sensors developed will include an ultra-compact load cell suitable for use on robotic cables, including very thin cables/cordage such as used for finger/tendon motion. In addition, an ultra-compact wireless torque sensor suitable for plastic shafts and low torque levels will be fabricated. At the completion of the Phase II, both the sensors and signal processing electronics will be developed to a level that will permit application to NASA programs

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are numerous potential NASA applications for both direct force and torque measurements. These applications include both robotics and conventional applications and also ground and space based uses. A direct, immediate and potentially important application is incorporation of the sensors into the Robonaut system. Due to the sensitivity and very small size, of the sensors, they will be capable of supporting the Robonaut?s end effectors that mimic the human hand. A second potential NASA application is in the monitoring and control of planetary exploration vehicles and associated research equipment. Finally, the sensors have application in the use in robotic manipulators aboard platforms placed in earth orbit. An example is use for control of mobile servicing systems such as employed on the international space station. Each of these applications is direct and can be implemented on existing or planned NASA programs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Because of the ubiquitous application of robotic technology in industry, the products to be developed during this Phase II effort are expected to have a significant market. For example, the commercial manufacturing (e.g. automotive industry) makes extensive use of robotics in the production process. Both the direct force load cell and the torque sensor are anticipated to have significant market potential for measurement and control of robots used in the manufacturing process. Robotics also is anticipated to provide an increasing role in the processing of hazardous wastes. Use of robotics can safely permit collection and analysis of potentially hazardous materials. In these applications, the load cell sensors can be incorporated directly to provide direct feedback to the operators to permit safe handling of these materials. The torque sensor is expected to have a potentially large direct market as a feedback and diagnostic sensor on rotating machinery for numerous applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II H5.03-9144 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022855 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS1-03041
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Non-Destructive Evaluation, Health Monitoring and Life Determination of Aerospace Vehicles/Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Acoustic Emission Sensor for Spacecraft Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Los Gatos Research
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View , CA   94041 - 1518
(650 ) 965 - 7780

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
An-Dien Nguyen
a.d.nguyen@lgrinc.com
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View , CA   94041 - 1518
(650 ) 965 - 3459

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Los Gatos Research proposes to develop a new Bragg grating-based acoustic emission (AE) sensor technology consisting of optical fibers, integrated optical waveguides, and an on-chip optical demodulation device system. Compared with conventional optical fiber based sensor systems, our technology offers substantially higher sensitivity. We achieve this by combining the mature Bragg grating technology with the inherently high sensitivity of polymer waveguides to stress waves. Using a hybrid silica/polymer Bragg grating multiplexing scheme, the sensor system is capable of simultaneously measuring temperature and strain/stress. By integrating optical waveguide filters and couplers with the Bragg grating array sensor, the sensor system offers increased dynamic range for simultaneous detection of both the high and low energy AE signals arisen during impact or crack formation. The Phase I research has demonstrated the feasibility of the integrated polymer waveguide and Bragg grating fabrication technology and the use of Bragg gratings for static and dynamic stress sensing. In the Phase II research effort, the polymer waveguide and Bragg grating designs will be further optimized. Hybrid polymer/silica Bragg grating array and an on-chip wavelength filter demodulation prototype system will be developed for temperature, stress/strain, and AE detection and location measurements.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In typical aerospace environments, both weak and strong AE signals are present. Crack formation and low-energy impact such as bird strike and tool-drop during maintenance typically generate weak AE signals. High energy impact such as on-orbit collisions with micrometeoroids, ice, and space debris, often result in very large AE signals. Both of these AE sources can lead to serious structural damages of aerospace structures. Therefore, detecting and locating both high and low energy AE signal sources is essential for aerospace applications. The on-chip Bragg grating array sensor device LGR has demonstrated and proposed to further develop for Phase II will greatly enhance NASA efforts to develop state-of-the-art, compact, waveform-based, quantitative AE sensing technology for crack monitoring and impact detection facilitated by measuring and locating both high and low energy stress waves, from DC to MHz frequency range.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Advances in high-resolution, high sensitivity, and large dynamic range AE sensing technology has immediate applications in civil engineering for monitoring weak AE signals in steel and concrete structures such as bridges, freeways, and buildings. High frequency ultrasonic signal detection method development can be utilized in ultrasonic testing, medical ultrasonic imaging, and other non-destructive testing (NDT) technology. LGR?s integrated optical polymer waveguide and Bragg grating technology development can be readily incorporated into current fiber optics and optical cross-connect technology for next-generation telecommunication applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II H5.03-9178 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022821 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS1-03042
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Non-Destructive Evaluation, Health Monitoring and Life Determination of Aerospace Vehicles/Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Exploiting Unusual Characteristics of Photonic Crystals for Novel Optical Device

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation
650 Vaqueros Ave.
Sunnyvale , CA   94085 - 1260
(408 ) 328 - 8610

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Behzad Moslehi
bm@ifos.com
650 Vaqueros Ave.
Sunnyvale , CA   94085 - 3525
(408 ) 328 - 8648

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Phase I, IFOS designed, built, and demonstrated a novel type of compact, lightweight, fast, ultra-high- resolution wavelength spectrometer. The central element of the spectrometer is based on innovative photonic crystal designs. These types of materials or structures can possess ultra-high dispersive properties and thus yield high levels of spectral resolution (picometer), in a very compact volume (1mm2 x 0.5 mm) and lightweight package (<100 grams). In Phase II, we will optimize the design to miniaturize the packaging for enhanced performance and more design flexibility, enabling new and improved NASA missions and science measurement capabilities. Extensive reliability testing will be performed to validate the capability of the proposed spectrometer to NASA standards. By tailoring the thickness of each layer, numerically according to design specifications, the spatial dispersion of the device is maximized. Going a step beyond the periodic photonic crystal approach, IFOS will obtain the decisive technical advantage to make this revolutionary spectrometer a superior product. IFOS will integrate all sub-components into an ultra-compact, lightweight and robust package, yielding ultra-high performance.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Photonic devices are robust and able to survive hostile environments. The compact, lightweight, and rugged nature of the proposed photonic-crystal spectrometer is ideal for aerospace applications, minimizing impact on vehicle payload, such as in-flight monitoring systems without vehicle performance degradation. These spectrometers have a variety of onboard applications, providing critical elements in the signal analysis for physical and chemical sensors, including the fast detection and super-high-resolution spectrometry of various gases (e.g., ammonia, hydrogen, hydrazine, carbon-dioxide, oxygen) with a fast response time. The IFOS spectrometer enables new scientific instruments, fitting into NASA?s Strategic Goal of ?Enabling revolutionary capabilities through new technology.?

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The developments of this proposal will result in the commercial availability of a revolutionary, ultra-compact spectrometer. The small size, lightweight and ruggedness will make the spectrometer an ideal candidate for all mobile applications, such as environmental monitoring, plasma, gas and other material analysis, biomedical and forensic studies, and safety needs (such as detection and analysis of biological agents or explosives). In addition, this effort will establish photonic crystal technology itself as commercially viable and thus open the door for additional photonic crystal devices. Commercial applications of this technology also include high-speed telecommunications and optical data processing.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II H6.02-8697 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023302 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS9-03035
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Distributed/International Ground Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Remote On-demand Networked Distributed Operations (RONDO)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
mobileFOUNDATIONS, Inc.
103 W. Broad Street, Suite 600
Falls Church , VA   22046 - 4237
(703 ) 532 - 9615

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffrey Fox
jfox@mobilefoundations.com
103 W. Broad Street, Suite 600
Falls Church , VA   22046 - 4237
(703 ) 532 - 9615

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Remote On-demand Networked Distributed Operations (RONDO) is a set of Web-based transformational technologies that provides situation awareness to distributed Space Station operations and support personnel. RONDO consists of: (1) an incident/event monitoring and alerting subsystem that autonomously monitors for and logs ?events of interest,? wirelessly sends (alerts) the event data to the appropriate personnel, and performs all notification, roll-over, and tracking functions, and (2) a real-time collaboration subsystem that enables remote personnel to become members of a distributed ?virtual? team by providing secure and reliable access to data, products, systems, and personnel located in the MCC, providing a ?window into the MCC.? By enabling personnel to perform their work where they are most efficient and effective, small distributed teams can perform the same high level and quality of work as today?s large teams. In its Phase I SBIR, mobileFOUNDATIONS proved the feasibility RONDO by building, testing, and demonstrating a RONDO prototype. In Phase II, mobileFOUNDATIONS will build RONDO, tailor its capabilities to the needs of the users, and perform the integration and testing to ensure that RONDO will work in the current and future Web Portal architectures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA use of RONDO will be for mission operations. RONDO has received positive feedback from NASA personnel from JSC, GSFC, and Ames. While RONDO is being funded for human exploration missions, it will be equally useful for all types of spacecraft. Outside of mission operations, NASA can use RONDO for network monitoring, help desk support, base security, search and rescue, distributed science and sensor monitoring, distributed training, and facilities management.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Some non-NASA RONDO applications include: homeland security, public safety, equipment monitoring, network monitoring, cybersecurity, military command and control, and building monitoring. Initially, mobileFOUNDATIONS plans to transfer the RONDO technologies into its homeland security application, IncidentPortal, to improve wireless communications interoperability and interagency collaboration.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II H6.02-9139 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022860 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS9-03036
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Distributed/International Ground Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Distributed Operations Software for Wireless Handheld Computers

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TenXsys, Inc.
4068 Wisteria Way
Boise , ID   83713 - 2682
(208 ) 250 - 0211

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Layne Simmons
layne@tenxsys.com
4068 Wisteria Way
Boise , ID   83713 - 2682
(208 ) 250 - 0211

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This TenXsys NASA SBIR project focuses on an innovative software solution that allows complex real-time data streams to be viewed as information on devices. The TenXsys solution allows access to data anywhere, anytime using wireless transmission to a web enabled handheld device such as a personal data assistant (PDA), laptop, or cell phone. This will allow distributed operations of missions, will reduce cost of operations by reducing the number of required personnel in the control center, and will allow an avenue for people to view operational data in real-time. TenXsys? ADROIT software is categorized as a middleware product with enabling specialty software specific to each command and control center. Broadly defined, middleware enables one application to communicate with another through functions such as conversion, translation, consolidation or integration.

TenXsys innovations will allow:
 Remote and mobile real-time data display outside of the control center
 Data collection & processing
 Display configurability on-the-fly
 Information presentation versus data
 Situational and contextual awareness

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The TenXsys ADROIT solution will allow insight into flight, crew and vehicle data enabling remote operations and data monitoring. The proposed system will have application for NASA for viewing data streams external to the active Mission Control Center (MCC) or Mission Evaluation Room (MER) environment. For example, biomedical data could be accessed in real-time, allowing a flight surgeon the flexibility of reviewing the data without being near the control center. NASA control centers that focus on manned or unmanned spaceflight and science operations will use the ADROIT solution to allow situational and contextual awareness as well. The ADROIT software will facilitate remote operations during these missions, reducing cost while increasing capabilities.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The innovation also will benefit wide ranging applications at other government agencies and commercial enterprises. The military branches are all working to transform their teams to a networked force. As a part of this effort, advanced tools that provide distributed common ground systems for intelligence data fusion, as well as visualization tools for complex data that allow for built-in alerts and pattern recognition are in demand. Additionally, with the new emphasis on Homeland Defense and Security, the ability to quickly transmit data, share information, and receive alerts allow first responders and others to continue operations outside of normal work facilities. As these devices become more location aware, more directed situational and contextual data can be communicated. The commercial market for wireless PDA based applications for command and control operations is virtually untapped. Telecommunications, power management, traffic control, or emergency management control rooms are all potential customers of the ADROIT software solution. Each of these critical nerve centers has to handle large amounts of constantly changing visual data. Although the data and the process being controlled will be different, there are a few core requirements for nearly all such facilities. Our ADROIT middleware will be applicable to any of these centers.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II H7.02-9616 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022383 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS8-03029
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Unmanned Autonomous Rendezvous Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Rendezvous and Docking Sensor Suite

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Advanced Optical Systems, Inc.
6767 Old Madison Pike, Suite 410
Huntsville , AL   35806 - 2181
(256 ) 971 - 0036

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stephen Granade
granade@aos-inc.com
6767 Old Madison Pike, Suite 410
Huntsville , AL   35806 - 2181
(256 ) 971 - 0036

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In recent decades, NASA?s interest in spacecraft rendezvous and proximity operations has grown. Additional instrumentation is needed to improve manned docking operations? safety, as well as to enable telerobotic operation of spacecraft or completely autonomous rendezvous and docking. To address this need, we propose a suite of active sensors that will provide range and bearing information to a docking craft at distances of kilometers, and will provide 6-degree-of-freedom information at distances of hundreds of meters. The suite of sensors will include NASA?s Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) for short-range operations, and will build on that sensor?s flight heritage by adding a laser range and bearing finder (RBF). There is a need for a laser RBF that can operate to distances of 5 km; currently, no such space-qualified RBF exists. For this reason we propose building a wide-angle laser RBF. The wide angle removes the need for scanning systems such as gimbals, eliminating moving parts and making the sensor simpler and space qualification easier. The RBF will work from 5 km in to distances on the order of tens of meters, an operating range that will allow it to mesh with AVGS, and with a range accuracy of 1 m.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
During Phase I of the project, we developed and distributed a survey that documented several potential NASA-related applications and programs where our sensor suite might play a role. The Orbital Space Plane will be non-crewed for its first two years, making docking sensors such as our Rendezvous and Docking Sensor Suite (RDSS) a vital part of the program. Orbital Express plans currently call for use of AVGS, demonstrating the program?s need for docking sensors such as our proposed laser rangefinder. A similar need exists for the Alternate Access to Station project. RDSS could be used in the Mars Sample Return Mission for docking and landing. Finally, RDSS could be used for docking with satellites.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Range measurements and autonomous docking are not solely NASA requirements. The ability to bring two objects together autonomously has several potential applications in the military. RDSS could be used in autonomous cargo loading and unloading, for in-air or at-sea fleet refueling, and for long-haul transport. The booming UAV/UGV (Unmanned Air/Ground Vehicles) market is in desperate need of docking/landing solutions that the RDSS application is perfectly suited for. Non-military commercial applications include docking a yacht at a pier or in a berth, tractor/trailer docking, and robotic delivery.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II H7.03-9809 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022190 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS9-03037
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion Systems Ground Test Operations
PROPOSAL TITLE: Fabrication and Test of HTS Coils for the VASIMR Experiment

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tai-Yang Research Corporation
31 Pierson Dr.
Hockessin , DE   19707 - 1029
(302 ) 494 - 4048

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Chris Rey
taiyang@tai-yang.com
31 Pierson Dr.
Hockessin , DE   19707 - 1029
(302 ) 494 - 4048

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In the Phase I effort, Tai-Yang Research Corporation (TYRC) proposes to design and perform analyses on state-of-the-art High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) coils for the Variable Specific Impulse Magneto-Plasma Rocket (VASIMR) experiment being conducted at the Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory (ASPL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Using the design results obtained in the Phase I effort, TYRC proposes in Phase II to fabricate, test, and install HTS coils (VX-2 and VX-3) in the existing VASIMR experiment. Replacing the conventional copper coils with state-of-the-art HTS coils in the VASIMR experiment will allow for greater design flexibility and increased operational performance. The HTS replacement coils will be designed to be conduction cooled via a single-stage Gifford-McMahon (G-M) cryocooler, operating at ~ 40 K.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
HTS magnets offer the poetntial for signiifcantly lighter weight and reduced electrical power consuptions over their conventional and LTS counter-parts. HTS magnets introduced into other NASA applications such as adiabatic refrigeration experiments off a significantly lighter systems package.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
HTS magnets offer the poetntial for signiifcantly lighter weight and reduced electrical power consuptions over their conventional and LTS counter-parts. Due to their less tringent cryogenic insulation and cooling requirements HTS based products are now making commercial in-roads in the development of HTS based : motors, generators, fault current limiters, magnetic separators, transformers, and ac/dc cables.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S1.02-8217 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023782 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS5-03061
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deep Space Propulsion
PROPOSAL TITLE: Sputter-Resistant Materials for Electric Propulsion

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Energy Science Laboratories, Inc.
6888 Nancy Ridge Dr.
San Diego , CA   92121 - 2232
(858 ) 552 - 2032

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Timothy Knowles
tknowles@esli.com
6888 Nancy Ridge Dr.
San Diego , CA   92121 - 2232
(858 ) 552 - 2034

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase 2 project shall develop sputter-resistant materials for use in electric propulsion test facilities and for plume shields on spacecraft using electric thrusters. A critical need arises because NASA is developing higher impulse, higher power thrusters for deep space science missions. Such thrusters will erode chamber walls ten-times more aggressively than before and create unacceptably high levels of contamination in the life test facilities. Without new materials that are ten-times more resistant than graphite, the only alternative may be installation of larger vacuum test chambers at huge facility cost.
The proposed sputter-resistant materials are based on carbon fibers in a highly textured configuration that allows deep penetration of incident ions and trapping of sputtered secondary atoms. Phase 1 testing has demonstrated a 5x reduction in sputter backflow toward the ion source, consistent with modeling predictions. It appears feasible to extend the use of existing test facilities at least into planned near term testing of next generation ion engines.
Phase 2 will develop thicker low-contamination chamber liners intended for long duration exposure, and modeling tools will be developed to aid in the design of baffled chamber liners. Lightweight rigid plume shields for spacecraft using EP will be demonstrated and offered for testing. Removable, cleanable, liner configurations will be demonstrated for use with condensable liquid metal propellants. Sputter testing will be performed by CSU using hemispherical witness plates to rapidly acquire directional yield data. Low-contamination chamber liner materials designed for use in testing high current, high voltage ion sources will be delivered under the contract for evaluation by NASA.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Sputter-resistant materials have immediate application in NASA ground test facilities devoted to life testing high current, high voltage electric propulsion thrusters.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Sputter-resistant materials have broad applications where ion sources are used. Plume shields are needed to protect spacecraft surfaces from sputtering by An immediate application is as plume shields shields on spacecraft using electric propulsion, fusion reactor first walls, pulsed power diodes, ion current probes, and broad commercial application in facilities that perform materials processing with sputter sources.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S1.03-9223 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022776 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS1-03044
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Multifunctional Structure and Sensor Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: SensorLine: A Distributed Sensor System for Planetary Exploration

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tethers Unlimited
19011 36th Ave W. Suite F
Lynnwood , WA   98036 - 5752
(425 ) 744 - 0400

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jeffrey T. Slostad
slostad@tethers.com
19011 36th Ave W. Suite F
Lynnwood , WA   98036 - 5752
(425 ) 744 - 0400

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The SensorLine is a small, simple, low-cost system for deploying arrays of tethered microsensors for planetary, asteroid, and subsurface exploration. The SensorLine system integrates the microsensors into a thin, lightweight tether that provides both power and communication. In planetary exploration applications, the SensorLine?s novel deployment method permits these sensors to be distributed over long distances on a planetary surface, enabling planetary landers to obtain in situ thermal, chemical, seismic, and other measurements over a much wider area at a significantly lower cost, complexity, and technical risk than robotic rovers. In exploration of the lunar poles, the SensorLine could enable a probe placed on a sunlit hill to obtain in situ measurements of soil composition in a permanently shaded crater. In subsurface exploration applications such as the proposed Cryoscout experiment, the SensorLine system can provide power, communications, and distributed sensing capabilities for burrowing probes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SensorLine System will provide a low-cost, lightweight multifunctional sensor system that will enable NASA?s robotic missions to obtain in-situ thermal, chemical, seismic, and other measurements in areas that currently are inaccessible or very difficult to reach with current robotic technologies. Enabled missions include lunar polar crater exploration, Mars surface and subsurface missions such as the Cryoscout and Mars Dust Devil investigations, study of asteroid surfaces, and balloon missions at Venus and Jupiter.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The SensorLine System and its derivative technologies have numerous potential applications in the environmental, military, and consumer markets. In environmental testing and safety markets, this system will provide a low-cost means for rapidly deploying sensors into areas where it is unsafe or impossible for humans to collect measurements manually, such as in emergency response to chemical spills. In military markets, it will provide a means for troops in unsecured areas to rapidly deploy sensors to detect chemical or biological weapons and to detect intrusion by hostile forces, as well as a robust communications link for sensors mounted on penetrators.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S1.03-9862 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022137 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS5-03062
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Multifunctional Structure and Sensor Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Radiation tolerant non volatile memory with Hard by Design Techniques

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
NxGen Electronics, Inc.
9765 Clairemont Mesa Blvd. Suite A
San Diego , CA   92124 - 1324
(858 ) 309 - 6610

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David Strobel
dstrobel@nxgenelect.com
9765 Clairemont Mesa Blvd, Suite A
San Diego , CA   92124 - 1525
(858 ) 309 - 6610

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NxGen Electronics Inc proposes to research and rapidly develop radiation hardened non volatile memory microelectronics, based on commercial ferroelectric technolgy. These FRAMs exhibit excellent radiation performance in the memory cell but are extrememly sensitive in the peripheral circuitry. We will apply hard-by-design techniques, with the support of Celis Semiconductor, to develop a rad hard version for space and military applications.In Phase II this design will be fabricated on one of Ramtron's licensees wafer fab. To address the high density needs, NxGen Electronics will design several MCM and stacked memory configurations using advanced packaging technology.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Virtually all NASA space programs have a demand for dense, rad hard non-volatile memory. These applications range from shuttle, space station, earth sensing missions and deep space probes. The world's most common 1 megabit EEPROM just became obsolete, creating an immediate demand for radiation guaranteed non-volatile memory ICs. Some of the NASA missons which will benefit are Mars Surveyor missions, solar system exploration e.g. (Titan, Europa landers,comet nucleus return), New Discovery Program, and Living with a Star.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A Radiation hardened high density non-volatile memory device is a key component for any commercial system in a radiation environment. These applications include commercial space platforms, both GEO and LEO such as the Boeing Space HS-601 and Lockheed A2100. Telecommuncation satellites and sensing applications (NOAA)require this memory to store critical data and support on board data processing. New Missile Defense Agency (MDA) interceptor programs will likely have radiation requirements. Terrestial applications include nuclear power plants and research accelerators (Fermi Lab). A potentially large market are commercial aircraft avionics which are becoming increasingly sensitive to single event effects (SEE) as commercial IC feature sizes and voltages decrease.



PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S1.04-7448 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024551 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS5-03034
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Technology for Micro/Nanosats
PROPOSAL TITLE: Reconfigurable Task Processor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
PicoDyne, Inc.
1918 Forest Drive
Annapolis , MD   21401 - 4319
(410 ) 990 - 1890

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Brian Smith
Brian.Smith@PicoDyne.com
1918 Forest Drive
Annapolis , MD   21401 - 4319
(410 ) 990 - 1890

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Phase I of this SBIR, PicoDyne developed and simulated an architecture for Reconfigurable Task Processor (RTP). The RTP combines a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with a processing unit on a single chip. This combination allows for compact electronics for space applications. A 32-bit processing unit, compliant with the SPARC Version 8 architecture, was chosen for implementation due to its high processing capability, compact area utilization, and the many readily available Real-Time Operating Systems and development software. The processor design is licensed to PicoDyne under the GNU LGPL license. The European Space Agency developed the LEON2 SPARC core, and made it available for space electronics developers. It was developed with System-on-Chip implementations in mind, with an expandable AMBA standard on-chip interface for use with on-chip peripherals. We have architected the RTP with an array of reconfigurable logic as the primary peripheral. It is connected to the processor bus, and may be directly configured by software for many applications. The reconfigurable logic may be used simply as decode logic for off-chip peripherals, saving board space, or as a co-processor for data filtering, data compression, or communications protocol encoding and decoding. In Phase II, the RTP will be completely configured and simulated, following an ASIC design flow, then implemented in a CMOS silicon chip. Using PicoDyne's proven Radiation Tolerant and Ultra-Low-Power design techniques and processes, this capable device will enable NASA programs to accomplish more with electronics with less power and reduced board area requirements, and may be enabling technology for missions such as NanoSats.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many NASA applications of the Reconfigurable Task Processor:
? Communications processing ? using a combination of software and programmable hardware to perform data compression, packet formation, or encode/decode operations where several chips are required using current technology.
? Housekeeping ? a single chip can house both the scheduling of sensor data-gathering, as well as the custom interfaces to sensor, A/D and D/A converters.
? Attitude Control Electronics ? Match custom sensor and actuator interfaces, providing software control over the interface on the same chip.
? Command and Data Handling Electronics ? Can provide several functions, including control of intra-system communication: arbitration and of backplane busses, processing of inter-system communications protocols such as I2C, USB, custom point-to-point serial.
? Configurable interfacing with legacy equipment ? Each spacecraft system requires that some odd interface be used ? this device reduces the overhead required to do so, while still providing the flexibility to connect to standard interfaces.
? The software and hardware programmability of this device means that the applications are only limited to the implementations Engineers imagination. Once this device exists, in Rad-Tolerant form, it will find its way into many applications.
? General Purpose Spacecraft and Instrument Processing. The SPARC 32-bit processor is powerful enough to be used as the primary processor in many missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
All of the above applications directly apply to Military Space, as well as many missile systems.
Re-loadable (RAM-based) FPGAs are being used in the rapidly developing field of reconfigurable computing. In particular, FPGAs are being applied to more digital signal processing (DSP) tasks. Filters are a particularly interesting application for the RTP in commercial applications. Currently, DSP hardware is quite similar to general purpose processors, with modifications to ALUs and memory access, so that they can perform all of the normal control functions of a GP processor while using the modified ALU for DSP functions. FIR filters, for example, can be implemented much more efficiently in hardware. This makes the RTP a perfect solution to the common problem of needing general purpose processing in conjunction with hardware-based algorithmic data flow. This new approach is referred to as ?heterogeneous computing?. Here, the most efficient tool for the job is used ... general purpose processing for control tasks, and reconfigurable hardware for high-data-rate algorithmic tasks. The RTP will enable single-chip heterogeneous computing.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S1.04-8839 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023160 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS5-03035
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft Technology for Micro/Nanosats
PROPOSAL TITLE: Ultra-small, low-cost Earth horizon sensor

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SiWave, Inc.
400 E. Live Oak Avenue
Arcadia , CA   91006 - 5619
(626 ) 821 - 0570

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Tony Tang
t.tang@siwaveinc.com
400 E. Live Oak Avenue
Arcadia , CA   91006 - 5619
(626 ) 821 - 0570

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Advanced Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) technologies are required to enable future NASA missions and commercial satellite programs. SiWave?s Earth horizon sensor is made possible by recently developed micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) proprietary processing techniques. Unlike MEMS devices manufactured by our competitors, SiWave MEMS devices enable precisely moving structures with large angular deflections. A MEMS Earth horizon sensor, when compared with current state-of-the-art Earth horizon sensors provides for three orders-of-magnitude reductions in size, reduced power consumption, lower cost, and increased functionality and flexibility.

In the Phase I program, the feasibility of key components of the proposed Earth horizon sensor, namely, the MEMS scanner and the beam focusing element were demonstrated separately. In Phase II, SiWave has teamed up with a major satellite manufacturer to take the necessary steps to further develop, conduct ground evaluation, flight qualification and for possible space flight of the MEMS horizon sensor.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications include navigation for next generation nano/micro-spacecraft, Earth orbiting spacecraft, and planetary missions to Mars and other solar system planets. The reduction in size and mass will reduce the cost of the spacecraft as well as the launch costs.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed device has commercial applications in telecommunications, broadcasting, surveillance, Earth science satellites, and high altitude aircraft and balloons. Markets for this technology include large satellite constellations, such as LEO One, Teledesic, ECCO, and E-Sat which alone total nearly 1000 sensors (~$100 million).


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S1.05-9890 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022109 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS8-03034
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Spacecraft and Space Environment Interaction
PROPOSAL TITLE: SEE enhancement of advanced commercial microprocessors for Space Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Space Micro Inc.
12872 Glen Circle Road
Poway , CA   92064 - 2029
(858 ) 487 - 9295

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
David R. Czajkowski
dcz@spacemicro.com
12872 Glen Circle Road
Poway , CA   92064 - 2029
(858 ) 487 - 9295

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Commercial microprocessors are challenged for use in satellite computers due to the damaging effects of radiation, particularly single event upsets (SEU) and functional interrupts (SEFI). Space Micro has developed innovations for mitigating SEU/SEFI, enabling the use of high-speed microprocessors (>1,500 MIPS) with improved SEU tolerances (>1E-5 errors/day). Time-Triple Modular Redundancy (TTMR) applies traditional triple modular redundancy on a single microprocessor. TTMR improves SEU rates substantially. SEFI is solved through the use of a SEFI ?Hardened Core? circuit, external to the microprocessor, along with SEFI recovery software embedded into application code. It monitors the ?health? of the processor, and if SEFI occurs, forces the processor to return through a series of escalating events (interrupts, reset). Space Micro successfully demonstrated monitoring and recovery of Pentiums from SEFI, 100% of the time, using a prototype of the H-Core in a proton environment. This is significant in being the industry?s first (only) demonstrated solution for SEFI in microprocessors.

In Phase II, the H-Core will be advanced into a radiation hardened IC that operates with any advanced microprocessor, allowing automatic return to operational status after a SEFI event. Additionally, software recovery algorithms will allow applications to recover part or all of their lost data.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
This SBIR provides enabling technology for several key NASA developmental areas:

? -Intelligent Distributed Spacecraft
? -Ultra-High Data Rate Communications
? -High Performance Spectrometry
? -Autonomous Reconfiguration
? -Complex Multi-node Heterogeneous Networks
? -Network Scalability for Incremental Network Growth

As high lighted in the Earth Science Enterprise Technology Workshop, drastically enhanced on-board processing is needed for data compression, event recognition and response, and hyperspectral and radar data processing

With more computing power in space, we can also develop more efficient onboard real-time multisensor\multisource\multiresolution algorithms to perform target recognition, image deblurring, noise filtering, motion compensation, guidance and navigation, surveillance and reconnaissance, data compression and transmission for more effective earth resource monitoring as well as law enforcement and homeland security. Programs such as Jupiter Icy Moons, Living With a Star, New Millenium and Mars missions will greatly benefit.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The same benefits as NASA missions apply to commercial and DoD military applications, both for communication and imaging. As evidenced by the Air Force letter in the proposal, the Air Force is funding a low power space computer program to reach the same goals as desired by NASA and commercial satellite manufacturers (high speed, low power and radiation hard/tolerant). Vastly increased performance over traditional radiation hardened processors enables lower cost systems, plus enabling new capabilities. Spacecraft such as Lockheed Martin?s A2100 and Boeing?s 702, plus programs such as Echostar, Spaceway, Galileo, Direct TV, XM Radio and all GEO communication satellites will be customers.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S1.06-8899 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023100 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS5-03039
SUBTOPIC TITLE: UV and EUV Optics and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Quality, Low-Scatter SiC Optics Suitable for Space-based UV & EUV Applications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SSG Precision Optronics, Inc
65 Jonspin Road
Wilmington , MA   01887 - 1020
(978 ) 694 - 9991

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jay Schwartz
jschwartz@ssginc.com
65 Jonspin Road
Wilmington , MA   01887 - 1020
(978 ) 694 - 9991

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
SSG Precision Optronics proposes the development and demonstration of a new optical fabrication process for the production of EUV quality Silicon Carbide (SiC) optics. The process combines three technologies to provide a cost and schedule effective solution for lightweight, thermally stable precision optics for EUV applications. First, near-net-shape cast SiC materials for monolithic lightweighted, SiC mirror substrates with minimal machining required. Second, a thin CVD SiC sputter deposition process applied to the mirror facesheet. This enables a low-scatter surface as well as high reflectance in the EUV band. Third, the application of Tinsley?s computer controlled optical surfacing (CCOS) grinding and polishing makes it possible to generate aspheres with extremely accurate surfaces.

The manufacturing process proposed allows production of state-of-the-art SiC aspheric mirrors with numerous benefits compared to competing technologies and traditional processes:

?Excellent Surface Figure Accuracy (<0.01 waves RMS, over low and mid-spatial-frequency measurements);
?Ultra-low micro-roughness (<10 Angstroms RMS routine, <1 Angstrom RMS achievable);
?Improved yield;
?Very low areal densities (~10 kg/m2 at an aperture of 1 meter);
?Superior thermal stability (SiC bulk material properties);

In Phase 2, SSGPO will demonstrate an optimized optical fabrication process by producing a SiC EUV flight-ready optic.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The optical manufacturing process to be developed and demonstrated in the Phase II program is ideally suited for EUV applications as well as for optical instruments which are exposed to high thermal loads. NASA applications that will benefit from this process development include Solar Physics, soft and hard x-ray optics, and large aperture lightweight mirrors (JWST).

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
High precision, low-scatter SiC optics have a number of non-NASA applications including X-ray optics for synchrotron sources and next generation EUV lithography for the semiconductor industry.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S1.06-8922 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023077 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS5-03040
SUBTOPIC TITLE: UV and EUV Optics and Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Pixelized Device Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
QorTek, Inc.
2400 Reach Road, Suite 204
Williamsport , PA   17701 - 4183
(570 ) 322 - 2700

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Gareth J Knowles
gknowles@qortek.com
2400 Reach Road. Suite 204
Williamsport , PA   17701 - 4183
(570 ) 322 - 2700

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to build a demonstration unit of an entirely new optics and instruments technology for space applications. Characteristics are far lower (1/10th to 1/100th) cost, larger area, lower areal density (<1/10), and higher device density count (>4') compared to current state-of-the-art technology. The demonstration focus is 20cm ? 25cm deformable (secondary or tertiary) mirrors where the ultracompact adaptive optic is achieved by a combination of the ultralightweight advanced pixelized device control system (developed and demonstrated by QorTek during Phase I) and the super-thin, super-smooth composite mirror technology (developed by Composite Mirror Applications, Inc). The conclusion of Phase II will be a product consisting of a 20cm diameter circular adaptive mirror. The mirror will incorporate a circular matrix array of 488 active (induced strain) elements. Targeted application is toward high data rate optical communications systems (NASA, DoD) and high precision space telescopes (NASA).

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA has a pressing need for development of high data rate optical communications for future space missions. Capability is needed to support science mission data retrieval at higher rates than heretofore possible with RF systems where the optical system must have very high surface accuracy. By increasing the aperture of the transmitting telescope, the receiver aperture can be reduced to a more manageable size. The SPACE COMMUNICATIONS impact of the technology is providing low cost high-density array of actuators solution for which there currently exists no competition.

Future SPACE OPTICS will be required to be lightweight, have supersmooth surfaces, and super accurate figures as to function in deep space for long periods of time. Low-cost high-density actuator deformable mirrors provide the best means for maintaining high performance. Missions that can potentially integrate the new technology include Solar High Angular Resolution Photometric Imager, Stellar Imager Space Interferometry, and TPF.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
At present, there are absolutely no such products available to the non-NASA telescope user community to correct for mirror defects in mid-range astronomy optics. The cost of adaptive optic systems currently available is prohibitive to such use. The present technology offers promise as a low cost, completely integrated solution to aberration correction for both the NASA and the non-NASA astronomy and astrophysics community.

By teaming with CMA, the QorTek/CMA team is in a position to, almost overnight, go into production of limited quantities of such self-contained atmospheric aberration correction systems. The commercial advantages in combining the inexpensive Thin Film or Circuit Board Matrix Architecture with the Composite Mirror production technology that CMA brings is that we estimate that a limited production of the fully integrated system with support software and installer support could be made available at a range of prices very attractive to the user community.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S2.02-7897 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024102 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS5-03042
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Terrestrial and Extra-Terrestrial Balloons and Aerobots
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lift Gas Cracker

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Pioneer Astronautics
11111 W. 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood , CO   80215 - 5516
(303 ) 980 - 0890

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Zubrin
zubrin@aol.com
11111 W. 8th Avenue, Unit A
Lakewood , CO   80215 - 5516
(303 ) 980 - 0890

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Lift Gas Cracker (LGC) is a new method for extending the duration of high-altitude scientific balloon flights and for enabling the launch of balloons from remote locations. The LGC produces balloon lift gas by catalytic reforming of methanol to generate hydrogen plus some carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide.

Pioneer Astronautics prototyped and characterized an LGC system during Phase I. The LGC was demonstrated as a portable lift gas generator for launching meteorological and scientific balloons from remote locations where high-pressure helium is not available.

Based on favorable mission analyses conducted during Phase I, the LGC as a method for extending the duration of high-altitude scientific balloon flights will be developed under Phase II. The LGC would operate with an auxiliary buoyancy-control balloon. The LGC produces lift gas by catalytic reforming of methanol at night. During the day, some of the lift gas (predominantly hydrogen) is burned with atmospheric air to produce water. The water ballast can be dropped or can be recycled to the LGC for steam reforming to generate lift gas the following night. These techniques can triple the duration of high-altitude flights compared to conventional methods of dropping ballast at night and venting gas during the day.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Lift Gas Cracker can be used to provide lift gas for stratospheric balloon flights for Earth observation, atmospheric research, and high-altitude telescopes. Lift gas generated on board at night from liquid methanol can be used to maintain altitude as an alternative to dropping ballast. The lift gas, which is predominantly hydrogen, can then be catalytically burned with air during the day to effectively reduce the lift gas volume while generating water ballast. The water ballast can be dropped or can be recycled to the Lift Gas Cracker for steam reforming of methanol the following night, greatly extending the time aloft. The LGC could also be used for extended duration balloon flights on Venus or Mars.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The LGC is well-suited for the production of lift gas in remote areas, such as the Arctic, Antarctic, and underdeveloped regions where conventional gas cylinders are difficult to obtain. Such gas is needed in large quantities to support meteorological campaigns and flight service stations, which provide winds aloft data to pilots. In addition, winds aloft information is needed by artillery units, which fire projectiles through high altitudes. In remote areas, the provision of helium bottles to field units is difficult, and the LGC offers logistic advantages. The low cost of lift gas compared to helium could provide an attractive alternative for systems such as tethered balloons since the gas leakage experienced over time by such systems can be considerable. With the addition of a gas separation membrane, the LGC could be used to supply cheap, easily generated hydrogen for fuel cell applications, including automobiles and power supply stations.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S2.04-8132 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023867 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS5-03044
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control and Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight Cryogenic Radiator

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Energy Science Laboratories, Inc.
6888 Nancy Ridge Dr.
San Diego , CA   92121 - 2232
(858 ) 552 - 2032

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Christopher L. Seaman
cseaman@esli.com
6888 Nancy Ridge Dr.
San Diego , CA   92121 - 2232
(858 ) 552 - 2039

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This SBIR Phase 2 project shall develop lightweight materials with high emissivity for radiative cooling down to 30 K, as needed by NASA for advanced spacecraft including the JWST mission. The materials are based on carbon fibers in an engineered configuration that creates blackbody features as well as millimeter wave antenna absorber features. The carbon fiber approach is fundamentally lightweight, structurally robust, thermally conductive, and permits a broad range of configurations. Selected emitter materials configurations will be fabricated and tested for model validation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The approach has potential to generate a range of novel optical materials with applications in thermal control, far infrared and millimeter wave astronomy, and microwave communications hardware. Specific applications are * Improved absorbers for thermal , radiometric, and optical instruments operating in IR, FIR, MMW and MW bands * Absorber coatings for instruments such as bolometers, MMW radiometers, and cryogenic calorimeters * Stray light suppression for improved signal-to-noise in IR and MMW astronomy 30-200 K radiators for sensor cooling in surveillance satellites

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
30 K Cryogenic radiators for passive cooling of instrument module on JWST * 30?200 K radiators for sensor cooling in remote sensing satellites * Stray light suppression for improved signal-to-noise in IR and MMW astronomy


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S2.04-9575 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022424 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS5-03045
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control and Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Helium Loop Heat Pipe for Large Area Cryocooling

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TTH Research, Inc.
14300 Cherry Lane Court Suite#215
Laurel , MD   20707 - 3827
(301 ) 490 - 1800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Triem Hoang
thoang@tthresearch.com
14300 Cherry Lane Ct.
Laurel , MD   20707 - 4990
(301 ) 641 - 2954

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Next generation Far Infrared (FIR) Space Telescopes such as NASA?s SAFIR, SPIRIT, and SPECS require the entire mirrors, which can be as large as 10 meters in diameter, to be cooled to the temperature range of 4-40K. To meet the challenging cooling requirements of the missions mentioned above, TTH Research proposed the development of an advanced capillary pumped cryocooling transport system capable of providing temperature control for a large area in the 4-40K temperature range. Two-phase capillary pumped heat transport technology including Capillary Pumped Loops (CPLs) and Loop Heat Pipes (LHPs) offers many operational advantages over mechanically pumped counterparts. CPLs and LHPs contain no moving part to wear out or to introduce unwanted vibrations to the optical components. The transport lines can be made flexible (i) to accommodate the deployable mirror concepts and/or (ii) to isolate shocks/vibrations induced by mechanical cryocoolers from the telescope optics. For Phase II, an demonstration test unit shall be designed, built, and tested to show that cryocooling over a large area of the telescope mirror at 2.5K-4K can be achieved with the proposed concept of He-LHP.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed He-LHP concept for large-area crycooling was designed and tested specifically for NASA's next generation FIR telescopes. Its potential use is to provide 4-40K cooling to a large structure/mirror of the telescopes. The cooling system must be lightweight and easily integrated/embedded into the telescope structure.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Cooling a large telescope structure to ~4K is just one of the potential applications of the He-LHP. Even though it was originally designed for space-based systems, the proposed concept could be easily adapted for used in terrestrial electronic devices. The He-LHP can be charged with any working fluid to operate in a chosen temperature range. For example, with Nitrogen as the working fluid, the loop can provide 77K cooling for a large structure that contains high-temperature superconductor (HTS) electronics. Another potential application of the proposed concept (with water as the working fluid) is to provide cooling for consumer electronics cabinets (e.g. high-power servers). Due to its relative insensitivity to gravity, other terrestrial cooling applications onboard ships and airplanes are possible.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S2.04-9700 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022299 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS5-03063
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Thermal Control and Management
PROPOSAL TITLE: Intelligent Variable Emittance Panels Using New, ""True"" Solid Electrolyte

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ashwin-Ushas Corp Inc.
206 Ticonderoga Blvd
Freehold , NJ   07728 - 3028
(732 ) 462 - 1270

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Prasanna Chandrasekhar
chandra.p@ashwin-ushas.com
206 Ticonderoga Blvd
Freehold , NJ   07728 - 3028
(732 ) 462 - 1270

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)

This work further developed a highly promising Variable Emittance technology for spacecraft thermal control based on Conducting Polymer (CP) electrochromics developed earlier by this firm with the Air Force, NASA and JPL, with: Extremely thin (< 0.2 mm), flexible (plastic), lightweight (0.176 kg/m^2), extremely durable, variable area (0.5 cm^2 - 0.5 m^2), flat-panel construction; high Delta Emittance (DE) (> 0.4); cyclability > 10^4 cycles, switching < 5 s; power 40 iW/cm^2; proven space durability; low cost (est. < $5K/m^2). A key technical barrier of this earlier-generation technology was the need for a hermetic seal and bulky CsI windows/frame, problems associated therewith, due to the gel electrolyte used needing some moisture content to be ?sealed in?. In Phase I, use of newly discovered, ?true? solid, room temperature molten salt electrolytes (?IonEls?) eliminated the hermetic seal. Devices showed: DE > 0.5; excellent space durability (> 23000 electrochromic, > 90 thermal cycles over 23 days in space vacuum, > 500 h UV, operating temperature -45 to +100 C, no outgassing). Alpha(s)-lowering and ITO coatings were demonstrated. Phase II will complete a much more rigorous space durability testing regime, optimize devices, demonstrate intelligent control of device arrays, start pilot-scale production and costing, and initiate flight tests.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Once full space durability testing is completed in Phase II, this technology may displace mechanical louvers and heat pipes. The potential market is 1 to to m^2 thermal control area in each of > 100 spacecraft /year the U.S. alone launches. Military space uses include space-based radars.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Once full space durability testing is completed in Phase II, this technology may displace mechanical louvers and heat pipes. Military uses which this firm is already pursuing at an advanced stage include battlefield IR camouflage countermeasures for the entire armed forces, a potential multi-billion$ market. Commercial uses include sunglasses for older patients and displays/billboards.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S2.05-7486 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024513 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS8-03035
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optical Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Development of Ultra-smooth Diamond Tooling for Machining Lightweight Mirrors

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Diamond Materials, Inc.
120 Centennial Ave.
Piscataway , NJ   08854 - 3908
(732 ) 885 - 0805

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Oleg A. Voronov
ovoronov@aol.com
120 Centennial Ave.
Piscataway , NJ   08854 - 3908
(732 ) 885 - 0805

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
DMI has produced functionally-graded diamond-TiC-Ti cutters for machining lightweight mirror optics, particularly those made of SiC, with high precision and with minimal wear of the cutting edge. The improved wear (relative to commercial diamond tools) is achieved by orienting diamond crystals on the tips of specially designed cutter inserts, so as to exploit the anisotropy in diamond hardness. The reduction in tip wear enhances the precision of machining in uninterrupted cuts. The advantage is most clearly seen when hard ceramics, such as SiC, are machined, but the new cutter technology also provides benefits in machining certain metallic systems. Another innovation is the fabrication of a set of spherically-shaped Diamonite? smoothers, which improve the quality of the finishing operation; thus, for the first time, giving an ultra-smooth surface finish. The combined innovations should enable the optics industry to enhance the performance of large telescopes and interferometers. In Phase I, we designed a special diamond cutting tool for SiC, manufactured samples of cutters and smoothers, conducted research on machining and smoothing of mirror materials, and proved the validity of the concept. In Phase II, we propose to develop ultra-smooth diamond tooling and diamond tool fabrication techniques. The deliverables are diamond-TiC-Ti cutters to achieve higher precision of turning and Diamonite? smoothers to realize better surface finish. In addition, procedures for the reproducible fabrication of mirror optics will be defined. In Phase III, we will implement our developed tools and techniques with end-user companies, and produce machined parts to NASA specifications. This new class of tools should also have wide applications in the machining of structural and functional ceramics.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Our tools will be used by NASA contractors, as well as for general high-end machining operations to machine mirrors and other lightweight optical parts to an ultra-smooth finish. The developed fabrication techniques for diamond cutters and for machining of optical parts will enable the industry to increase optical performance of large space telescopes and interferometers.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Self-sharpening functionally-graded diamond cutters will enable an increase in the machining rate of hard materials?ceramics, alloys, composites. A longer tool life and greater machining rate will enhance productivity and will lead to economy in machining shops and well drilling companies. The most direct potential application is the machining of laser crystals and mirrors.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S2.05-7969 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024030 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS5-03064
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optical Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight Active Nanolaminate Mirror with Wireless Shape Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Xinetics Inc
115 Jackson Road
Devens , MA   01432 - 5022
(978 ) 772 - 0352

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Maureen Mulvihill
mmulvihill@xinetics.com
115 Jackson Road
Devens , MA   01432 - 4443
(978 ) 772 - 0352

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In this Phase II effort, Xinetics proposes a 15 cm subscale and a 40 cm fullscale Lightweight Nanolaminate Active Mirror with Wireless Shape Control demonstrators to provide a road map for a 75 cm ~1 kg/m2 Phase III First Article. The development of a wireless actuator technology is a critical milestone enabling the ultra-low areal densities. The nanolaminate replicated mirror substrates bonded to a lightweight stiff SiC substrate will function as the lightweight substrate. The active elements will be wireless actuators driven by light or electron beam energies. With our approach, the weight of the telescope design will be reduced in two ways. First, the optical surface of the nanolaminate will replace the polished glass traditionally used in a space based telescope design. Second, since the actuators will be driven by a remote current source, the need for wires and power supplies that drive traditional active mirrors are eliminated. The combination of lightweight mirror technology with nanolaminate materials and integrated wireless actuator technology provide a roadmap for future very large aperture active mirror telescopes.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Wireless actuators can be used to remote control the optical surface on lightweight large aperture mirrors and as micropositioners in tightly designed spaces. With the maturity of the technologies wireless actuators proposed, lightweight shape controlling components will be available for large space exploration missions. The proposed wireless actuator technology is potentially the most innovative single advance to designing lightweight space observatory active components. NASA will have technology that can be used on many Origins missions and Structure and Evolution missions where lightweight active components area required.

From the wireless actuator technology, two routes to commercialization will be pursued. The first is the wireless micropositioners where space is confined in ground based applications and the second is lightweight components for space observatories. Since the wires and power electronic are unnecessary, no space needs to be available for adjunct equipment. The wireless actuators can be used to control the optical surface on large aperture lightweight mirrors enabling large diameter apertures reaching 100 m. The surveillance community needs ultra-lightweight, large aperture optical systems that will provide low scatter, diffraction limited imaging in a space environment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Wireless actuators can be used to remote control the optical surface on lightweight large aperture mirrors and as micropositioners in tightly designed spaces. With the maturity of the technologies wireless actuators proposed, lightweight shape controlling components will be available for large space exploration missions. The proposed wireless actuator technology is potentially the most innovative single advance to designing lightweight space observatory active components. NASA will have technology that can be used on many Origins missions and Structure and Evolution missions where lightweight active components area required.

From the wireless actuator technology, two routes to commercialization will be pursued. The first is the wireless micropositioners where space is confined in ground based applications and the second is lightweight components for space observatories. Since the wires and power electronic are unnecessary, no space needs to be available for adjunct equipment. The wireless actuators can be used to control the optical surface on large aperture lightweight mirrors enabling large diameter apertures reaching 100 m. The surveillance community needs ultra-lightweight, large aperture optical systems that will provide low scatter, diffraction limited imaging in a space environment.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S2.05-8886 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023113 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS5-03047
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optical Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Lightweight High Spatial Frequency Active Mirror Using E Beam Control

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Xinetics Inc
115 Jackson Road
Devens , MA   01432 - 5022
(978 ) 772 - 0352

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Michael Roche
mroche@xinetics.com
115 Jackson Road
Devens , MA   01432 - 4027
(978 ) 772 - 0352

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
NASA needs larger, lighter optics to achieve the objectives of understanding the Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEU). Optics of 10-m class and beyond must be active to maintain sufficient optical figure. However, traditional deformable mirrors are too massive and complex to launch into orbit. Electron beam actuation solves this problem by replacing the myriad of wires of current high spatial frequency deformable optics with an electron source. Pointing the electron beam anywhere on the mirror surface provides unparalleled flexibility and unlimited spatial frequency. Phase I results proved the ability to provide high authority, stable and repeatable actuation on an electron beam actuated optic. Flood loading induced 9-waves of power in a 1-in optic. Focusing and pointing the electron beam achieved localized deformations. A scalable design is introduced to allow for a 25-40 cm diameter, less than 5-kg/m2 optic actuated by electron beam control to be delivered on Phase II. The multi-parametric nature of electron beam actuation will be harnessed by developing novel control algorithms. The proposed project will allow for a lower mass, reduced complexity design capable of shape fitting not possible with any current deformable mirror technology, due to the flexibility of electron beam control.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In addition to the benefits of hexagonal modules for Gossamer optic system wavefront correction, a segmented deformable mirror would have applications in high energy laser beam cleanup and propagation. The hexagonal array spacing also offers several advantages in conventional adaptive optics applications. The hexagonal packing provides a higher actuator density in a given aperture size and access to influence functions that are not possible with square arrays. Other applications would be in the ophthalmic area. High density mirror arrays could be installed on Fundus cameras to aid ophthalmologists in diagnosing retinal disease and other problems which can be diagnosed through the study of the capillary structure in the eye. There would be applications in laser eye surgery by improving the beam quality of lasers used as scalpels.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Adaptive Tertiary mirror would allow the correction of wavefront errors in Gossamer optics, which are critical to the development of 100 meter and larger diameter telescopes in space. The adaptive tertiary potentially alleviates some of the tight manufacturing, assembly, and deployment tolerances that are anticipated in working with ultralightweight optics, reducing the complexity of the system and therefore the risk and cost. The adaptive tertiary concept can be applied whether the primary mirror is segmented, as in the case with NGST, or the more typical vision of a continuous gossamer membrane. Each segment of the adaptive tertiary, with independent tip-tilt functionality, can correct both the large errors anticipated during deployment, or the higher spatial frequency errors compensated in a conventional deformable mirror.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S2.05-8888 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023111 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS8-03036
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Optical Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Computer Controlled Optical Surfacing of Bare Beryllium Aspheric Optics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
SSG Precision Optronics, Inc
65 Jonspin Road
Wilmington , MA   01887 - 1020
(978 ) 694 - 9991

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jay Daniel
jdaniel@ssginc.com
4040 Lakeside Drive
Richmond , CA   94806 - 1963
(510 ) 222 - 8110

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Tinsley Laboratories, a subsidiary of SSG Inc., proposes a Phase 2 SBIR program to increase the efficiency of manufacturing bare Beryllium mirrors using its proprietary deterministic Computer Controlled Optical Surfacing (CCOS) process. Over the last 25 years, this process has demonstrated the capability to produce state-of-the-art aspheric optics, including extensive work with bare Beryllium aspheric reflectors. In the Phase 1 SBIR study, a process involving tool dressing assisted CCOS grinding generated material removal rates that were more linear than the standard CCOS grinding process. The Phase 2 effort proposes to investigate additional parameters of the tool assisted CCOS process with a goal of achieving >2x reduction in total processing time. Increased efficiency, and reduced costs, are key drivers as next generation astronomical and earth observing applications are being driven to larger and larger telescope apertures. Beryllium optics are a key technology for these large aperture system designs, due to the material?s high specific stiffness and aggressively lightweighting capabilities. The process optimization that we propose will make Beryllium optics more cost effective for these applications, in this way allowing system designs to benefit from the superior bulk material properties associated with the material.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The CCOS process improvements proposed here have been targeted to specifically address the grinding of bare beryllium aspheric optics. Future applications for beryllium optics have been proposed for NASA?s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). These process improvements proposed will provide direct benefits for this and similar applications, reducing mirror processing time/cost, enabling beryllium optics to be applied to a broader range of applications. More generally the process improvements proposed here will benefit CCOS processing of any hard, brittle material. This expands the benefits of the proposed work to apply to silicon optics, hard window materials like sapphire, germanium optics, and silicon carbide optics. In these material areas there are a number of NASA commercial applications where the time/cost benefit created with the technology development proposed here can create a real technology advantage.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Beryllium optics are typically used in space-based and air-based optical systems which are of interest to NASA and the DoD for astronomical observing and remote sensing of the earth. Historically, beryllium optics have been used for NASA?s Space Infared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the DoD?s Earthwatch system, and NOAA?s GOES weather satellite. Improvements to Be mirror processing obtained in this SBIR effort will benefit the development of future space-based optical telescopes systems that are considering a Be based design.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S2.06-8776 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023223 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS5-03049
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Photon Detectors
PROPOSAL TITLE: Gamma Detector Modular Assemblies for EXIST

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aguila Technologies, Inc.
310 Via Vera Cruz, Suite 107
San Marcos , CA   92069 - 2631
(760 ) 752 - 1192

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
M Albert Capote
macapote@aguilatech.com
310 Via Vera Cruz, Suite 107
San Marcos , CA   92069 - 2631
(760 ) 752 - 1199

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) is a proposed mission that aims to detect faint high energy X-ray sources in the energy range 10 - 600 keV. The concept for EXIST relies on an X-ray telescope imaging the entire sky each 95 min orbit. The core of the X-ray imaging telescope comprises approximately 8 square meters of pixilated Cd-Zn-Te (CZT) detectors, a technical feat never before attempted. This enormous array requires development of a new packaging technology for CZT detector arrays, one that allows detectors to be abutted together into large arrays of CZT tiles, with minimal dead space in between detectors. Also required is a technology that can produce these detectors with a high interconnection yield, not currently achieved with indium bump technologies. We propose an innovative technique to assemble CZT X-ray sensors avoiding conventional direct indium bump hybridization used today. The novel scheme incorporates commercial off-the-shelf flip-chip and multichip module technologies, combined with new flip-chip bonding materials and proprietary processes developed at Aguila under previous NASA sponsorship. This will result in novel detector modules containing fully-integrated readout electronics that can be implemented into a large-array motherboard.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Lack of access to good packaging technology is hindering NASA's ability to develop large area CZT focal plane detectors for hard x-ray missions on balloons and in space such as InFOCuS, Constellation-X, EXIST and HSI. The ideas presented here may also be solutions to the array hybridization challenges for cryogenic arrays with calorimeters and bolometers which have been proposed for Constellation-X and various sub-mm and IR instruments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The commercial market for CZT pixel detectors is in medical imaging, environmental monitoring, anti-terrorism and industrial processing. Once the CZT material technology improves to where large area arrays are readily producible, the market for using this technology will offer many opportunities. Furthermore, there is a great need for high interconnect densities in flip chip electronic assemblies with many applications in automotive products and wireless communications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S3.02-8020 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023979 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS3-03039
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Precision Constellations for Interferometry
PROPOSAL TITLE: Magnetically Enhanced Vacuum Arc Thruster

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation
2235 Polvorosa Avenue, Suite 230
San Leandro , CA   94577 - 2249
(510 ) 483 - 4156

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jochen Schein
schein@aasc.net
2235 Polvorosa Avenue, Suite 230
San Leandro , CA   94577 - 2249
(510 ) 483 - 4156

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation has demonstrated the feasibility of a new type of electric propulsion device dubbed the Magnetically Enhanced Vacuum Arc Thruster (MVAT). This thruster is itself a variant on the Vacuum Arc Thruster that has been demonstrated via a recently concluded Phase I SBIR contracts from NASA. The VAT was verified to be a throttleable low mass (ca. 150g) high efficiency (ca. 10% measured), high Isp (1000-3000s) electric propulsion device that can be remotely adjusted to deliver individual impulse bits from 0.25?Ns to 50?Ns with repetition rates varying from 1?1000 Hz while all the time providing an Isp of >1000s. The MVAT approach has shown to improve thruster performance and control contamination while keeping the system mass low (<300g). AASC proposes to team with Aerojet to further develop and low level qualify the MVAT to TRL 5.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary application of the specific electric propulsion thruster to be developed in the proposed work will be for optical interferometry mission. However, beyond this immediate application, the thruster could find use for larger or smaller spacecraft used in precision pointing and attitude control. The MVAT will become the enabling technology to use micro-, and nano-spacecraft for more challenging but cost-effective missions.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Commercial applications might be found in communcation satellites. GEO-satellite location and bandwidth allocations are limited. Bandwidth on these satellites is currently limited and expensive. Future projections indicate that as more third-world countries enter the information-age, prices will increase with demand. A solution seems to be to find or create new and innovative ways of providing bandwidth for example the use of constellations of small satellites. These satellites will require precise, low mass propulsion systems like the MVAT.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S3.03-8209 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023790 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS3-03042
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Astronomical Instrumentation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Omnidirectional Narrow Band Pass, band Pass and Band Blocking IR Filters

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc.
575 McCorkle Blvd.
Westerville , OH   43082 - 8699
(614 ) 891 - 2243

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Vladimir Kochergin
vkochergin@lakeshore.com
575 McCorkle Blvd.
Westerville , OH   43082 - 8699
(615 ) 891 - 2243

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In the Phase I SBIR, Lake Shore proved the feasibility of narrow band pass, band pass and band blocking IR filters made from macroporous silicon (MPSi). This type of optical filter consists of a three-dimensional, periodic structure in monocrystalline silicon. Due to the nature of light transmission through such a layer, omnidirectionality of the transmission was demonstrated. Due the construction consisting mostly of a single environmentally stable material, porous silicon filters do not suffer from thermal, mechanical, and environmental instabilities. In Phase II, Lake Shore will optimize the manufacturing process and will evaluate some design changes that should provide viable prototypes for testing by NASA. In particular, different silicon anodization setups will be used to provide uniform silicon anodization across up to 150mm wafers, different pore geometries will be used to maximize the transmittance, CVD pore wall coating will be developed to extend the application range of such filters beyond the transparency window of silicon, antireflection coating of the filter surfaces will be developed to suppress reflection losses and packaging will be developed in order to adapt these filters for different applications. Such filters are expected to impact commercial, military and scientific community in many filter applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Mid-infrared imaging is a powerful technique to study the center of our galaxy and beyond. However, this wavelength range is difficult to work in. At these wavelengths, room temperature objects emit strongly. The strong Earth background causes weak signal-to-noise ratios. Mid IR filters are needed to separate extraterrestrial signals from this background to build a meaningful picture. Currently used filters suffer from problems stemming from the lack of materials that are transparent, stable and compatible with each other at these wavelengths. The proposed new type of filters can solve these problems. Specific applications of proposed filters include the infrared imaging of planets; studying atmospheric methane (to determine methane output from ocean life), and IR spectroscopic sensing of planetary gases, for example, water vapor on Mars.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Narrow band pass, band pass and band blocking IR filters are used in optical communications, environmental monitoring, chemical and biological analysis, imaging and other areas. Customers include manufacturers of production equipment, as well as manufacturers and users of ?consumer? optical components and equipment. All uses suffer from the angular dependence of the transmission spectra that is a characteristic of interference filters. Many of these users solve the angular dependence problem by adding additional complexity, weight and price to their products, sometimes degrading the performance as well. Lake Shore proposes a new design for optical filters that has the potential to be a disruptive technology. Hence, all these applications may be considered as potential markets for MPSi filters. As a specific example, automation in the manufacture of fiber optic communications equipment has been delayed in part by tight alignment requirements, a problem that can be overcome with this technology.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S3.03-9508 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022491 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS3-03043
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Astronomical Instrumentation
PROPOSAL TITLE: A 32x32 CTIA readout multiplexer for far IR detector arrays

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
TechnoScience Corporation
P.O. Box 60658
Palo Alto , CA   94306 - 0658
(650 ) 852 - 9932

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jam Farhoomand
jfarhoomand@mail.arc.nasa.gov
P.O. Box 60658
Palo Alto , CA   94306 - 0658
(650 ) 852 - 9932

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to develop an innovative 32x32 multi-gain readout multiplexer with the following key design features:
1- Optimized for use with infrared detector arrays requiring low bias levels, such as Ge:Ga far IR photoconductors. The unit-cell design will maintain constant bias across the detector during the integration and, thereby, will eliminate non-linearity and detector debiasing. The design will also minimize the channel-to-channel DC variation which improves the bias uniformity across all pixels of the array.
2- Capable of operation at cryogenic temperatures down to 1.5K. Advanced monolithic cryo-CMOS technology will guarantee deep cryogenic operation with minimal impact on noise performance.
3- Offers the potential of being directly hybridized to IR detector arrays using indium-bump technology.
No two-dimensional readout multiplexer with these features is currently available or has been developed. This effort fits well within the scope of the SBIR Subtopic S3.03 and will be a benefit to many large and small NASA projects including SAFIR, SOFIA, and Astrobiology missions.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Space instruments developed under Origins Program such as SAFIR, science instruments for SOFIA, upcoming projects under Astrobiology Program, balloon-borne instruments for atmospheric research, and laboratory science instruments.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Aerospace industry: In addition to the aerospace companies that are under contract to NASA and directly participate in the space program, there are those that independently manufacture infrared detector arrays in large formats. Some aerospace companies that would be interested in our product are Raytheon, in particular Santa Barbara Research Center, Boeing, Rockwell, and Ball Aerospace.
Science groups at universities and national labs: Astronomical science instruments for observations at ground-based observatories and instruments for basic research.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S4.01-7884 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024115 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS3-03046
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Science Instruments for Conducting Solar System Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: A High Performance, Low Mass, XPS for Biosignature Detection

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Bryson Consulting
19270 Quinn CT
Morgan Hill , CA   95037 - 9320
(408 ) 623 - 1556

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Charles Bryson
cbryson@att.net
19270 Quinn CT
Morgan Hill , CA   95037 - 9320
(408 ) 623 - 1556

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The main innovation is a new class of electron spectrometers with significant improvement in detector efficiency that results in a system with a 50x performance improvement over current technology. The analyzer design is based on an electric dispersion and an immersion front-end optic. The improved performance allows a low mass, low power requirement, chemical analysis tool suitable for planetary missions. This tool is suitable for understanding the chemistry of geophysical materials and can detect signs of life or pre-biotic processes. The ability to determine chemical state in addition to elemental composition of materials with no a priori knowledge of the materials provides a robust experimental capability for extracting information in situations where the environment is not totally known. A second innovation involves using a new sample access technology that eliminates valves or pumping from the Mars atmosphere. The XPS tool input only needs to be placed 1 mm from the sample area of interest. This greatly simplifies ease of use, makes sample introduction simple and improves reliability. With, or without, the new sample system, the goal of the program will be a prototype XPS with a mass less than 10 kg that consumes less than 10 watts.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)

The effect of the oxidants is a major question in the search for biosignatures on Mars and in special Earth locations. On Earth a small portable, field useable XPS system will provide in situ information and avoid the ever-present contamination effects that are a part of laboratory experiments. Keeping samples in situ avoids the changing water levels and travel related contamination.

For Mars applications a mission compatible XPS will provide clear elemental and chemical state information with no a priori knowledge of the sample, which insures important knowledge is gained with XPS measurements. This tool will be suitable for understanding the chemistry of geophysical materials and provide an ability to detect signs of life or pre-biotic processes.

Measurements at Mars atmosphere conditions with the new sample system on earth will allow detail studies of the kinetics on Mars model materials,

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The small size and mass of the proposed XPS system and its potential low cost lends itself to applications as a dedicated tool in production environments. Large markets for such products exist in the semiconductor industry for monitoring film production for gate oxides and Cu migration barriers. Similar markets also exist in the polymer industry for film surface preparation steps that lead to further processing and in the data storage media industry for media and head lubrication and corrosion protection films.

The Mars Atmospheric Pressure Environment (MAPE) sample handling system being prepared can be reformatted to allow measurements at pressures up to 10 torr using conventional XPS systems. This system modification will allow biological studies of materials with water content at sample temperatures above the freezing point and in situ studies of catalyst reactions in flowing gas streams at variable temperatures.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S4.01-8295 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023704 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS2-03137
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Science Instruments for Conducting Solar System Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Mini-Cell Ion Mobility Spectrometer for In Situ Chemical Analysis

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Ion Applications, Inc.
7383 Hazelwood Circle
Lake Worth , FL   33467 - 6528
(561 ) 966 - 1582

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Robert Stimac
ionapplications@bellsouth.net
7383 Hazelwood Circle
Lake Worth , FL   33467 - 6528
(561 ) 966 - 1582

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
A miniature, specialized Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) will be designed, built, and evaluated that is responsive to the requirements of NASA exobiology flight experiments. The helium-based Ion Mobility Spectrometer previously developed for NASA by the key personnel making this proposal provides the universal response and ppb sensitivity required. However, the minimal resources available onboard for missions to planets and small bodies such as comets, asteroids, and moons, mandate that the instruments provide maximum analytical capabilities with minimal requirements of volume, weight, and consumables. Therefore, further miniaturization and development of the IMS is required. For Phase II it is proposed that a miniaturized IMS prototype be designed, built, and evaluated as the platform for a space-capable instrument. This instrument will incorporate a number of novel features that advance the current technology. The modifications and improvements to the former design will provide the required analytical and space-flight capabilities to serve as the basis for a miniature space-capable instrument. Phase II will also entail the evaluation of the Mini-Cell IMS in conjunction with MEMS GC and the further miniaturization and production engineering of delivered instrumentation. Potential commercial applications are for the manufacture of hand-held detectors for explosives or illegal narcotics.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA applications are as described in this proposal for a chemical detector which, when mated to a miniature GC, can provide the detection and confirmation of identity of chemicals eluting from the GC. The low weight and consumables usage of the Mini-Cell IMS make the use of this instrument practicable for the contemplated future missions to explore the atmospheres and gaseous contents of moons, comets, and planets including the proposed balloon rover missions. Another potential NASA application is for an IMS to replace the IMS currently used to monitor the crew environment on the space shuttle. The current system is bulky, and the replacement of it with something smaller sized is being investigated. The americium source could also be an advantage here because the device could be advertised as no more hazardous than a common commercial smoke detector.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The greatest potential commercial application for the Mini-Cell IMS is for the manufacture of hand-held detectors for explosives or illegal narcotics. The Mini-Cell design concept should be scalable to mass production techniques which will drastically lower the cost of production versus the standard IMS while still providing the high sensitivity required for the demanding explosives or drugs detection applications, Using a non-regulated ionization source, such as the Am-241, makes the Mini-Cell IMS much more widely available. Other commercial applications would be in the detection of trace chemicals in the semiconductor industry. Here there also exists a need for sophisticated instrumentation with very low, and always becoming lower, detection limits for a variety of chemicals deleterious for the production environment. Having a non-regulated source would also be very well received in this application.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S4.02-8158 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023841 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS3-03047
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Planetary Mobility and Robotics, Sub-Surface Access, and Autonomous Control Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Autonomous Tethered Corer for Deep Drilling

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
UTD Incorporated
8350 Alban Road Suite 700
Springfield , VA   22150 - 2336
(703 ) 440 - 8834

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Joram Shenhar
jshenhar@utdinc.com
8350 Alban Road, Suite 700
Springfield , VA   22150 - 2336
(703 ) 440 - 8834

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
UTD proposes to develop a lightweight, tethered autonomous small diameter core drill capable of reaching 10 and even 200 m in depth. The proposed approach is consistent with the planetary protection requirements and can be used to extract intact and tailings samples for biological and geological research on Mars. While the proposed drill is optimized for Mars environment, it can be used on other celestial bodies. The main advantage of the autonomous core drill and the emphasis of the proposed research are mass saving due to the bracing, deployment, and retrieval systems that are lighter, less complex, and have smaller launch envelope than currently proposed drive stem drills powered from the surface. The latter approach is limited to depths around 10 m since its efficiency drops precipitously with depth. The proposed system should fit the envelope of 40 kg and 200-300 watt-hrs per meter advance in medium hardness rock formations.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Dry drilling is a niche technology on Earth but is a major requirement for NASA applications. Delivery of deep subsurface samples from all celestial bodies in the solar system has been identified as a requirement by most roadmap studies. Mass saving advantages of an autonomous drill is most suited for these environments. The autonomous drill offers ability to drill through a wider variety of rock formations; it permits easier hazard avoidance; and it can reach larger depths than currently proposed approaches.

The system developed under this Phase II SBIR may be used by NASA as a test bed to compare performance of drilling/coring systems based on different drilling bits. The developed autonomous corer minus its drilling bit will provide propulsion, reaction forces, dry bailing, and power delivery for other drilling bit subsystems that need to be tested.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Autonomy and bracing technologies developed under this Phase II SBIR will find wide applications in the microtunneling field on Earth. The latter is rapidly becoming the technology of choice for deployment of new infrastructure lines in urban environment. Current techniques use either horizontal directional drilling or jacked production pipe driven drilling head assemblies (DHA) to excavate these tunnels. The existing technologies reached their limits and further improvements may require autonomous DHA?s.

UTD has a long history of development and commercialization of novel technologies. Our innovations include navigational aids for directional drilling, anchoring of the rock bolts, and novel drilling techniques.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S4.02-8438 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023561 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS3-03048
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Planetary Mobility and Robotics, Sub-Surface Access, and Autonomous Control Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: SPHERES-derived Mars Orbiting Sample Retrieval Testbed (SPHERES MOSR)

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Payload Systems, Inc.
247 Third Street
Cambridge , MA   02142 - 1129
(617 ) 868 - 8086

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joe Parrish
parrish@payload.com
247 Third Street
Cambridge , MA   02142 - 1129
(617 ) 868 - 8086

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to modify the Synchronized Position, Hold, Engage, and Reorient Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) system to serve as an on-orbit testbed for Mars orbiting sample retrieval (MOSR) equipment and techniques for a Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission. The SPHERES system, a novel spacecraft flight testbed developed by Payload Systems Inc. and the MIT Space Systems Laboratory, is currently scheduled for its first mission aboard the International Space Station in 2004 to demonstrate metrology, formation flying, rendezvous/docking, and autonomy algorithms. The innovation proposed here would adapt and extend the SPHERES system for a follow-on mission to ISS to serve as a testbed for MSR autonomous terminal-phase rendezvous and capture technologies ? including guidance algorithms, rendezvous and capture techniques, and capture mechanisms ? as would be involved in the retrieval of a sample lofted into Mars orbit. The autonomous retrieval of the orbiting sample is one of the most technically complex and risky aspects of the MSR mission. The SPHERES MOSR testbed would streamline OS retrieval algorithm and hardware development, and significantly reduce the risk of this critical MSR mission operation. This Phase II effort would result in a flight hardware system implementation ready to enter the Shuttle/ISS payload integration process.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary NASA commercial application for the SPHERES MOSR testbed is in support of the NASA Mars Sample Return mission development. We believe that the testbed will play a unique role in simulating contact dynamics between the target and chaser. An unanticipated result obtained during Phase I was that the testbed could serve a critical role in evaluating capture mechanism designs. We also feel that the testbed will be useful for rapid prototyping of MSR rendezvous/capture algorithms, taking advantage of the unique iterative capability of the SPHERES system during operation on ISS. The testbed would have immediate relevance to other NASA missions requiring autonomous on-orbit rendezvous/docking, including sample return missions from other planetary bodies and construction/servicing of large, distributed space optical systems. While these other missions are still in the initial planning phases, the testbed could be highly useful in support of advanced technology development and mission architecture studies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
We anticipate applications in the military and commercial sectors. The DoD is seriously investigating autonomous rendezvous and docking for the purpose of resupply, maintenance, and upgrading of valuable orbital assets. DARPA?s Orbital Express program is leading this investigation. If the Orbital Express program yields a positive result, we anticipate that several DoD organizations will develop autonomous rendezvous and docking technologies. We would position the SPHERES MOSR testbed in a similar role as for the NASA missions ? as a low-cost, uniquely-capable system for rapid, iterative evaluation of algorithms and hardware for the last-few-meters problem. Also, because it is extraordinarily inexpensive relative to other spaceflight and associated ground research systems, we believe that there are multiple commercial sales opportunities for the testbed in academic and government research programs. We would expect that these applications would be for complete systems ? perhaps more oriented toward ground application ? than the mission-oriented options discussed above.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S4.03-9093 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022906 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS3-03050
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Detection and Reduction of Biological Contamination on Flight Hardware and in Return-Sample Handling
PROPOSAL TITLE: Integrated Device to Sample and Identify Surface Microorganisms

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lynntech, Inc.
7610 Eastmark Drive
College Station , TX   77840 - 4024
(979 ) 639 - 0017

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Adrian Denvir
adrian.denvir@lynntech.com
7607 Eastmark Drive
College Station , TX   77840 - 4027
(979 ) 693 - 0017

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
It is well known that terrestrial microorganisms can thrive in a microgravity environment. There is a significant risk of transporting opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms from Earth to extraterrestrial environments, as well as the possibility of unfamiliar biocontaminants entering Earth?s atmosphere via flight hardware. Because these scenarios could pose significant health threats, reliable sampling and detection methods must be developed. Currently, there are no automated techniques for sampling spacecraft surfaces for microorganisms and providing real-time analysis for contamination, despite the desperate need for such a device. To overcome obstacles associated with conventional sampling and time-consuming detection methods, Lynntech has developed a unique vacuum surface sampling device which can be used in conjunction with a state of the art electrochemical based gene expression micro-detection unit. In the Phase I research, Lynntech successfully designed and fabricated the sampling unit, demonstrating its sampling capability on several surfaces. In addition, the microbiological electronic detection unit, including a cell lysing system and miniature thermal cycler, were successfully designed, built, and tested as individual benchtop components. The Phase II research will focus on the development and delivery of breadboard hardware to NASA for engineering and microbial evaluation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
In order to prevent the transfer of microorganisms to and from extraterrestrial environments, flight hardware must be thoroughly examined for the presence of microbial contamination. The proposed devices will provide NASA with an invaluable tool for the sampling and detection of microorganisms on a variety of surfaces on spacecraft, flight hardware, and the space station. The sampling device may be used alone or in conjunction with a novel microbial detector, providing NASA with the convenience and flexibility to perform a variety of different analysis techniques on the same sample. Providing NASA personnel with a non-labor intensive method for this type of microbial sampling and detection could save many man hours of labor. Potentially many more harmful microbiological contaminants could be detected and subsequently eliminated by using these types of devices, which streamline the sampling and detection process. The devices are not only more user friendly than conventional techniques, but can also produce results much faster.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The microbiological autosampling device and the detector unit would both find use in many military and civilian applications. Biological warfare agents pose a significant threat to both US military forces and civilian populations worldwide. Convenient sampling methods are desperately needed that can efficiently sample surfaces such as carpet, ceiling tile, furniture, and drapes. The proposed sampling device would overcome many of the technical hurdles faced when sampling these surfaces. In addition, when paired with the detection unit, both units could provide near real-time analysis and detection of biological warfare agents, potentially saving many lives. Other uses include sampling of harmful pathogens in the food production and processing industries, point-of-care medical facilities, medical and dental offices, and manufacturing facilities that require strict adherence to microbial contamination standards, such as those found in the pharmaceutical industry. An automated sampling and detection system providing real time analysis of contamination or harmful pathogens could save industries millions of dollars in recalls each year.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S4.04-8141 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023858 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS1-03045
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Materials and Systems for Future Planetary Exploration
PROPOSAL TITLE: Diamonite(TM)-bonded C/C Composite for Thermal Protection of Re-entry Bodies

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Diamond Materials, Inc.
120 Centennial Ave.
Piscataway , NJ   08854 - 3908
(732 ) 885 - 0805

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Oleg A. Voronov
ovoronov@aol.com
120 Centennial Ave.
Piscataway , NJ   08854 - 3908
(732 ) 885 - 0805

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In Phase I of this SBIR project, DMI demonstrated the feasibility of fabricating a new class of lightweight, heat-resistant Diamonite(TM)-bonded C/C composites for thermal protection of re-entry vehicles. DMI?s nano-carbon structure is produced by pressure-assisted polymerization of mixed fullerenes/nanotubes to create a new high specific strength carbon material called Diamonite-B(TM), which has mechanical properties closer to diamond than to graphite, but thermal stability closer to graphite; thus combining the advantages of graphite and diamond. Two methods for making Diamonite?-B bonded C/C composites were demonstrated. In Phase I, DMI focused on proof-of-principle development of the C/C composite, conducted experiments to confirm properties, viability of the material, fabrication techniques, and the hot pressing equipment. In Phase II, we propose to develop, in collaboration with established end-user companies, the technology for large-scale manufacture of Diamonite-B bonded C/C composite parts for thermal protection and the design of equipment necessary for full scale manufacturing. The deliverables of the Phase II project are samples of the created lightweight, heat-resistant Diamonite-B bonded C/C composite thermal protection materials; methods of making C/C composite parts for thermal protection of re-entry vehicles, which should improve the reliability of the system, and the design of equipment for full-scale manufacturing of parts at NASA and commercial request. In Phase III, we will work with large companies to build experimental pilot production facilities for the thermal protection of spacecraft by Diamonite-B-enhanced carbon composites.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential NASA applications include thermal protection of re-entry vehicles, such as space shuttles, capsules, and other recoverable bodies.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential non-NASA military applications include thermal protection of ballistic missiles, aircraft brake pads, and other structural components.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S4.05-7817 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024182 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS3-03053
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Advanced Miniature and Microelectronics, Nanosensors, and Evolvable Hardware
PROPOSAL TITLE: AlN 3D Thermal Packaging

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Technology Assessment & Transfer, Inc.
133 Defense Hwy Suite 212
Annapolis , MD   21401 - 8907
(410 ) 224 - 3710

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Walter Zimbeck
zimbo@techassess.com
133 Defense Hwy Suite 212
Annapolis , MD   21401 - 8929
(410 ) 224 - 3710

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The project goal is to demonstrate feasibility of fabricating aluminum nitride (AlN) microelectronic package substrates with integral microchannel heat transfer structure. A novel fabrication approach was demonstrated in Phase I called ceramic stereolithography (CSL), which enables monolithic fabrication of the microchannel AlN substrates. The AlN microchannel devices are suited for cooling high heat flux (10?s to 100?s W/cm2) electronic components in single phase, mechanically pumped thermal control systems. Since the successful demonstration of a single phase, mechanically pumped cooling loop on the Mars Pathfinder Mission, this type of active heat rejection system has become a candidate for future unmanned missions including missions to planets and moons, comets and asteroids, and earth orbiting missions. In comparison to two phase capillary pumped loops and loop heat pipe architectures, the single phase, mechanically pumped loops offer greater simplicity and flexibility in all aspects of the mission life cycle (design, assembly, validation, flight). Future NASA spacecraft will have to manage increasing heat flux densities from electronics, either resulting from spacecraft miniaturization or spacecraft with high power electronic systems. The AlN microchannel substrate approach represents thermal management integrated at the package level and provides a compact, low cost, high heat flux capacity solution.



POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) Microspacecraft electronic systems including avionics, tele com, propulsion, science and power.
2) Space-based High Energy Lasers for earth science missions (e.g., CO2, wind shear, ice monitoring)
3) Power conditioning electronics for nuclear electric propulsion craft (e.g., Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter)

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
1) Power conditioning circuits for electric and hybrid electric vehicles.
2) High power land- and sea-based radar such as the Navy?s Advanced Multifunctional RF System
3) Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers and diode laser arrays for a wide variety of applications including industrial, military space and ground, medical and R&D uses.
4) Avionics for commercial and military air- and space-craft


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S4.06-9589 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022410 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS5-03067
SUBTOPIC TITLE: High Rate Telecommunications for Deep Space and Local Planetary Networks
PROPOSAL TITLE: High Gain, Position Sensitive, Avalanche Photodiode for Optical Communication

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown , MA   02472 - 4699
(617 ) 926 - 1167

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard A. Myers, Ph.D.
rmyers@rmdinc.com
44 Hunt Street
Watertown , MA   02472 - 4699
(617 ) 926 - 1167

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Phase II SBIR describes the fabrication and characterization of a position sensitive detector with internal gain. Phase I research demonstrated the fabrication of several position sensitive avalanche photodiodes (APDs), including quadrant and lateral-effect photodiodes. With position resolution equivalent to commercially available silicon detectors, but responsivity three orders of magnitude times greater, these detectors offer superior performance over existing position sensitive devices. Using RMD?s advanced planar processing technology, the position sensitive detectors will be further optimized with emphasis on applications for free-space optical communication systems operating at near-infrared (near-IR) wavelengths. The ultimate goal of this program is to develop a manufacturable high speed, low noise position-sensitive APD module. The APD and electronics for readout and data logging will be included in the final module, a valuable tool for long distance communication and LADAR operation.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary application of this work is the further development of a detector for tracking satellites or other sources used in long-haul free-space optical communication systems. Further uses to NASA include position sensitive detection for vehicle docking, navigation, and guidance. Sensitive 3-D imaging can be realized using these detector in LADAR applications, including the geographical mapping of terrestrial or extra-terrestrial features.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The primary application of this work is the further development of a detector for tracking satellites or other sources used in long-haul free-space optical communication systems. Further uses to NASA include position sensitive detection for vehicle docking, navigation, and guidance. Sensitive 3-D imaging can be realized using these detector in LADAR applications, including the geographical mapping of terrestrial or extra-terrestrial features.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S4.07-8408 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023591 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS3-03011
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deep Space Power Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: SiGe Semiconductor Devices for High-Performance Cryogenic Power Electronics

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
GPD Optoelectronics Corp.
7 Manor Parkway
Salem , NH   03079 - 3065
(603 ) 894 - 6865

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Rufus Ward
rrward@gpd-ir.com
7 Manor Parkway
Salem , NH   03079 - 3065
(603 ) 894 - 6865

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose to continue development of power semiconductor devices (diodes and transistors) for power-management and actuator-control circuits operating at cryogenic temperatures. Cryogenic power electronics can provide important benefits both for space and commercial applications: higher efficiency, reduced size, weight and complexity, and improved system reliability. Of primary importance to spacecraft is reduction or elimination of thermal control and its attendant power usage, weight, size and added electronics. We propose using the silicon-germanium (SiGe) materials system because of its powerful design flexibility, compatibility with silicon processing, and ability to combine desirable features of both silicon and germanium. Conventional Si-based electronics has not proved adequate for deep-cryogenic temperature (down to 30 K) power applications, whereas SiGe operates well down to these cryogenic temperatures. In Phase I we successfully fabricated metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures and heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBT), which are essential elements of advanced power devices to be developed in Phase II. The proposed SiGe cryogenic power devices are an innovation because there are presently no power semiconductor devices based on SiGe and designed for cryogenic applications.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Upcoming NASA missions to the outer planets and satellites, asteroids, and other sites will encounter extremely cold environments, down to the deep cryogenic range (as low as 40 K). Cryogenic electronics can eliminate or reduce the need for thermal control and thus reduce spacecraft size, weight, power usage and the associated electronics. Also, it will enable greater mobility and lifetime for surface exploration craft, as well as reducing their thermal impact on the environment. Cryogenic electronics is also needed for space-based observatories that depend on cryogenics, such as the Next-Generation Space Telescope. Actuators for the deformable optical systems will operate at deep cryogenic temperatures, and the drive electronics should operate in the same cryogenic environment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Potential application areas in the industrial, commercial and defense sectors include magnetic resonance imaging, energy storage (inductive or capacitive), cryogenic or superconducting power transmission and distribution, cryogenic or superconducting motors and generators, magnetic confinement, particle accelerators, aerospace vehicles, and radio-frequency power amplifiers. These applications can benefit from improved efficiency of cryogenic power electronics and reduced size and weight. Many of these are natural application areas because they already incorporate a cryogenic environment. Also, cryogenic temperatures around 30 K have received additional emphasis by the recent discovery of superconductivity in MgB2, which promises to be a practical material for both electronic and large-scale applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S4.07-8619 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023380 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS9-03038
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deep Space Power Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Sn-SnSb Filled Carbon Fiber Anodes for High Energy Density Lithium Ion Batteries

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lithium Power Technologies, Inc.
20955 Morris Avenue, P.O. Box 978
Manvel , TX   77578 - 3819
(281 ) 489 - 4889

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Fazlil Coowar
fcoowar@lithiumpower.com
20955 Morris Avenue, P.O. Box 978
Manvel , TX   77578 - 3819
(281 ) 489 - 4889

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Phase I demonstrated a new lithium ion anode material based on nanotechnology that exploits the high rate capability and excellent cycle life of a carbon fiber material and the high volumetric and gravimetric capacity of tin-based systems to yield a high capacity material. Phase II objective will be to further optimize the modified carbon fiber anode to a level where a practical gravimetric capacity of 500-700 mAh/g can be delivered. The combination of this anode with the mixed oxide cathode material in a lithium-ion battery packaged in a soft-pack aluminum laminate material should exhibit energy density ranging from190-230 Wh/Kg. The carbon fiber will act not only as an electronic conductor but also as a cushion that will accommodate the volume changes during lithium intercalation and deintercalation. In addition, because of the metallic character of the modified composite anode, the overall cell impedance is expected to decrease. Such a decrease in cells impedance should give rise to much improved rate performance and excellent cyclability than existing commercial cells. This proposed lithium-ion technology promises to revolutionize the world of space batteries in terms of cost/performance factor.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The lithium-ion batteries using our novel LPT's anode technology can be exploited for broad range of NASA applications, from planetary orbiters and landers to reusable launch vehicles and small aircraft. This battery technology can also be incorporated in unmanned Aerial Vehicles that require capacities up to 200 A-hr. They can be used for missions to outer planets Jupiter, Pluto (e.g. Europa Orbiter and Pluto Fly-by) Planetary orbiters and the earth satellites (e.g GEO and LEO). The scale-up of these batteries should meet or exceed the battery requirements for space applications where cycle life of more than 30000 cycles for low earth orbit (LEO), high rate applications (> 4 kW/kg) and rapid charge/discharging (ten of seconds) and calendar life of more than 10 years for geosynchronous orbits (GEO) are needed.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Widespread use of a variety of portable consumer electronics such as portable computers, cellular telephones, camcorders and handheld power tools, as well as continued demand from other future potential applications such as electric bicycles, scooters and cars have resulted in large markets where our new lithium ion battery technology could be used. The commercial viability of electric vehicles is still primarily limited by battery technology. The successful development of novel lithium-ion batteries should meet and exceed the performances of commercial lithium-ion batteries and should be able to capture new markets such as the high rate applications (e.g. power tools, underwater vehicles, high-tech gadgets, PDA). They could be also be used in wearable batteries for the military and load-leveling applications. These new and conventional applications are placing growing demands on existing battery technologies to deliver increasing amount of electricity through smaller and lighter batteries.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S4.07-8824 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023175 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS3-03028
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Deep Space Power Systems
PROPOSAL TITLE: Radiation Resistant, Improved Emissivity Solar Cell System using PBO Film

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Foster-Miller, Inc.
350 Second Ave.
Waltham , MA   02451 - 1196
(781 ) 684 - 4000

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dr. Nese Orbey
norbey@foster-miller.com
350 Second Ave.
Waltham , MA   02451 - 1196
(781 ) 684 - 4170

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Current and future thrusts within NASA call for the availability of high efficiency, high reliability, space-hardened energy supply systems. NASA will benefit from availability of these systems in its push towards expanding mankind?s understanding and place in space. One technology having the most potential for serving NASA objectives is thin-film photovoltaics. Great advances have been made over the past 20 years in photovoltaic technology, and thin-film devices are no exception. However, these advances have not led to the realization of the combination of high efficiency and high power density required for future NASA applications. One shortcoming has been the substrate material. In this Phase II program, Foster-Miller proposes the continued development of a substrate that will enable the realization of NASA?s long-term goals. Among commercially available polymeric materials, PBO is the only material exhibiting the high temperature stability and high mechanical strength necessary to achieve the high efficiency and high power density required for these missions to come to fruition. This Phase II effort will address the space-stability problem - common among polymeric substrates - for PBO by identifying and optimizing coatings to impart a space-hardened nature. Devices will be fabricated and an array will be supplied to NASA. (P-030625)

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
A mature space-hardened CIGS-on-PBO PV system will find application in many current and future thrusts at NASA. The provision of low density power generation systems such as CIGS-on-PBO PV?s will present a means of increasing mission payload or decreasing mission budgets. This will have specific implication in Space Science Missions such as a Mars Outpost SEP Tug where increased payloads are desirable. Assessment of the effects of combining PV?s with electronic propulsion systems for solar system missions such as Jupiter and Venus orbiters has indicated significant potential for launch cost savings and increases in mass margins. Additional NASA applications include: large size satellites, microsats, deep space solar electric propulsion arrays, planetary surface power generation, and deep space outpost power generation.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Space-hardened CIGS-on-PBO technology could be readily transferred to several commercial and government applications outside of NASA. Commercial applications include the remote terrestrial power generation (i.e., roofing shingles), battery trickle charger, and cell phone chargers. Government applications include military personnel power supply, structurally-integrated power for deployable tents and shelters, and drones.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A2.01-9731 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022268 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS3-03024
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propulsion System Emissions and Noise Prediction and Reduction
PROPOSAL TITLE: Acoustic Test Method for Turbofan Engine Exhaust Systems at Cruise Conditions

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Aero Systems Engineering, Inc.
358 East Fillmore Avenue
St. Paul , MN   55107 - 1289
(651 ) 220 - 7515

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Dean Long
dlong@aerosysengr.com
358 East Fillmore Avenue
St. Paul , MN   55107 - 1289
(651 ) 220 - 1290

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The exhaust flow from a turbofan engine operating at typical cruise conditions generates noise as turbulent flow interacts with the basic shock cell pattern. This can be a significant source of noise within the aircraft cabin. The proposed innovation is a new method for testing the acoustics of model scale turbofan engine exhaust systems at cruise conditions in a transonic wind tunnel. This would complement the aerodynamic tests now conducted in the wind tunnel. Currently, acoustic data at cruise conditions is only obtained from costly flight tests. Wind tunnel tests are desirable to simulate the proper flight conditions, but acoustic measurements are difficult in this environment. The new method involves three specific areas of innovation: a) phased-array noise measurement methods, b) evaluating potential modifications to an existing wind tunnel, and c) evaluating means for reducing model air supply noise. Phase I demonstrated that each of these problems has been solved. The proposed Phase II research will combine these processes into an efficient measurement procedure. It will lead to a successful commercial service to airframe manufacturers faced with meeting recently enacted legislation governing noise in the aircraft cabin.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
NASA conducts acoustic measurements on aircraft systems and components in several wind tunnels. The research to be conducted on this program will complement NASA tests. The existing subspace array methodology will be refined for use on this program to allow a small microphone array to perform like a much larger array using standard rechniques. It is common in the field of communication but has not been applied to aeroacoustic studies. It is not restricted to the transonic problem and may provide superior performance to standard techniques now in use for the low speed aeroacoustic problem. In particular, it may improve the noise source location techniques now used to identify source locations for tests conducted in NASA wind tunnels, such as the NATR at NASA Glenn. This research will provide advancement of adaptive beamforming techniques applied to conventional aeroacoustic wind tunnel tests.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The principal commercial application of this research would be available to commercial airframe and engine manufacturers interested in minimizing cabin interior noise levels created by the operation of turbofan engines. Recently enacted noise legislation in Europe not only increases the visibility of this service but expands the need for related acoustic tests at high speed. This includes other airframe noise sources such as the turbulent boundary layer on the fuselage and flaps, slats, and landing gear that may get deployed in high speed flow. Evaluation of the acoustic treatment used in the inlet and exhaust ducts of turbofan engines is another possibility. We have begun discussions with engine manufacturers to determine how acoustic array technology can be applied to these tests possibly as part of maintenance diagnostics. Military applications include the weapons bay cavity and buffet issues which require evaluation at high speed to prevent failures.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A5.04-8407 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023592 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS13-03007
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Ground Testing of Rocket Engines
PROPOSAL TITLE: Improving Test Operations Through Scalable Video Processing on Computer Clusters

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Technological Services Company
P.O. Box 2125
Clinton , MS   39060 - 2125
(601 ) 924 - 3304

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
William Nail
budnail@videcomp.com
P.O. Box 1218
Picayune , MS   39466 - 1218
(601 ) 799 - 6998

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
In today's propulsion testing environment, the number of simultaneously captured video streams, the number and variety of video derived data products, and quality expectations are increasing, while available manpower and the desired turnaround time between tests is decreasing. This project will take advantage of recently developed super computer clustering technologies to develop new scalable data processing techniques to improve the quality, efficiency and turnaround time of video based data products. New and innovative scalable video processing software will be developed that can be applied to multiple video streams simultaneously while utilizing any number of available processors. This new software will also allow a facility to create multiple and complex data products, with an order of magnitude less operator setup and intervention because the video streams can be selected individually or as a group and assigned to processes prior to, during or after data acquisition. The processors assigned to the tasks may be dedicated or borrowed from other users on the network on an as available basis. With enough processors applied to the work, the time required for completing the data processing tasks could be reduced by several orders of magnitude.




POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Component, Assembly and Vehicle Testing; Critical Skills Training Documentation; Maintenance, Critical Lift and Transportation Documentation; Surveillance, Prep and Launch Operations

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Product, Service and Emergency Response Testing; Sports Training Tools; Maintenance, Critical Lift and Transportation Documentation; Security, Construction, Traffic, and Airport Surveillance; Aerial Imagery, Remote Sensing


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II A7.03-9554 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022445 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS4-03007
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Flight Sensors, Sensor Arrays and Airborne Instruments for Flight Research
PROPOSAL TITLE: Acoustic Shear Stress Sensor for Flight Research

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Nielsen Engineering & Research, Inc.
605 Ellis St. Suite 200
Mountain View , CA   94043 - 2241
(650 ) 968 - 9457

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Daniel A. Pruzan
dpruzan@nearinc.com
526 Clyde Avenue
Mountain View , CA   94043 - 2212
(650 ) 968 - 9457

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Through numerical simulations and wind tunnel testing, Nielsen Engineering & Research (NEAR) has demonstrated that their acoustic sensing technology can be used to quantify the magnitude and direction of the local shear stress vector. Because the instrument can 1) measure shear stress values up to 100 Pa, 2) account for atmospheric variations in local fluid properties, and 3) accommodate relatively large streamwise pressure gradients, it is well suited for use in flight test research and commercial aircraft applications. During the previous Phase I program, NEAR identified some deficiencies in the current sensor housing design. Thus, the proposed Phase II effort will focus on developing a robust housing which can withstand the vibration, temperature, pressure, and moisture levels found in flight. Sensor housing designs will be developed and refined through a series of wind tunnel tests using tunnels capable of simulating the flight environment. The final sensor design will be demonstrated through flight testing on NASA Dryden?s F-15B. In addition to the sensor redesign effort, NEAR will develop a flight-qualified electronics package for use in the flight test program.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The present proposal defines the tasks necessary to develop NEAR's shear stress technology into a flight test research instrument. The ability to generate real-time shear stress measurements accurately and reliably over a wide range of flight speeds and ambient conditions will help researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center to evaluate and expand the flight envelope of modern aircraft. Researchers at NASA Langley have also expressed interest in NEAR=s technology for use as a wind tunnel instrument, and for incorporation into closed-loop flow control systems.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are many commercial applications for a robust, accurate, nonintrusive, flight-ready shear stress sensor. The U.S. Army is interested in NEAR's sensor for use in detecting the onset of dynamic stall on helicopter rotor blades. Commercial interest and financial support for this technology have been received from Goodrich Sensor Systems. Their objective is to develop shear stress sensor-based products for transport aircraft including stall warning sensors and ice/contamination sensors.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II B3.02-9727 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022272 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS9-03015
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Space Human Factors and Human Performance
PROPOSAL TITLE: An Intelligent Interface Construction and Evaluation Assistant

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.
1660 So. Amphlett Blvd. Ste. 350
San Mateo , CA   94402 - 2526
(650 ) 655 - 7242

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Richard Stottler
stottler@stottlerhenke.com
1660 S Amphlett Blvd., Ste. 350
San Mateo , CA   94402 - 2526
(650 ) 655 - 7242

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
We propose the development of an innovative software tool that will permit payload developers with no human factors training to produce interfaces that are well suited to the tasks required by the payload, and that conform to NASA commonality standards. Developing such a tool represents a significant challenge; thus, we suggest an integrated approach drawing upon a range of AI techniques. An intelligent, visually-based knowledge elicitor will guide the developer through the task capture and analysis process. The resulting task model and a battery of intelligent design advisors, assisting in everything from widget selection and initialization to graphical element distribution, will allow the system to collaborate with the developer in constructing a task-based interface. The resulting interface will be analyzed as a whole by design critics drawn from human factors research and NASA commonality standards. The developer will then be able to run usability testing from within the same framework, and the tool will help him analyze the testing results. Finally, the developer will be able to export the interface in code form for continued application development. We proved the feasibility of our approach with a Phase I prototype and propose the implementation of a full-scale payload interface development system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed system can be marketed as a tool for interface development for small and medium-sized companies that cannot afford to hire a human factors expert, or for in-house development at large companies, where maintaining standards conformity is important.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed system will be a valuable payload interface development tool. NASA can distribute it to payload developers to help insure consistent, high quality interfaces. They can also use it as an information exchange tool between NASA human factors experts and the remote payload developers.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II E1.05-7798 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 024201 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS5-03056
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Active Microwave
PROPOSAL TITLE: Photonic Phased Array Antenna

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
AGILTRON Corporation
13 Henshaw Street
Woburn , MA   01801 - 4666
(781 ) 933 - 0513

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jing Zhao
jingzhao@agiltron.com
13 Henshaw Street
Woburn , MA   01801 - 4666
(781 ) 933 - 0513

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
The present invention provides an ultra-reliable and low loss fiberoptic manifold for lightweight, high-efficiency, photonic phased-array antennas. Our approach is sate-of-the-art in design and closely coupled with proven volume fiber optic component manufacturing techniques, holding a promise of realizing space qualified optical digital delay with performance and cost that have not been achieved before. By using all solid-state inorganic material construction, the proposed optical switching based component technology overcomes the limitation in speed and long-term reliability associated with other approaches. The proposed novel photonic digital time delay can potentially be part of NASA?s next generation large space radar phase-array antennas in which the phase control among antenna elements is beyond electronic means. During the short Phase I, we have successfully demonstrated the full functionality of the proposed approach. The prototype 4 bit photonic delay performed over a temperature range from ?40oC to 75oC with switching speed faster than 100 microsecond, as well as latching and 5V low drive voltage. Moreover, our study indicates that the electro-optic version could offer fast msecond response time and excellent optical performance covering an extremely wide temperature range of ?75?C to 85?C. The Phase I work laid a foundation for further Phase II development.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Radar is undergoing a significant change in status as a sensing instrument. New systems must accomplish more with fewer resources: power, equipment mass and volume, operating and maintenance personnel, and cost. For NASA applications; microwave radar based sensors have proven to be ideal instruments for many Earth science applications. Examples include global freeze/thaw monitoring and soil moisture mapping, accurate global wind retrieval and snow inundation mapping, global 3-D mapping of rainfall and cloud systems, precise topographic mapping and natural hazard monitoring, global ocean topographic mapping and glacial ice mapping for climate change studies. For global coverage and the long-term study of Earth's eco-systems, space-based radar is of particular interest to Earth scientists. For large size space radar antenna, photonic true time delay provides the critical technology to link each segment.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Variable optical delays have potential applications in both optical data networks and optical logic circuits. The applications involve synchronizing internal components of such networks and logic circuits to external data streams and other internal components, respectively. Variable optical delay can also be used to compensate polarization mode dispersion in high-speed data transmission.

The proposed high-speed optical device can be a key building block for high-performance, cost-effective solutions for managing aggregated OC-192 and above optical bandwidth networks in metro environments. It provides for data rate, protocol and data format transparency and its high-speed logic interface enables unique capabilities. With a speed of less than 1 millisecond, the proposed switch supports unique light management functionalities such as multicasting and broadcasting. The proposed technology holds a promise of extending switching to dynamic reconfiguration, performance monitoring, and traffic management while power balancing, attenuation and equalization management that are inherent in the switch fabric.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II H3.04-8787 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023212 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS10-03021
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Electromagnetic Physics Measurements, Control, and Simulation Technologies
PROPOSAL TITLE: Distributed Fiber-optic Electrostatic Potential Sensor System for Spacecrafts

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Renka Corporation
Two Corporation Way
Peabody , MA   01960 - 7996
(978 ) 532 - 3800

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Binoy Somaia
bsomaia@renka.com
Two Corporation Way
Peabody , MA   01960 - 7996
(978 ) 532 - 3800

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Optical fiber sensors, with intrinsic features of good electrical isolation and immunity to electromagnetic interference, lightweight, and compactness, are a perfect solution for detecting electrostatic potential and charge distribution generated on payloads, spacecraft and landers. Renka Corporation had successfully demonstrated the feasibility of using a distributed fiber-optic sensor system to monitor multi-point electrostatic potential and charging rate. The sensor system is based on wavelength shift of functional material jacketed FBG. A unique multi-channel WDM integration approach for FBG sensors is also proposed and demonstrated by a prototype 4-sensor system. This approach allows tens or hundreds of sensors to be integrated through an optical fiber and to share a single light source. In this Phase II program, Renka Corporation proposes to facilitate this technology into real application. We will fabricate a 16-sensor or 32-sensor prototype for field test. Marketing efforts also will be put for other applications of the developed technologies and products, such as the multi-sensor integration technologies, which could be very useful for large-scale temperature or pressure monitoring in oil fields or large-size civil structures.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The technology developed in this program will provide secure, safe and multi-point monitoring of spacecraft surface charging. This will be of benefit to NASA technologies on Electromagnetic Physics Measurements, Control, and Simulation. It is particularly useful for NASA missions where there is relative high plasma density and ease of electrostatic charging and sparking. The unique multi-sensor integration approach, which allows hundreds of sensors to be integrated into a compact system, can be used in many NASA systems that require a large number of sensors, such as multi-point temperature monitoring system for a spacecraft.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The distributed fiber-optic voltage sensing system will find great applications in military, industrial, and consumer sectors, such as voltage transducers for power transmission, electrostatic surface charge monitoring in semiconductor production, or measuring electrostatic potentials on film, polymers, and paper. Low-cost integration of hundreds of FBG sensors can be realized by the proposed unique demodulation technology. This multi-point sensor systems could include a temperature sensor system for an aircraft or strain monitoring system for a large-size civil structure, etc


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II H3.06-8369 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 023630 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS8-03027
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Propellant Depots
PROPOSAL TITLE: The cryogenic evaluation of typical and experimental filament winding materials

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
HyPerComp Engineering, Inc.
1080 North Main Suite #2
Brigham City , UT   84302 - 1470
(435 ) 734 - 1166

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
James Patterson
jamesp@hypercompeng.com
1080 North Main Suite #2
Brigham City , UT   84302 - 1470
(435 ) 734 - 1166

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
HyPerComp Engineering, Inc. (HEI) proposes to develop well characterized, reliable filament wound composite pressure vessels for cryogenic and other low temperature applications. The proposed effort also explores the potential for a significant improvement in filament wound composite pressure vessels performance (end results: lighter weights) through cryogenic process treatment.

Both the aerospace and the commercial communities have shown significant interest in using filament wound composite pressure vessels for cryogenic applications. Investigation has shown that to date this usage has been limited and that ?off the shelf? composite pressure vessels have been used. Constituent materials and the pressure vessel designs have not been well characterized for these types of applications and as such the margins for these applications are not well defined. This in turn means that the reliability of such usage is basically unknown.

HyPerComp Engineering has recently completed a Phase one SBIR through NASA, MSFC. This successful effort demonstrated some significant material degradation and the potential for significant improvements in composite pressure vessel performance in cryogenic usage (NAS8?03027). The effort proposed herein builds upon that knowledge, significantly expands the data base, and will result in reliable ?off the shelf? technology for composite pressure vessels in cryogenic applications.


POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
Mr. Joe Lewis and his assistant Lorie Grimes-Ledesma of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) have expressed keen interest in our phase I SBIR cryogenic work and subsequent follow on work. While they have an overall general interest in lightweight cryogenic pressure vessels for propulsion systems they also have a very specific application of interest. That application would be a spacecraft currently on the drawing boards and referred to as the ?icy moons of Jupiter mission?. It is planned to use cryogenically stored xenon gas as a power source on that spacecraft and a high performance cryogenic pressure vessel will be required. A letter of support and interest from JPL is attached in appendix A of this report.

We have also been informed that there is interest within NASA for the long term storage of fuels and propellants in what we would refer to as ?orbiting gas stations?. These would be fuel depots storing fuels (perhaps liquid hydrogen) under cryogenic storage conditions.

The emergence of a potential ?cryogenic treatment? to improve the performance of lightweight composite tanks is certainly of interest within NASA where the inert weight of pressure storage tanks has always ?been the enemy?. Any means of reducing weight while at the same time improving performance and reliability can only be seen in a positive light.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
HEI has performed preliminary work with the Waldemar S. Nelson and Company, Inc. of New Orleans, LA exploring the potential of using very cold (approaching cryogenic temperatures) compressed natural gas storage in oceanic transport systems. The very cold temperatures significantly increase the storage density of the compressed natural gas.

While this project is currently in the evaluation stage there is little question that it and similar projects to increase efficiency in the storage and transportation of gaseous fuels (hydrogen, LNG, CNG) would derive significant benefit from an improved understanding of how composite pressure vessels perform under cryogenic and/or very cold environments. A letter of support and interest from Waldemar S. Nelson and Company is attached in appendix B of this report.

The Department of the Army through its Engineering Research and Development Corps of Engineers has expressed interest in the cryogenic pressure vessel work being done by HEI. As expressed in their attached letter of support and interest (appendix C) they see lightweight cryogenic pressure vessels as a key element in improved fuel storage for aerospace, military, and commercial applications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S3.03-9297 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022702 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS5-03050
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Astronomical Instrumentation
PROPOSAL TITLE: Control Instrumentation for Advanced Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc.
575 McCorkle Blvd.
Westerville , OH   43082 - 8699
(614 ) 891 - 2243

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Joe Yeager
jyeager@lakeshore.com
575 McCorkle Blvd.
Westerville , OH   43082 - 8699
(614 ) 891 - 2243

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
Driven by research and development of advanced photon detectors--which require temperatures below 100mK-- there is considerable research into new ADR designs and techniques. In particular the continuous ADR (CADR)has many advantages over other technique to achieve ultra-low temperature and there is considerable commercial potential. We propose to design control system (including instrumentation) for a CADR. Phase II will start with a review of the circuit model and software model developed in PhaseI. We will build a complete prototype insturment and control software. They will be developed and tested interanlly and with an on-site evaluation at contracting site. We will also study system improvments in particular XML web server control and open loop control for the upper stages. All studies and testing results will be used to develop the final integrated control system.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The Continuous ADR (CADR), is a disruptive technology that is a more efficient method to reach temperatures below 100mK than existing dilution refrigerators. With the control instrumentation that we will develop, the AADR will be able to meet a wide range of applications. This includes physics and material science studies at temperature below 100mK. There is also an industrial application of semiconductor material analysis. Using advanced x-ray detectors, cooled to 100mK, semiconductors can be probed for material defects and impurities. A reliable control system is necessary for full commercial sucesss.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The major application is for better ground testing of advanced photon detectors for NASA. A complete control system for Advanced Adiabatic Demagnetization will make for more efficient testing of detectors and detector components. Additionally, there is a broader application for any material testing at temperature below 100mK. A controller for an CADR is an enabling technology that extends the utility of ADR beyond detector testing.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S4.06-9445 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022554 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS3-03056
SUBTOPIC TITLE: High Rate Telecommunications for Deep Space and Local Planetary Networks
PROPOSAL TITLE: Pulse shaping fiber laser for high rate space telecommunications

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
PolarOnyx, Inc.
562 Weddell Drive, Suite 8
Sunnyvale , CA   94089 - 1245
(408 ) 734 - 3048

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Jian Liu
jianliu01@aol.com
562 Weddell Drive, Suite 8
Sunnyvale , CA   94089 - 0000
(650 ) 387 - 0889

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
High energy pulsed fiber lasers have been considered to be an enabling technology to build high power transmitters for future high rate space communications. However, to achieve a high power at a high repetition rate > 10 MHz and with a good pulse shape and a high extinction ratio still remains an issue unsolved. PolarOnyx proposes a novel approach targeting to make over 10 MHz high repetition rate high power laser and resolve the issues of pulse distortion and nonlinear effects by employing our proprietary technologies in specialty fibers and fiber lasers. In Phase I time frame, we have experimentally demonstrated the pulse shaping effects to achieve Gaussian shape pulses at a repetition rate up to 30 MHz and with a pulse width down to 4 ns, peak power of 10 W, and an extinction ratio over 30 dB. This proves that the proposed pulse shaping idea is feasible for implementation and provides a foundation for us to continue the research and development in Phase II to achieve 1 ns pulse with over 1 kW peak power, for which more serious pulse distortion has to be compensated. A compact prototype will be delivered at the end of Phase II.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The proposed pulse shaping fiber laser will have a great potential to be used as a transmitter for NASA?s deep space high speed optical communications. It can provide a narrow pulse width with a high peak power and a high extinction ratio. In addition to the deep space mission, it can also be used as a laser source for NASA?s remote sensing system, and as a transmitter for optical communication systems between GEO, LEO, and earth.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
There are a number of non-NASA potential applications for the proposed fiber laser. The proposed pulse shaping fiber laser can be directly used in military applications, and space, aircraft, and satellite applications such as LIDAR systems, remote sensing system, illuminator system, and phase array antenna system. Commercial applications include material processing, medical equipment and biomedical instrumentation, and optical communications.


PROPOSAL NUMBER:02-II S4.08-9458 (For NASA Use Only - Chron: 022541 )
PHASE-I CONTRACT NUMBER: NAS2-03138
SUBTOPIC TITLE: Astrobiology
PROPOSAL TITLE: In-Situ Extreme Environment Isotope Ratiometer

SMALL BUSINESS CONCERN: (Firm Name, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Los Gatos Research
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View , CA   94041 - 1518
(650 ) 965 - 7780

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT MANAGER: (Name, E-mail, Mail Address, City/State/ZIP, Phone)
Manish Gupta
m.gupta@lgrinc.com
67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3
Mountain View , CA   94041 - 1518
(650 ) 965 - 7874

TECHNICAL ABSTRACT (LIMIT 200 WORDS)
This Small Business Innovation Research project concerns the novel application of cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy to determine isotope ratios of carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor in extreme environments. These environments, which include deep-sea hydrothermal vents, ocean boreholes, underwater volcanoes, and terrestrial aquifers, are of interest to the NASA Ames Astrobiology Group because they may harbor subsurface microbiological ecosystems, whose occurrences can be detected by measuring such isotope ratios. In Phase I, we have demonstrated the technical feasibility of making all three of these ratio measurements in a single, multiplexed instrument using both simulated and actual biogenically-generated gas samples. These ratios have been determined to better than 0.2%, which is sufficient to determine the presence of biological activity. The Phase II effort will consist primarily of packaging the instrument for extreme environments and subsequent field-testing in conjunction with NASA. The final Phase II prototype will be delivered to the NASA Ames Astrobiology Group. This instrument will be the first remotely operable sensor capable of measuring isotope ratios with sufficient precision to indicate the presence of biological activity in a variety of extreme environments.

POTENTIAL NASA COMMERCIAL APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
The characterization of extreme environments is of primary importance to the NASA Ames Astrobiology Group, because they provide a mechanism to sample novel biospheres. For example, deep-sea hydrothermal vents sample a biosphere which represents one of the few anaerobic environments that is devoid of photosynthesis and may emulate the conditions beneath ice crusts on Europa, Callisto, and Mars. One of the key indicators of such a Subsurface Lithotrophic Microbiological Ecosystem (SLiME) is a change in the carbon dioxide and methane isotope ratios. Our instrument will permit in situ measurements of such ratios in a variety of extreme environments of interest to NASA.

POTENTIAL NON-NASA APPLICATION(S) (LIMIT 150 WORDS)
An accurate determination of isotope ratios in an inexpensive, portable device has significant commercial impact in medical diagnostics, the petroleum industry, and environmental monitoring. Projected sales of the ratiometer in the former two areas alone are expected to exceed $65M over the next five years. Moreover, the proposed prototype can be readily modified to monitor various industrial gases, further increasing its commercial impact. During the Phase I research effort, considerable progress has been made in developing an industrial process control monitor in collaboration with Dow Chemical Company. Los Gatos Research is actively pursuing such commercial ventures and support through the SBIR Program would greatly bolster our efforts.